An immunochromatographic test (ICT), using recombinant truncated P50 (P50t), for the detection of antibodies to Babesia gibsoni was developed and evaluated. Whereas all sera from specific pathogen-free dogs were clearly negative, all sera from dogs experimentally infected with B. gibsoni were clearly positive in the ICT. In addition, the ICT detected no cross-reactivity with sera from dogs experimentally infected with closely related parasites, B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi, or with Neospora caninum, and Leishmania infantum. Sequential sera from a dog experimentally infected with B. gibsoni were tested with the ICT; it was shown that the specific antibodies are detectable as early as 6 days post-infection (p.i.) and that strong antibody responses remained until the end of the experiment (144 days p.i.). To evaluate the clinical application of the ICT, a total of 54 serum samples collected from domestic dogs that had been identified as having signs of anaemia at veterinary hospitals in Japan, were tested with the ICT, the previously established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Twenty-four of the tested samples (44·4%) were positive in both ICT and ELISA, and (51·8%) in IFAT. The concordance between ELISA and ICT was found to be 100%, and 85·7% with IFAT. Taken together, the results above suggest that the ICT using P50t is rapid, simple, accurate, and suitable for use at clinical sites for the diagnosis of B. gibsoni infection in dogs.