The changes in the activities of the two vitamin B12-dependent enzymes methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC188.8.131.52) and methionine synthetase (5-methyltetrahydrofolate–homocysteine methyltransferase, EC 184.108.40.206) are described in two groups of sheep maintained for 20 weeks on either a cobalt-deficient or a Co-sufficient whole-barley diet. At the end of that period, the plasma concentrations of vitamin B12 were depressed and those of methylmalonic acid were raised in the Co-deficient group. During the course of the experiment hepatic holo-mutase activity, measured on biopsy samples, declined in Co-deficient animals with a half-life of 73 d. There was a similar, but slower decline in lymphocyte holo-mutase activity which fell with a half-life of 125 d. At slaughter, there was no difference between Co-sufficient and Co-deficient animals in total mutase activity in liver, kidney, brain and spinal cord. In contrast, the total-synthetase activity of liver and kidney was reduced by 60 and 30% respectively in the Co-deficient animals. There was no change in either group of animals in total-synthetase activity, or in either holo-mutase or holo-synthetase activity, in brain and spinal cord. In the Co-deficient animals, holo-mutase and holo-synthetase activities in liver, the tissue with the greatest activity of both enzymes, fell to 25 and 39% respectively, of that of Co-sufficient animals. The corresponding reductions for kidney were 12 and 51 % respectively. These results indicated that activity of both holoenzymes is greatly reduced in Co-deficient sheep.