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The debris-rich glacier that grew in the crater of Mount St Helens after the volcano’s cataclysmic 1980 eruption was split in two by a new lava dome in 2004. For nearly six months, the eastern part of the glacier was squeezed against the crater wall as the lava dome expanded. Glacier thickness nearly doubled locally and surface speed increased substantially. As squeezing slowed and then stopped, surface speed fell and ice was redistributed downglacier. This sequence of events, which amounts to a field-scale experiment on the deformation of debris-rich ice at high strain rates, was interpreted using a two-dimensional flowband model. The best match between modeled and observed glacier surface motion, both vertical and horizontal, requires ice that is about 5 times stiffer and 1.2 times denser than normal, temperate ice. Results also indicate that lateral squeezing, and by inference lava-dome growth adjacent to the glacier, likely slowed over a period of about 30 days rather than stopping abruptly. This finding is supported by geodetic data documenting dome growth.
The region where two active tributaries feed into the now stagnant Ice Stream C (ISC), West Antarctica, is thickening. In this region, we observe a correlation between faster ice flow (the tributaries) and elevated topography. We conclude that stagnation of ISC resulted in compression and thickening along the tributaries, eventually forming a “bulge” on the ice-sheet surface. Modern hydraulic potential gradients would divert basal meltwater from ISC to Ice Stream B (ISB). These gradients are primarily controlled by the bulge topography, and so likely formed subsequent to trunk stagnation. As such, we argue against “water piracy” as being the cause for ISC’s stagnation. Kinematic-wave theory suggests that thickness perturbations propagate downstream over time, but that kinematic-wave speed decreases near the stagnant trunk. This and modest diffusion rates combine to trap most of the tributary-fed ice in the bulge region. Using interfero-metric synthetic aperture radar velocity measurements, we observe that half of the ice within ISC’s southern tributary flows into ISB. That flow pattern and other observations of non-steady flow in the region likely result from stagnation-induced thickening along upper ISC combined with a longer period of thinning on upper ISB. If current trends in thickness change continue, more ice from upper ISC will be diverted to ISB.
Sequential satellite imagery and modeling are used to investigate crevasse patterns at the head of Ice Stream B tributary B1b. The crevasses, informally called the “chromosomes”, form at the upstream limit to B1b’s northern shear margin and chaotic crevasse zone. We find that the onset to crevasse formation, and by inference the onset to streaming flow, has migrated upstream over time at a mean rate of 230(16) m a−1. A possible cause for that migration is changes in net basal friction due to changes in basal water production rate and storage.
The determination of catchment boundaries is a major source of uncertainty in net balance studies on large ice sheets. Here, a method for defining a catchment boundary is developed using new measurements of ice-surface velocity and elevation near the Ice Stream B/C boundary in West Antarctica. An objective method for estimating confidence in the catchment boundary is proposed. Using elevation data, the resulting mean standard deviation in boundary location is 13 km in position or 6000 km2 in area. Applying a similar uncertainty to both sides of the Ice Stream Β catchment results in a catchment-area uncertainty of 9%. Much larger uncertainties arise when the method is applied to velocity data. The uncertainty in both cases is primarily determined by the density of field measurements and is proportionally similar for larger catchment basins. Differences in the position of the velocity-determined boundary and the elevation-determined boundary probably result from data sampling. The boundary positions determined here do not support the hypothesis that Ice Stream Β captured parts of the Ice Stream C catchment.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In New Caledonia, sporadic cases were first described in 2005; since then, more cases have been identified. To improve our understanding of melioidosis epidemiology in New Caledonia, we compared the local cases and B. pseudomallei isolates with those from endemic areas. Nineteen melioidosis cases have been diagnosed in New Caledonia since 1999, mostly severe and with frequent bacteraemia, leading to three (16%) fatalities. All but one occurred in the North Province. Besides sporadic cases caused by non-clonal strains, we also identified a hotspot of transmission related to a clonal group of B. pseudomallei that is phylogenetically related to Australian strains.
Cogongrass, an invasive grass native to Asia, has infested thousands of hectares in the southeastern United States. Although numerous studies have examined cogongrass control, no published studies, to our knowledge, have tested strategies for cogongrass eradication. Cogongrass has a persistent, thick rhizome mat but an ephemeral seedbank; therefore, successful eradication methods must largely focus on the rhizomes. A field study to evaluate specific herbicide treatments and application timings for cogongrass patch eradication was conducted at two locations in southwestern Alabama. Herbicide treatments included glyphosate at 4.48 kg ai ha−1, imazapyr at 0.84 kg ai ha−1, and a tank mix of glyphosate and imazapyr at the same rates. Treatments were applied in May, August, or October for 3 consecutive yr, and the May glyphosate treatment included a second annual application each October. Cogongrass visual control, shoot biomass, rhizome biomass, rhizome depth, and total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content were sampled during the course of the study. Cogongrass response to treatments varied by location but by 36 mo after initial treatment (MAIT), complete elimination of cogongrass shoot and rhizome biomass and 100% visual control was achieved in several herbicide treatment–timing combinations at both locations. These included glyphosate plus imazapyr at any application timing, imazapyr in August or October, and glyphosate applied in May and October each year. TNC levels of surviving healthy rhizomes were not affected by herbicide treatments, but a seasonal pattern was observed. The maximum live-rhizome depth was not influenced by any treatment, indicating that herbicides were not preferentially leaving deeper, surviving rhizomes. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the entire rhizome layer of cogongrass can be eliminated within 3 yr with multiple treatment options and that cogongrass patch eradication is possible for many land managers.
We use a WISE-2MASS-Pan-STARRS1 galaxy catalog to search for a supervoid in the direction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Cold Spot. We obtain photometric redshifts using our multicolor data set to create a tomographic map of the galaxy distribution. The radial density profile centred on the Cold Spot shows a large low density region, extending over 10's of degrees. Motivated by previous Cosmic Microwave Background results, we test for underdensities within two angular radii, 5°, and 15°. Our data, combined with an earlier measurement by Granett et al. 2010, are consistent with a large Rvoid=(192 ± 15)h−1 Mpc (2σ) supervoid with δ ≃ −0.13 ± 0.03 centered at z=0.22 ± 0.01. Such a supervoid, constituting a ∼3.5 σ fluctuation in the ΛCDM model, is a plausible cause for the Cold Spot.
Lead-containing (Pb-B-X)-2H apatites encompass a number of [AF]4[AT]6[(BO4)6]X2 compounds used for waste stabilization, environmental catalysis and ion conduction, but the influence of the stereochemically active lone-pair electrons of Pb2+ on crystal chemistry and functionality is poorly understood. This article presents a compilation of existing structural data for Pb apatites that demonstrate paired electrons of Pb2+ at both the AF and AT results in substantial adjustments to the PbFO6 metaprism twist angle, φ. New structure refinements are presented for several natural varieties as a function of temperature by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) of vanadinite-2H (ideally Pb10(VO4)6Cl2), pyromorphite-2H (Pb10(PO4)6Cl2), mimetite-2H/M (Pb10(As5+O4)6Cl2) and finnemanite-2H (Pb10(As3+O3)6Cl2). A supercell for mimetite is confirmed using synchrotron single-crystal XRD. It is suggested the superstructure is necessary to accommodate displacement of the stereochemically active 6s2 lone-pair electrons on the Pb2+ that occupy a volume similar to an O2− anion. We propose that depending on the temperature and concentration of minor substitutional ions, the mimetite superstructure is a structural adaptation common to all Pb-containing apatites and by extension apatite electrolytes, where oxide ion interstitials are found at similar positions to the lonepair electrons. It is also shown that plumbous apatite framework flexes substantially through adjustments of the PbFO6 metaprism twist-angles (φ) as the temperature changes. Finally, crystalchemical  zoning observed at submicron scales will probably impact on the treatment of diffraction data and may account for certain inconsistencies in reported structures.
The environmental setting of two late-prehistoric enclosures in upland Ardudwy, Gwynedd was investigated by pollen analysis of nearby valley mire deposits and of old ground surfaces revealed during excavation of the sites. Radiocarbon-dated pollen data indicate human influence on the local environment since Mesolithic times, with the major period of woodland clearance in the early Bronze Age. The two enclosures appear to have been constructed in an environment already substantially deforested. Remanent upland timber resources appear to have been substantially depleted during occupation of the sites, whilst soil acidification and/or climatic change may also have contributed to their eventual abandonment.
The quantity of methane in Mars' atmosphere, and the potential mechanism(s) responsible for its production, are still unknown. In order to test viable, abiotic, methangenic processes, we experimentally investigated two possible impact mechanisms for generating methane. In the first suite of experiments, basaltic rocks were impacted at 5 km s−1 and the quantity of gases (CH4, H2, He, N2, O2, Ar and CO2) released by the impacts was measured. In the second suite of experiments, a mixture of water ice, CO2 ice and anhydrous olivine grains was impacted to see if the shock induced rapid serpentinization of the olivine, and thus production of methane. The results of both suites of experiments demonstrate that impacts (at scales achievable in the laboratory) do not give rise to detectably enhanced quantities of methane release above background levels. Supporting hydrocode modelling was also performed to gain insight into the pressures and temperatures occurring during the impact events.
High-redshift quasars are unique probes of the evolution of supermassive black holes and the intergalactic medium at the end of the epoch of reionization. We present the optical spectra of eight new z ~ 6 quasars selected from the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1). Details of the selection strategy can be found in Bañados et al. (2014). With this work we increase the number of known quasars at z < 5.7 by more than 10%. The quasars discovered here span a large range of luminosities (19.6 ≤ zP1 ≤ 21.2) and are remarkably heterogeneous in their spectral features: half of them show bright emission lines whereas the other half show weak or no Lyα emission line. We find a larger fraction of weak–line emission quasars than in lower redshift studies, although still based on low number statistics, this may imply that the quasar population could be more diverse than previously thought.
Parent and teacher ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms yield high estimates of heritability whereas self-ratings typically yield lower estimates. To understand why, the present study examined the etiological overlap between parent, teacher and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in a population-based sample of 11–12-year-old twins.
Participants were from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity scale completed by parents, teachers and children. Structural equation modeling was used to examine genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variance/covariance.
The broad-sense heritability of ADHD symptoms was 82% for parent ratings, 60% for teacher ratings and 48% for self-ratings. Post-hoc analyses revealed significantly higher heritability for same-teacher than different-teacher ratings of ADHD (76% v. 49%). A common pathway model best explained the relationship between different informant ratings, with common genetic influences accounting for 84% of the covariance between parent, teacher and self-rated ADHD symptoms. The remaining variance was explained by rater-specific genetic and non-shared environmental influences.
Despite different heritabilities, there were shared genetic influences for parent, teacher and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, indicating that different informants rated some of the same aspects of behavior. The low heritability estimated for self-ratings and different-teacher ratings may reflect increased measurement error when different informants rate each twin from a pair, and/or greater non-shared environmental influences. Future studies into the genetic influences on ADHD should incorporate informant data in addition to self-ratings to capture a pervasive, heritable component of ADHD symptomatology.
Epitaxially grown GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC were implanted with 100 keV Si+ (for n-type) and 80 keV Mg+ (for p-type) with various fluences from 1×1012 to 7×1015 ions/cm2 at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT), room temperature (RT), and 700 °C (HT). High temperature (1200 °C and 1500 °C) annealing was carried out after capping the GaN with epitaxial AIN by MOCVD to study damage recovery. Samples were capped by a layer of AIN in order to protect the GaN surface during annealing. Effects of implant temperature, damage and dopant activation are critically studied to evaluate a role of ion implantation in doping of GaN. The damage was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence. Results show dependence of radiation damage level on temperature of the substrate during implantation: implantations at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C decrease the lattice disorder; “hot implants” above 550 °C can not be useful in doping of GaN due to nitrogen loss from the surface. SE measurements have indicated very high sensitivity to the implantation damage. PL measurements at LT of 80 keV Mg+ (5×1014 cm-2) implanted and annealed GaN showed two peaks : one ∼100 meV and another ∼140 meV away from the band edge.