Thirty-one stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, representative of the genetic variability of the 2 principal lineages, that subdivide T. cruzi, were selected on the basis of previous multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis using 21 loci. Analyses were performed with lower numbers of loci to explore the impact of the number of loci on the robustness of the phylogenies obtained, and to identify the loci that have more impact on the phylogeny. Analyses were performed with numerical (UPGMA) and cladistical (Wagner parsimony analysis) methods for all sets of loci. Robustness of the phylogenies obtained was estimated by bootstrap analysis. Low numbers of randomly selected loci (6) were sufficient to demonstrate genetic heterogeneity among the stocks studied. However, they were unable to give reliable phylogenetic information. A higher number of randomly selected loci (15 and more) were required to reach this goal. All loci did not convey equivalent information. The more variable loci detected a greater genetic heterogeneity among the stocks, whereas the least variable loci were better for robust clustering. Finally, analysis was performed with only 5 and 9 loci bearing synapomorphic allozyme characters previously identified among larger samples of stocks. A set of 9 such loci was able to uncover both genetic heterogeneity among the stocks and to build robust phylogenies. It can therefore be recommended as a minimum set of isoenzyme loci that bring maximal information for all studies aiming to explore the phylogenetic diversity of a new set of T. cruzi stocks and for any preliminary genetic typing. Moreover, our results show that bootstrap analysis, like any statistics, is highly dependent upon the information available and that absolute bootstrap figures should be cautiously interpreted.