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The adaptation of high-frequency heating techniques to a vertical diffractometer will be discussed. The heating system functions as a. portion of an integrated system that provides a wide range of atmospheric and temperature control. Some of the design problems and their solutions and operating characteristics of the system will be described. The useful temperature range is from less than 200°C to greater than 1600°C, depending upon the fur-nace atmosphere and susceptors used. Gaseous pressures may be from vacuo of about 10−6 mm to about 30 psia; and, the sample may be heated in oxidizing, neutral, or reducing atmospheres.
Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing attention control training (ACT) and attention bias modification (ABM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown mixed results. The current RCT extends the extant literature by comparing the efficacy of ACT and a novel bias-contingent-ABM (BC-ABM), in which direction of training is contingent upon the direction of pre-treatment attention bias (AB), in a sample of civilian patients with PTSD.
Fifty treatment-seeking civilian patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to either ACT or BC-ABM. Clinician and self-report measures of PTSD and depression, as well as AB and attention bias variability (ABV), were acquired pre- and post-treatment.
ACT yielded greater reductions in PTSD and depressive symptoms on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures compared with BC-ABM. The BC-ABM condition successfully shifted ABs in the intended training direction. In the ACT group, there was no significant change in ABV or AB from pre- to post-treatment.
The current RCT extends previous results in being the first to apply ABM that is contingent upon AB at pre-treatment. This personalized BC-ABM approach is associated with significant reductions in symptoms. However, ACT produces even greater reductions, thereby emerging as a promising treatment for PTSD.
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Persistence of the embryonic “fifth aortic arch” in postnatal life is a rare, enigmatic – and at times controversial – condition, with variable anatomical forms and physiological consequences. First described in humans over 40 years ago by Van Praagh, the condition was labelled the “great pretender” by Gerlis 25 years later, because of its apparent propensity to mimic anatomically similar structures. Despite many subsequent case reports citing the condition, the true developmental origin of these structures remains unresolved, and has been the subject of debate among embryologists for more than a century. A persistent fifth aortic arch has been defined as an extrapericardial structure, arising from the ascending aorta opposite or proximal to the brachiocephalic artery, and terminating in the dorsal aorta or pulmonary arteries via a persistently patent arterial duct. This description may therefore encompass various anatomical forms, such as a unilateral double-lumen aortic arch, an unrestrictive aortopulmonary shunt, or a critical vascular channel for either the systemic or pulmonary circulation. The physiological properties of these vessels, such as their response to prostaglandins, may also be unpredictable. In this article, we demonstrate a number of cases that fulfil the contemporary definition of “persistent fifth aortic arch” while acknowledging the embryological controversies associated with this term. We also outline the key diagnostic features, particularly with respect to the use of new cross-sectional imaging techniques.
During May 2015, an increase in Salmonella Agona cases was reported from western Sydney, Australia. We examine the public health actions used to investigate and control this increase. A descriptive case-series investigation was conducted. Six outbreak cases were identified; all had consumed cooked tuna sushi rolls purchased within a western Sydney shopping complex. Onset of illness for outbreak cases occurred between 7 April and 24 May 2015. Salmonella was isolated from food samples collected from the implicated premise and a prohibition order issued. No further cases were identified following this action. Whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis was performed on isolates recovered during this investigation, with additional S. Agona isolates from sporadic-clinical cases and routine food sampling in New South Wales, January to July 2015. Clinical isolates of outbreak cases were indistinguishable from food isolates collected from the implicated sushi outlet. Five additional clinical isolates not originally considered to be linked to the outbreak were genomically similar to outbreak isolates, indicating the point-source contamination may have started before routine surveillance identified an increase. This investigation demonstrated the value of genomics-guided public health action, where near real-time WGS enhanced the resolution of the epidemiological investigation.
A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7–27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29–23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09–29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.
A survey of nearshore areas in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica, using high-resolution multibeam swath bathymetry provided both a detailed digital bathymetric model and information on sediment acoustic backscatter. Combined with underwater video transects and sediment sampling, these data were used to identify and map geomorphic units. Six geomorphic units identified in the survey region include: rocky outcrops, basins, pediments, valleys, scarps and embayments. In addition to geomorphic units, the data revealed sedimentary features that provide insights into post-glacial sediment transport and erosion in the area. Ice keel pits and scours are common, and sea floor channels, scour depressions and sand ribbons indicate transport and deposition by wind-driven currents and oceanographic circulation. Gullies and sediment lobes observed on steep slopes indicate mass movement of sediment. Some of these processes have not been directly observed to date, but their effectiveness in shaping the modern sea floor is clearly indicated by the sea floor mapping data. The embayments preserve a mantle of boulder sand probably deposited by cold-based glaciers which were flanked by faster-flowing ice in adjoining regions.
The carbon nanotube community swims in the sea of superlatives. Researchers expect mechanical performance to achieve two extremes, an ultrastrong fibre taking us into space, and a superlubricant saving energy otherwise lost as heat. We examine CNT fibres in the light of traditional yarn science and present an interpretation of properties which combines aspects of these two extremes of performance.
Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on carbon fiber surface in order to provide a way to tailor the thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the fiber-resin interface of a polymer composite. As the deposition temperature of the nanotubes is very high, an elevated exposure time can lead to degradation of the carbon fiber. To overcome this obstacle we have developed a deposition technique where the fiber is exposed to an atmosphere of growth for just one minute, and different concentrations of precursor solution were used.
Recent studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous media have showed that water can significantly affect the tube mechanical properties. CNTs under hydrostatic compression can preserve their elastic properties up to large pressure values, while exhibiting exceptional resistance to mechanical loadings. It was experimentally observed that CNTs with encapsulated linear carbon chains (LCCs), when subjected to high hydrostatic pressure values, present irreversible red shifts in some of their vibrational frequencies. In order to address the cause of this phenomenon, we have carried out fully atomistic reactive (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for model structures mimicking the experimental conditions. We have considered the cases of finite and infinite (cyclic boundary conditions) CNTs filled with LCCs (LCC@CNTs) of different lengths (from 9 up to 40 atoms). Our results show that increasing the hydrostatic pressure causes the CNT to be deformed in an inhomogeneous way due to the LCC presence. The LCC/CNT interface regions exhibit convex curvatures, which results in more reactive sites, thus favoring the formation of covalent chemical bonds between the chain and the nanotube. This process is irreversible with the newly formed bonds continuing to exist even after releasing the external pressure and causing an irreversibly red shift in the chain vibrational modes from 1850 to 1500 cm−1.
Thermodynamic modeling of the MOCVD process, using the standard free energy minimization algorithm, cannot always explain the deposition of hybrid films that occurs. The present investigation explores a modification of the procedure to account for the observed simultaneous deposition of metallic iron, Fe3O4, and carbon nanotubes from a single precursor. Such composite films have potential application in various device architectures and sensors, and are being studied as electrode material in energy storage devices such as lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors.
With ferric acetylacetonate [Fe(acac)3] as the precursor, MOCVD in argon ambient results in a nanocomposite of CNT, Fe, and Fe3O4 (characterized by XRD and Raman spectroscopy) when growth temperature T and total reactor pressure P are in the range from 600°C-800°C and 5-30 torr, respectively. No previous report could be found on the single-step formation of a CNT-metal-metal oxide composite. Equilibrium thermodynamic modeling using available software predicts the deposition of only Fe3C and carbon, without any co-deposition of Fe and Fe3O4, in contrast with experimental observations. To reconcile this contradiction, the modeling of the process was approached by taking the molecular structure of the precursor into account, whereas “standard” thermodynamic simulations are restricted to the total number of atoms of each element in the reactant(s) as the input. When Ocon (statistical average of the oxygen atom(s) taken up by each metal atom during CVD) is restricted to lie between 0 and 1, thermodynamic computations predict simultaneous deposition of FeO1-x, Fe3C, Fe3O4 and C in the inert ambient. At high temperature and in a carbon-rich atmosphere, iron carbide decomposes to iron and carbon. Furthermore, FeO1-x yields Fe and Fe3O4 when cooled below 567°C. Therefore, the resulting film would be composed of Fe3O4, Fe and C, in agreement with experiment. The weight percentage of carbon (∼40%) calculated from thermodynamic analysis matches well with experimental data from TG-DTA.
A nano thermal sensor was made by depositing carbon nanotubes from a medium containing a) methylene chloride b)sodium dodecyl sulfate and c) Baytron-P (polymer) assisted sodium dodecyl sulfate. The nano thermal sensors showed d.c. electrical resistance as independent of temperature when the sensors were made by procedures (a) or (b). The electrical resistivity in both the situations has been independent of temperature. When the nanosensor is made with carbon nanotubes by assisted method (c), the d.c. electrical resistance decreased with temperature. The negative temperature coefficient (TCR) is manifested in the semiconducting property of the active material. The sensor behavior is reproducible and varies linearly with temperature. The nanosensor made by non assisted carbon nanotube showed zero TCR. This is probably the first instance of assisted thermal sensor made with single walled carbon nanotubes.
Laboratory-based surveillance data is essential for monitoring trends in the incidence of enteric disease. Current Canadian human enteric surveillance systems report only confirmed cases of human enteric disease and are often unable to capture the number of negative test results. Data from 9116 hospital stool specimens from the Waterloo Region in Canada, with a mixed urban and rural population of about 500 000 were analysed to investigate the use of stool submission data and its role in reporting bias when determining the incidence of enteric disease. The proportion of stool specimens positive for Campylobacter spp. was highest in the 15–29 years age group, and in the 5–14 years age group for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7. By contrast, the age-specific incidence rates were highest for all three pathogens in the 0–4 years age group which also had the highest stool submission rate. This suggests that variations in age-specific stool submission rates are influencing current interpretation of surveillance data.
Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−-based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10−5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.