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This paper presents and compares a set of calibration strategies useful to calibrate vision-based robotised work-cells for micromanipulation and microassembly. To grasp and release microparts precisely, robot calibration, camera calibration and robot-camera registration are needed. Conventional calibration methods are very onerous at the microscale, therefore, two alternative unconventional procedures, called virtual grid calibration and hybrid calibration, are developed for work-cells with high-performance robots, minimising necessary instrumentation. Moreover, an effective calibration of the robot end-effector is designed to compensate for misalignment and orientation errors with respect to the vertical rotational axis. This paper describes the calibration methods and their implementation, the results and the improvements achieved. A detailed comparison between the hybrid and the virtual grid calibrations is provided, demonstrating the higher performance of the latter strategy.
During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ∼ 6, MUVT ≳-13.3; for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* ≲ 47 km s−1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.
Nitrogen fertilization of silage maize in Central Italy is typically carried out with two applications at early stages of crop development: 2nd (V2) and 6th (V6) leaf respectively. In such conditions, the crop has not yet fully covered the soil and proximal or remote sensing of the canopy is hindered by the strong soil background signal. There is thus great interest in rapid and inexpensive approaches to N fertilization prescription. Therefore, an indirect method for inferring information on yield potential and soil variability, through a field-based clustering of multi-temporal satellite data, has been developed using archive Landsat images to identify temporally constant patterns. This method is potentially useful for the creation of prescription maps. The usefulness of the method was evaluated during an N fertilisation field trial in Maccarese (Central Italy), in 2016. At the V2 stage, both uniform and variable rate applications were performed and compared. A pseudo-cross variogram and a standardized ordinary co-kriging methodology was used to highlight spatially variable significant differences among the treatments.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
In this paper the defects generated by ion implantation in 4H-SiC DIMOSFET (Double Implanted MOSFETs), and their evolution after annealing process, have been studied in detail. The point defects generated by the source or body implantation process have been detected by micro-photoluminescence (µPL) and the effect of these defects on the electrical characteristics of the DIMOSFET has been studied. The role of the annealing process has been carefully investigated by using different temperatures. It appears fundamental for the restoring of the crystal damage. The effect of the ion implantation dose has been investigated as well. By reducing the source ion implanted dose a large decrease of point defects has been detected and a considerable improvement of the electrical characteristic of the DIMOSFET has been observed.
An important effort has been recently made to detect spectroscopically galaxies at z ~ 6 and higher where the cosmic reionization is thought to occur. The drop of the fraction of Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z>6 is currently interpreted as an effect of the increasing neutral hydrogen density.
We present preliminary results from the latest VLT/FORS2 programs, combined with ESO archival data, to perform a large census of z ~ 6 galaxies. We derive their physical properties as stellar mass and dust attenuation with an SED fitting tool including nebular emission which is of primeval importance because IRAC channels are strongly contaminated by emission lines at those redshifts. We take a special care to derive with precision the redshift of non LAEs to perform a comparison of their properties with the LAE population and derive as accurately as possible the fraction of LAEs. In particular, we compare the UV beta slope with the Lyα equivalent width which are known to correlate at lower redshift.
We also report the detection of few peculiar z ~ 6 galaxies with extremely blue UV β slope (~−3), which can be a signature of unusual stellar populations (e.g., very hot and massive stars).
An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations.
We present the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline II-VI semiconductors of mixed composition (CdSe/ZnSe, CdS) grown in fatty acid Langmuir-Schaefer multi-layer templates. The controlled production of i) homogeneous nanocrystalline CdxZn1−xSe alloys and ii) heterogeneous mixtures of different pure composition II-VI semiconductors such as CdSe and ZnSe provides, in addition to the size control, the parameter of the chemical composition for the fine tuning of the electronic properties. The samples are characterized bty optical and quasi-resonance micro-Raman spectroscopy.
The bombardment of ions and electrons at the substrate has been studied by
varying the magnetic field distribution and the grid-target distance in a
triode magnetron sputtering system. The substrate temperature was correlated
with the substrate current density and with the type of species bombarding
the substrate. The results indicate a possibility to modify and control the
bombardment at the substrate surface from predominantly electronic to
predominantly ionic, which increases the substrate temperature from 383 K to
473 K, respectively.
Cylindrical hollow cathode magnetron sputtering (HCMS) system was used to
deposit crystalline titanium dioxide thin films on p-Si (100) substrates.
For a fixed pressure of 0.6 Pa total gas flow rate of 20 sccm and power of
55 W, the influence of the oxygen percentage in the Ar+O2 gas mixture on
the structural and surface properties of the films was studied by
profilometry, XRD and AFM. The substrates were placed inside the hollow
cathode at different positions along its symmetrical axis. Numerical
simulations of cathode ion collection probability (CICP) were done in order
to compare calculated data with the deposition process characteristics. The
results indicate that the deposition rate and the surface roughness
gradually decrease with the distance from the bottom of the cathode, due to
the decrease of the CICP. The increase of the oxygen percentage in the gas
discharge influences directly the deposition rate and decrease the surface
roughness. The XRD analyses show that all the films are crystalline with
predominant anatase (101) and rutile (110) orientations.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of topical levobupivacaine drops 0.75% vs. lidocaine drops 4% in cataract surgery.
We examined 203 patients undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. They were randomized into two groups: one received four drops of lidocaine 4% and the other received four drops of levobupivacaine 0.75%. The onset and offset times of sensory block were evaluated. Application, intraoperative and postoperative subjective pain was quantified by the patients using a verbal pain score. Complications, rates of supplemental anaesthesia, and the satisfaction of surgeon and patients were also recorded.
The mean sensory onset and offset times were significantly higher for the levobupivacaine group (P < 0.01). Pain score was lower in the levobupivacaine group than in the lidocaine one and the difference was statistically significant at all stages (P < 0.01). The mean satisfaction scores of patients and surgeon were also statistically higher for levobupivacaine (P < 0.01). No significant differences for complications and rates of supplemental anaesthesia were found.
Topical levobupivacaine 0.75% shows the same efficacy and safety as lidocaine 4% in cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. There was an adequate block with a good level of satisfaction of surgeon and patients. Levobupivacaine 0.75% offers a new and acceptable choice for topical anaesthesia in cataract surgery.
We sought to determine the source of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of 46 weddings taking place during a single weekend. Norovirus-compatible illness was experienced by 332 (39%) of wedding guests surveyed; the outbreak affected up to 2700 persons. Illness was associated with eating wedding cake provided by a bakery common to the weddings (adjusted RR 4·5, P<0·001). A cake requiring direct hand contact during its preparation accounted for the majority of illness. At least two bakery employees experienced norovirus-compatible illness during the week preceding the weddings. Identical sequence types of norovirus were detected in stool specimens submitted by two wedding guests, a wedding hall employee, and one of the ill bakery employees. It is likely that one or more food workers at the bakery contaminated the wedding cakes through direct and indirect contact. These findings reinforce the necessity of proper food-handling practices and of policies that discourage food handlers from working while ill.
To evaluate the emergence of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, or both after the use of these drugs and to compare resistant with susceptible isolates by molecular typing.
Burn intensive care unit (ICU) with 4 beds in a tertiary-care university hospital.
During 16 months, surveillance cultures were performed for all patients admitted to the ICU. Demographic information was obtained for each patient. Molecular typing was done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using restriction enzymes for 71 isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species.
Thirty-four patients were admitted and 22 were colonized by susceptible P. aeruginosa or Acinetobacter species before they used the antimicrobials. Nine (41%) of these patients had a resistant isolate after antimicrobial use: 5 had used imipenem alone, 1 had used ciprofloxacin, and 3 had used both drugs. The interval between isolation of the susceptible and resistant isolates ranged from 4 to 25 days, but was 10 or more days for 6 patients. Molecular typing revealed that susceptible and resistant isolates from each patient were different and that although there were no predominant clones among susceptible isolates, there was a predominant clone among resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa and of Acinetobacter.
Resistance was not due to the acquisition of resistance mechanisms by a previously susceptible strain, but rather to cross-transmission. Although various measures involving antimicrobial use have received great attention, it would seem that practices to prevent cross-transmission are more important in controlling resistance.
In 1997 a new collaborative research project was initiated by the British School at Rome. This project draws on a variety of sources of archaeological information to explore the regional impact of the City of Rome throughout the period from 1000 BC to AD 1300. The project provides a common collaborative research framework which brings together a range of archaeologists and historians working in various institutions. In this paper those involved in different aspects of this new project outline their work and its overall objectives.
Diamond deposits of well-separated particles have been obtained by the hot filament CVD technique on Si(100) wafers. Particle counting in SEM images and determination of their linear dimensions require a separate study of growth rates and of nucleation densities as a function of time, substrate temperature (500 °C–950 °C), gas phase composition (0.5–2% CH4 in H2), and total pressure (15–76 Torr). It is shown that recent models proposed for the growth process can successfully be applied if proper consideration is given to the high catalytic activity of the growing diamond surface for the heterogeneous recombination of gaseous H-atoms. This fast reaction controls the H-atom concentration at the surface and couples growth rates and nucleation densities via the gas phase.
Normal and tangential resistance coefficients are calculated for a rigid slender body close to a planar no-slip boundary or midway between and close to two such boundaries. The important length scale is found to be the separation distance from the boundaries, and the forces per unit length acting on the slender body are approximately constant along most of its length. Owing to the presence of the walls, the ratio of the normal and tangential resistance coefficients can be greater than 2, its maximum limiting value in the infinite-fluid case. Applications to the movements of flagellated micro-organisms are discussed.
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