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Mineralogy and Remote Sensing of Rocks, Soil, Dust, and Ices
W. Goetz, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research Max Planck Str. 2 Katlenburg-Lindau, 37191, Germany,
S. F. Hviid, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research Max Planck Str. 2 Katlenburg-Lindau, 37191, Germany,
K. M. Kinch, CRSR Cornell University 408 Space Sciences Building Ithaca, NY 13853, USA,
M. B. Madsen, Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 5 Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark
The surface and aeolian dust on Mars is rich in iron compounds, and significant quantities of dust have been observed to stick to permanent magnets that are either exposed to the dusty atmosphere, exposed to dust released by grinding into rocks, or inserted into the soil. All successful lander missions to Mars so far have carried permanent magnets of various designs for the purpose of studying dust magnetic properties. The magnetism of the aeolian dust is the result of the presence of magnetite, which apparently derives from mechanical weathering of magnetite-rich surface rocks. A strong correlation between the elements titanium and iron is observed in elemental abundance spectra of dust attracted to permanent-magnet surfaces, suggesting that the magnetite responsible for the magnetization of the dust is actually titanomagnetite. Overall, the dust can be shown to have a saturation magnetization of less than 2 A m2 kg− 1. However, some grains are significantly more magnetic, and by interaction with a permanent magnet it is possible to separate the airborne dust into populations of more and less magnetic grains. Subpopulations attracted to a magnet have been seen to have magnetizations above 7 A m2 kg− 1. The widespread presence of magnetite and other easily oxidized minerals like olivine in rocks and in the global Martian dust imply that the Martian surface has been largely devoid of liquid water for a very long time.
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