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Decades of research have investigated the impact of clinical depression on memory, which has revealed biases and in some cases impairments. However, little is understood about the effects of subclinical symptoms of depression on memory performance in the general population.
Here we report the effects of symptoms of depression on memory problems in a large population-derived cohort (N = 2544), 87% of whom reported at least one symptom of depression. Specifically, we investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance on a standard neuropsychological task and, in a subsample (n = 288), objective memory in affective contexts.
There was a dissociation between subjective and objective memory performance, with depressive symptoms showing a robust relationship with self-reports of memory complaints, even after adjusting for age, sex, general cognitive ability and symptoms of anxiety, but not with performance on the standardised measure of verbal memory. Contrary to our expectations, hippocampal volume (assessed in a subsample, n = 592) did not account for significant variance in subjective memory, objective memory or depressive symptoms. Nonetheless, depressive symptoms were related to poorer memory for pictures presented in negative contexts, even after adjusting for memory for pictures in neutral contexts.
Thus the symptoms of depression, associated with subjective memory complaints, appear better assessed by memory performance in affective contexts, rather than standardised memory measures. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the impact of depressive symptoms on memory functioning in the general population.
In 1964 (Solar Cycle 20; SC 20), Patrick McIntosh began creating hand-drawn synoptic maps of solar magnetic features, based on Hα images. These synoptic maps were unique in that they traced magnetic polarity inversion lines, and connected widely separated filaments, fibril patterns, and plage corridors to reveal the large-scale organization of the solar magnetic field. Coronal hole boundaries were later added to the maps, which were produced, more or less continuously, into 2009 (i.e., the start of SC 24). The result was a record of ~45 years (~570 Carrington rotations), or nearly four complete solar cycles of synoptic maps. We are currently scanning, digitizing and archiving these maps, with the final, searchable versions publicly available at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information. In this paper we present preliminary scientific studies using the archived maps from SC 23. We show the global evolution of closed magnetic structures (e.g., sunspots, plage, and filaments) in relation to open magnetic structures (e.g., coronal holes), and examine how both relate to the shifting patterns of large-scale positive and negative polarity regions.
Most of the recent advances in X-ray astronomy have resulted from satellite observations in the low energy (< 20 keV) range. The Einstein X-ray Observatory in particular has been responsible for a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the X-ray sky, in that all major classes of astronomical objects have been detected.
The binary X-ray source GX 1 + 4 was observed during a balloon flight in 1986, November. The source was in a relatively high intensity state. Time analysis of the data shows that the pulsation period was 111.8 ± 1.0 s indicating that one or more episodes of spin-down occurred between 1980 and 1986. Folded pulse profiles are very broad with an indication of a notch at the peak. Evidence has been found for a correlation between hard X-ray intensity and phase of the proposed 304 day orbital period. The time averaged intensity since 1980 is an order of magnitude lower than during the 1970’s. A survey of the post 1980 data shows that several reversals of the period derivative have occurred. Spin-up at the rates typical of the 1970’s has been followed by a dramatic spin-down episode with dP/dt>2.4 × 10−7 s/s.
In August 2011, one of the earliest cases of influenza A(H3N2) variant [A(H3N2)v] virus infection was hospitalized with severe illness. To investigate the potential for healthcare-associated transmission of influenza A(H3N2)v, we evaluated both healthcare providers and patient contacts of the case. We found that healthcare-associated transmission was unlikely.
Background: Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD. Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds, as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD–marital problems association. Results: Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology, when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. Conclusion: The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.
Associations between parental depression and offspring affective and disruptive disorders are well documented. Few genetically informed studies have explored the processes underlying intergenerational associations.
A semi-structured interview assessing DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders was administered to twins (n=1296) from the Australian Twin Register (ATR), their spouses (n=1046) and offspring (n=2555). We used the Children of Twins (CoT) design to delineate the extent to which intergenerational associations were consistent with a causal influence or due to genetic confounds.
In between-family analyses, parental depression was associated significantly with offspring depression [hazard ratio (HR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–1.93] and conduct disorder (CD; HR 2.27, CI 1.31–3.93). Survival analysis indicated that the intergenerational transmission of depression is consistent with a causal (environmental) inference, with a significant intergenerational association in offspring of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (HR 1.39, CI 1.00–1.94). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the parental depression–offspring CD association was due to shared genetic liability in the parents and offspring. No intergenerational association was found when comparing the offspring of discordant MZ twins [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, CI 0.63–3.14], but offspring of discordant dizygotic (DZ) twins differed in their rates of CD (OR 2.53, CI 0.95–6.76). All findings remained after controlling for several measured covariates, including history of depression and CD in the twins' spouses.
The mechanisms underlying associations between parental depression and offspring psychopathology seem to differ depending on the outcome. The results are consistent with a causal environmental role of parental depression in offspring depression whereas common genetic factors account for the association of parental depression and offspring CD.
We address the claim that nonhuman animals do not represent unobservable states, based on studies of physical cognition by rooks and social cognition by scrub-jays. In both cases, the most parsimonious explanation for the results is counter to the reinterpretation hypothesis. We suggest that imagination and prospection can be investigated in animals and included in models of cognitive architecture.
The cause of the non-disjunction leading to trisomy 21 remains unclear. Recent evidence has suggested that 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and/or methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) might contribute to the maternal risk of trisomy 21. The purpose of the present study was to analyse these findings among the French population and to investigate whether common polymorphisms in genes of the folate and homocysteine pathway, including the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, the methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A>G, the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) 844Ins68 and the reduced folate carrier (RFC-1) 80G>A polymorphisms, contribute to the risk of trisomy 21. The risk was studied by analysing independent and combined genotypes in 119 case mothers and 119 control mothers. The MTHFR 677T, MTHFR 1298C, MTR2756G, MTRR66G, CBSIns68+ and the RFC-1 80G allele frequencies were not significantly different among French case mothers, compared with control mothers. The risk of having a child with trisomy 21 did not appear to be linked to polymorphisms in genes associated with folate and homocysteine metabolism.
Intravenous rt-PA (IV rt-PA) for acute stroke has raised many concerns, including its inadvertent use in patients presenting with acute stroke-like symptoms as the expression of their somatoform disorder. Diagnosis of the somatoform disorder is often delayed, and thrombolytics in these patients for their stroke-like presentation subjects them to risk for hemorrhage.
The presentation, neurological findings, and the therapeutic decision making was audited in 85 patients who received IV rt-PA for a diagnosis of acute stroke. All the surviving patients were re-examined neurologically at least three months after IV rt-PA. Baseline and follow-up brain CT scans were re-reviewed by a neuroradiologist who was blinded to clinical presentation and outcome. Patients whose clinical presentation, brain CT and neurological outcome did not fit into known or expected anatomical and clinical patterns of stroke underwent psychological assessment using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2.
In two patients three stroke-like presentations of somatoform disorder inadvertently were treated with IV rt-PA. This was primarily caused by abbreviated neurological examination and narrow differential diagnosis.
Patients with somatoform disorder may present with symptoms mimicking acute stroke. Under the time constraints of IV rt-PA use, a diagnosis of somatoform disorder can be missed, subjecting such patients to the potential complications of thrombolytics.
We have studied the effect of common mutations (677C → T and 1298A → C) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in sixty-six healthy French subjects, aged 27–47 years. Serum folate, vitamin B12, and plasma total homocysteine were measured as well as the specific activity of MTHFR in lymphocytes. The frequency of subjects homozygous for the 677TT genotype was 18 %, and that of those homozygous for the 1298CC genotype was 12·5 %. The frequency of individuals heterozygous for both mutations was 23·5 %. The 1298A → C mutation was associated with decreased MTHFR specific activity in subjects with both 677CC and 677CT genotypes. This activity was 60 % for the 677CC/1298AC genotype and 52 % for the 677CC/1298CC genotype when compared with the MTHFR specific activity of the 677CC/1298AA genotype. Heterozygotes for both mutations (677CT/1298AC genotype) had 36 % of the reference specific activity. Although homocysteine levels in 677TT and 1298CC genotype subjects were higher than for other genotypes, no significant differences were observed among different genotypes. This may be due to high serum folate level in our samples, and suggests that folate therapy may be useful to prevent hyperhomocysteinaemia in homozygous mutant subjects.
We report abnormal maternal laboratory parameters in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) at mid-pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 109 patients with TTTS evaluated for placental laser surgery. Complete blood count (CBC), blood type and Rh factor, urine analysis and serum chemistry panel were obtained preoperatively, with the CBC and serum albumin repeated on the first postoperative day. The mean gestational age was 21.2 ± 1.7 weeks. Initial abnormal values included hematocrit (32.1 ± 3.0%), hemoglobin (11.0 ± 1.03 g/dl), serum magnesium (1.71 ± 0.17 mg/dl), total protein (6.08 ± 0.55 g/dl) and albumin (3.06 ± 0.34 g/dl). Despite minimal blood loss and conservative fluid replacement mean hematocrit, hemoglobin, and albumin were 27.3 ± 2.74%, 9.3 ± 0.94 g/dl and 2.56 ± 0.23 g/dl, respectively on postoperative day one. Weight gain (8.0 ± 5.5 lb.) and low urinary output were characteristic peri-operative events. Maternal hypoproteinemia and anemia occur in TTTS at mid-pregnancy. This may contribute independently to amniotic fluid production rates in the fetuses, and explain in part the maternal sensitivity to intravenous fluids in multiple pregnancy. Twin Research (2000) 3, 113–117.
A method for tensile testing thin gold films is presented. Free-standing tensile specimens were prepared by evaporating 0.8 μm of gold onto a patterned oxidized silicon wafer. Using common microelectronic fabrication techniques, free-standing thin film specimens were produced that span rectangular windows in the wafer. The wafer was diced into individual tensile specimens composed of a thin film surrounded by a silicon frame. The final step before testing was to cleave the silicon frame so that the load was completely carried by the metal film. The ultimate tensile strength of the films was found to be approximately 150% greater than that of annealed bulk gold. In contrast, the measured elastic modulus for the thin film specimens was approximately the same as that documented for bulk gold.
Two alkali-tin-silicate (ATS) glasses have been prepared at Argonne National
Laboratory (ANL) as part of our ongoing research in radioactive waste glass
development. These glasses dissolved 5% and approximately 7% Pu. Early
corrosion test results indicate that Pu-bearing ATS glass is extremely
durable. The initial goal in this project concerned equally both the
solubility of Pu and the durability of the ATS glasses; however, our primary
emphasis has changed recently to maximizing the loading of Pu in the glass.
ATS-based glasses, using Th(VI) and Ce(III) as surrogates for Pu(IV), are
now being investigated to increase the solubility of Pu without
substantially sacrificing the durability of the current ATS formulations.
The solution data from various corrosion tests on the original Pu-containing
ATS glasses are also presented.
Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are under investigation for 1-sun and concentrator applications. Design criteria are examined and reveal that only grid design modifications are required. In the special case where cell width dimensions are 4–5 cm, an interdigitated design removes the back contact as a loss mechanism. Processing issues relating to the intrinsic ZnO layer are critical to optimal and reproducible cell performance. 1-sun and 20 sun performance of 17.7% are reported for different cells. The latter represents a 2.9% absolute improvement over the 1-sun control measurement. 20% performance is therefore a realistic goal. CIGS-based cells represent a viable concentrator technology.
We have studied the effects of a hydrogen-plasma reactive flush between the pand i-layer depositions in fabricating solar cells of glass/TCO/p(a-SiC:H)-i(a-Si:H)-n(a-Si:H)/metal in a single-chamber, glow-discharge deposition system. Spectral response, photoluminescence, and photovoltaic conversion efficiency measurements show that the hydrogen-plasma reactive flush is effective in reducing the p-i interface recombination of charge carriers and in improving solar cell performance.
Published statistics reveal an approximate six-fold increase since 1951 in commercial air transport activity over the North Atlantic. Scheduled passengers increased in number from 341,000 in 1951 to 1,919,000 in 1961; cargo increased from 7,700 tons to 53,000 tons; and mail carriage increased from 3,900 tons to 17,000 tons over the same period. For 1962 a further increase of 12 per cent in passenger traffic and 14 per cent in cargo is forecast. This rapid growth situation has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in profits, however, as evidenced by a loss estimated in the millions in 1961 on the North Atlantic by the United States international air carriers alone, and an indeterminably greater amount by the foreign air carriers operating in this area. From the limited financial data available, it appears that, among all North Atlantic scheduled international air carriers, only Irish Airlines and Pan American experienced profitable operations for 1961.
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