To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Chloris spp. are warm-season grasses that outcompete crops for scarce resources throughout Australia. In Queensland, mild winters and increased adoption of conservation tillage practices have led to an increase of this warm-season grass family in winter crops. The objective of this study is to understand whether droplet size (nozzle type) effects herbicide efficacy of summer perennial grasses, as previous research found no effect of droplet size (nozzle type) on herbicide efficacy of winter annual grasses. A study to compare droplet-size (nozzle type) effects on control of windmillgrass and its domesticated relative, rhodesgrass, was conducted at the University of Queensland in Gatton, QLD, Australia. Results showed little difference in dry weight reductions for windmillgrass or rhodesgrass across droplet size (nozzle type). Paraquat applications with the TTI nozzle resulted in significantly lower dry weight reductions compared with other droplet-size sprays (nozzle types) for rhodesgrass. Glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr, and clodinafop resulted in commercially acceptable control for both species, regardless of the droplet size (nozzle type) selected, indicating droplet size (nozzle type) has relatively little impact on the efficacy of these herbicides. Proper nozzle selection can result in control of Chloris spp., a hard to control weed species, while reducing the occurrence of spray drift to nearby sensitive areas.
We present results, some preliminary, from a major new study of the star formation properties of a sample of nearby disk galaxies (Ferguson 1997). Our emphasis is on the faint outer regions of disks. Hα images, combined with broad-band images and spectroscopy of HII regions, constrain the present and past star formation rates and chemical enrichment. These data also allow study of faint diffuse ionised gas, which traces the influence of massive stars on their environment, and the structure of the interstellar medium.
The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.
During disasters and complex emergencies, environmental conditions can adversely affect the performance of point-of-care (POC) testing. Knowledge of these conditions can help device developers and operators understand the significance of temperature and humidity limits necessary for use of POC devices. First responders will benefit from improved performance for on-site decision making.
To create dynamic temperature and humidity profiles that can be used to assess the environmental robustness of POC devices, reagents, and other resources (eg, drugs), and thereby, to improve preparedness.
Surface temperature and humidity data from the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina USA) was obtained, median hourly temperature and humidity were calculated, and then mathematically stretched profiles were created to include extreme highs and lows. Profiles were created for: (1) Banda Aceh, Indonesia at the time of the 2004 Tsunami; (2) New Orleans, Louisiana USA just before and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in 2005; (3) Springfield, Massachusetts USA for an ambulance call during the month of January 2009; (4) Port-au-Prince, Haiti following the 2010 earthquake; (5) Sendai, Japan for the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami with comparison to the colder month of January 2011; (6) New York, New York USA after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in 2012; and (7) a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii USA to the Marshall Islands. Profiles were validated by randomly selecting 10 days and determining if (1) temperature and humidity points fell inside and (2) daily variations were encompassed. Mean kinetic temperatures (MKT) were also assessed for each profile.
Profiles accurately modeled conditions during emergency and disaster events and enclosed 100% of maximum and minimum temperature and humidity points. Daily variations also were represented well with 88.6% (62/70) of temperature readings and 71.1% (54/70) of relative humidity readings falling within diurnal patterns. Days not represented well primarily had continuously high humidity. Mean kinetic temperature was useful for severity ranking.
Simulating temperature and humidity conditions clearly reveals operational challenges encountered during disasters and emergencies. Understanding of environmental stresses and MKT leads to insights regarding operational robustness necessary for safe and accurate use of POC devices and reagents. Rescue personnel should understand these principles before performing POC testing in adverse environments.
FergusonWJ, LouieRF, TangCS, Paw UKT, KostGJ. Dynamic Temperature and Humidity Environmental Profiles: Impact for Future Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(1):1-8.
The existence of a stream of tidally stripped stars from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy demonstrates that the Milky Way is still in the process of accreting mass. More recently, an extensive stream of stars has been uncovered in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), revealing that it too is cannibalising a small companion. This paper reports the recent observations of this stream, determining its spatial and kinematic properties, and tracing its three-dimensional structure, as well as describing future observations and what we may learn about the Andromeda galaxy from this giant tidal stream.
Studies to quantify genetic variation in cassava germplasm, available within the national breeding programmes in Africa, have been limited. Here, we report on the nature and extent of genetic variation that exists within 1401 cassava varieties from seven countries: Tanzania (270 genotypes); Uganda (268); Kenya (234); Rwanda (184); Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; 177); Madagascar (186); Mozambique (82). The vast majority of these genotypes do not exist within a formal germplasm conservation initiative and were derived from farmers' fields and National Agricultural Research Systems breeding programmes. Genotypes were assayed using 26 simple sequence repeat markers. Moderate genetic variation was observed with evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the region. Some differentiation was observed among countries in both cultivars and landraces. Euclidean distance revealed the pivotal position of Tanzanian landraces in the region, and STRUCTURE analysis revealed subtle and fairly complex relationships among cultivars and among landraces and cultivars analysed together. This is likely to reflect original germplasm introductions, gene flow including farmer exchanges, disease pandemics, past breeding programmes and the introduction of cultivars from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Nigeria. Information generated from this study will be useful to justify and guide a regional cassava genetic resource conservation strategy, to identify gaps in cassava diversity in the region and to guide breeding strategies.
In this study, thermoelectric properties of bulk and epitaxy GaN with various doping concentration are investigated. Seebeck coefficients decreased with the increase of carrier concentration for both bulk and epitaxial GaN samples, and the Seebeck coefficients of epitaxial GaN samples are found to be larger than that of bulk GaN samples in the similar carrier density due to the higher dislocation scattering. For epitaxial samples, a high power factor of 4.72 × 10-4 W/m-K2 is observed. The power factors of the bulk GaN samples are in the range of from 0.315× 10-4W/m-K2 to 0.354× 10-4W/m-K2 due to the low Seebeck coefficients.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes of DNA repair and hormone pathways have been reported to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. We sought to confirm these associations in two endometrial cancer case-control sample sets and used additional data from an existing genome-wide association study to prioritize an additional SNP for further study. Five SNPs from the CHEK2, MGMT, SULT1E1 and SULT1A1 genes, genotyped in a total of 1597 cases and 1507 controls from two case-control studies, the Australian National Endometrial Cancer Study and the Polish Endometrial Cancer Study, were assessed for association with endometrial cancer risk using logistic regression analysis. Imputed data was drawn for CHEK2 rs8135424 for 666 cases from the Study of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity study and 5190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We observed no association between SNPs in the MGMT, SULT1E1 and SULT1A1 genes and endometrial cancer risk. The A allele of the rs8135424 CHEK2 SNP was associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer (adjusted per-allele OR 0.83; 95%CI 0.70-0.98; p = .03) however this finding was opposite to that previously published. Imputed data for CHEK2 rs8135424 supported the direction of effect reported in this study (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.65–1.10). Previously reported endometrial cancer risk associations with SNPs from in genes involved in estrogen metabolism and DNA repair were not replicated in our larger study population. This study highlights the need for replication of candidate gene SNP studies using large sample groups, to confirm risk associations and better prioritize downstream studies to assess the causal relationship between genetic variants and cancer risk. Our findings suggest that the CHEK2 SNP rs8135424 be prioritized for further study as a genetic factor associated with risk of endometrial cancer.
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were formed on gold at anodic potentials from solutions containing two different alkyl thiosulfates, CH3(CH2)10S2O3Na and HO2C(CH2)10S2O3Na. The resulting two-component SAMs were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to relate their compositions to those of the solutions from which they were adsorbed. This relationship was more linear than reported for analogous SAMs adsorbed from mixed solutions of alkanethiols. The wettability of these surfaces by water and by hexadecane was also measured and compared to analogous SAMs prepared by chemisorption of thiols from solution.
We report the first case in the English language literature of an adamantinomatous infrasellar craniopharyngioma, and we describe our management strategy.
A 46-year-old woman presented with a six-month history of left-sided nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Rhinological examination revealed a left-sided, polypoidal lesion lying medial to the middle turbinate. An urgent examination under anaesthesia was organised; biopsies were considered characteristic of craniopharyngioma. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography demonstrated a well defined, heterogeneous, infrasellar mass centred in the midline, extending anteriorly into the left nasal cavity and posteriorly encasing both internal carotid arteries. Craniofacial resection was performed via a midfacial degloving approach, with adjuvant radiotherapy. The patient was disease-free one year post-operatively.
Craniopharyngiomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a unilateral nasal polyp. Although technically benign, they are locally aggressive. Therefore, we recommend complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy if margins are involved or close.
In the past two decades, there has been growing interests in the design and improvement of thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices largely due to their potential use in technologies such as: 1) the conversion of waste heat to electricity, 2) solid-state refrigeration and heating, 3) biomedical batteries, and 4) power sources for both ground and space-based electronics.1 Recent research has suggested that by using nanotechnology (i.e. nanostructuring / nanoengineering) large advances can be gained in controlling interfaces to hinder thermal transport while allowing electrical movement. Thin film structuring of thermoelectric materials potentially offers several advantages over bulk thermoelectric materials especially for cooling applications. Furthermore, others have advocated that by making thermoelectric materials very small, one can achieve an enhanced ZT (the thermoelectric figure of merit) due to quantum confinement effects.2-5 The structure and physical properties of doped fullerene materials were investigated for use as electrically conducting phonon blocking layers. The synthesis and thermal properties of ZnxC60 thin films are reported. Preliminary results have shown the formation of amorphous fullerides structures with thermal conductivities as low as 0.13 Wm-1K-1. Physical and structural measurements (e.g. Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, and Raman Spectroscopy) will be reported detailing the unique structure-property relationships in these materials.