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During the past quarter-century, the field of high pressure research has undergone a quiet revolution. This has resulted from the creation and development of the diamond-anvil cell (DAC). Because diamonds are the hardest known materials, the highest static pressures can be attained and indefinitely held in these devices, recent pressure records have surpassed 400 GPa.
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) [Dubietis et al., Opt. Commun. 88, 437 (1992)] implemented by multikilojoule Nd:glass pump lasers is a promising approach to produce ultraintense pulses (
). Technologies are being developed to upgrade the OMEGA EP Laser System with the goal to pump an optical parametric amplifier line (EP OPAL) with two of the OMEGA EP beamlines. The resulting ultraintense pulses (1.5 kJ, 20 fs,
) would be used jointly with picosecond and nanosecond pulses produced by the other two beamlines. A midscale OPAL pumped by the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) laser is being constructed to produce 7.5-J, 15-fs pulses and demonstrate scalable technologies suitable for the upgrade. MTW OPAL will share a target area with the MTW laser (50 J, 1 to 100 ps), enabling several joint-shot configurations. We report on the status of the MTW OPAL system, and the technology development required for this class of all-OPCPA laser system for ultraintense pulses.
Selective breeding has been an important component in the increased output and efficiency of animal production since the 1950's. At the same time there has been increasing moral concern over the welfare of modern farmed animals with much of the focus on the environment and management of farm animals and relatively little consideration of the impact of genetic change on welfare. This is now changing, partly because of some well-publicised examples where selection has led to ‘undesirable’ side effects, and because of the perceived welfare risk of emerging biotechnologies. This paper will address whether and how moral concerns over animal welfare should place limitations on genetic change in animal production.
There is substantial evidence of an inverse association between birth weight and later blood pressure (BP) in populations from high-income countries, but whether this applies in low-income countries, where causes of low birth weight are different, is not certain. Objective: We conducted a review of the evidence on the relationship between birth weight and BP among African children and adolescents. Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and Web of Science databases were searched for publications to October 2016. Papers reporting the relationship between birth weight and BP among African children and adolescents were assessed. Bibliographies were searched for further relevant publications. Selected papers were summarized following the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. In total, 16 papers from 13 studies conducted in nine African countries (Nigeria, Republic of Seychelles, Gambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, South Africa, Algeria, Zimbabwe and Angola) were reviewed. Eight studies were cohorts, while five were cross-sectional. The relationship between birth weight and later BP varied with age of the participants. Studies in neonates showed a consistently positive association, while predominantly inverse associations were seen among children, and studies in adolescents were inconsistent. Based on the limited number of studies identified, the relationship between birth weight and later BP may vary with age in African children and adolescents. Not all studies adequately controlled for confounding, notably gender or age. Whether the inverse relationship between birth weight and BP in later life observed in Western settings is also seen in Africa remains unclear.
Identifying genetic relationships between complex traits in emerging adulthood can provide useful etiological insights into risk for psychopathology. College-age individuals are under-represented in genomic analyses thus far, and the majority of work has focused on the clinical disorder or cognitive abilities rather than normal-range behavioral outcomes.
This study examined a sample of emerging adults 18–22 years of age (N = 5947) to construct an atlas of polygenic risk for 33 traits predicting relevant phenotypic outcomes. Twenty-eight hypotheses were tested based on the previous literature on samples of European ancestry, and the availability of rich assessment data allowed for polygenic predictions across 55 psychological and medical phenotypes.
Polygenic risk for schizophrenia (SZ) in emerging adults predicted anxiety, depression, nicotine use, trauma, and family history of psychological disorders. Polygenic risk for neuroticism predicted anxiety, depression, phobia, panic, neuroticism, and was correlated with polygenic risk for cardiovascular disease.
These results demonstrate the extensive impact of genetic risk for SZ, neuroticism, and major depression on a range of health outcomes in early adulthood. Minimal cross-ancestry replication of these phenomic patterns of polygenic influence underscores the need for more genome-wide association studies of non-European populations.
In lambs, the rapid increase in heat production after birth is due to initiation of nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). This occurs in conjunction with an increase in amount and activity of BAT specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) (Clarke et al. 1997). UCP1 abundance and activity is low in fetal life but, within twelve hours of birth, there is an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and mRNA for UCP1. This ontogeny of UCP1 mRNA in BAT is very similar that of leptin, which is first detectable in the sheep fetus at 90 days gestation in fetal adipose tissue, its expression then increases up to term at 147 days (Yuen et al 1999). Leptin is a hormone which is thought to play a physiological role is in energy balance, it is primarily produced by white adipose tissue although there is evidence for its production in both brown adipose tissue and the placenta. Lambs born in the autumn are known to be smaller than those born in the spring (McCoard et al. 1997). It is not known if moderate changes in date of mating can influence birth weight or adipose tissue development. The present study aimed to determine whether date of mating could influence lamb birth weight, the abundance of BAT, UCP1, plasma leptin.
Previous studies have demonstrated that several major psychiatric disorders are influenced by shared genetic factors. This shared liability may influence clinical features of a given disorder (e.g. severity, age at onset). However, findings have largely been limited to European samples; little is known about the consistency of shared genetic liability across ethnicities.
The relationship between polygenic risk for several major psychiatric diagnoses and major depressive disorder (MDD) was examined in a sample of unrelated Han Chinese women. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were generated using European discovery samples and tested in the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology [CONVERGE (maximum N = 10 502)], a sample ascertained for recurrent MDD. Genetic correlations between discovery phenotypes and MDD were also assessed. In addition, within-case characteristics were examined.
European-based polygenic risk for several major psychiatric disorder phenotypes was significantly associated with the MDD case status in CONVERGE. Risk for clinically significant indicators (neuroticism and subjective well-being) was also associated with case–control status. The variance accounted for by PRS for both psychopathology and for well-being was similar to estimates reported for within-ethnicity comparisons in European samples. However, European-based PRS were largely unassociated with CONVERGE family history, clinical characteristics, or comorbidity.
The shared genetic liability across severe forms of psychopathology is largely consistent across European and Han Chinese ethnicities, with little attenuation of genetic signal relative to within-ethnicity analyses. The overall absence of associations between PRS for other disorders and within-MDD variation suggests that clinical characteristics of MDD may arise due to contributions from ethnicity-specific factors and/or pathoplasticity.
In 1964 (Solar Cycle 20; SC 20), Patrick McIntosh began creating hand-drawn synoptic maps of solar magnetic features, based on Hα images. These synoptic maps were unique in that they traced magnetic polarity inversion lines, and connected widely separated filaments, fibril patterns, and plage corridors to reveal the large-scale organization of the solar magnetic field. Coronal hole boundaries were later added to the maps, which were produced, more or less continuously, into 2009 (i.e., the start of SC 24). The result was a record of ~45 years (~570 Carrington rotations), or nearly four complete solar cycles of synoptic maps. We are currently scanning, digitizing and archiving these maps, with the final, searchable versions publicly available at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information. In this paper we present preliminary scientific studies using the archived maps from SC 23. We show the global evolution of closed magnetic structures (e.g., sunspots, plage, and filaments) in relation to open magnetic structures (e.g., coronal holes), and examine how both relate to the shifting patterns of large-scale positive and negative polarity regions.
Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestations are a public health concern. The insecticidal properties of the Australian native plant Kunzea ambigua (commonly known as tick bush) have been documented. In this study, we tested activity of kunzea oil (KO) against head lice through in vitro bioassays. Head lice were exposed to filter paper treated with either KO, as either a 5 or 100% oil, or commercial formulations containing either permethrin or tea tree oil (TTO) for 120 min. Head lice exposure to KO, both as a 5 and 100% solution oil, resulted in 100% mortality within 120 min with a mean survival times of 17·1 and 34·8 min, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean mortality of head lice exposed to 5% KO (17·1 ± 1·0; 95% CI: 115·2–19·0) and 5% TTO (21·2 ± 1·9; 95% CI: 17·4–25·1). This study revealed, for the first time, that KO holds great potential as an effective alternative to current active ingredients contained within commercial pediculicide formulations.
Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.
Studies investigating structural brain abnormalities in depression have typically employed a categorical rather than dimensional approach to depression [i.e. comparing subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-defined major depressive disorder (MDD) v. healthy controls]. The National Institute of Mental Health, through their Research Domain Criteria initiative, has encouraged a dimensional approach to the study of psychopathology as opposed to an over-reliance on categorical (e.g. DSM-based) diagnostic approaches. Moreover, subthreshold levels of depressive symptoms (i.e. severity levels below DSM criteria) have been found to be associated with a range of negative outcomes, yet have been relatively neglected in neuroimaging research.
To examine the extent to which depressive symptoms – even at subclinical levels – are linearly related to gray matter volume reductions in theoretically important brain regions, we employed whole-brain voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 54 participants.
The severity of mild depressive symptoms, even in a subclinical population, was associated with reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus/temporal pole and superior frontal gyrus. A conjunction analysis revealed concordance across two separate measures of depression.
Reduced gray matter volume in theoretically important brain regions can be observed even in a sample that does not meet DSM criteria for MDD, but who nevertheless report relatively elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight the need for additional research using dimensional conceptual and analytic approaches, as well as further investigation of subclinical populations.
The MIAMI* facility at the University of Huddersfield is one of a number of facilities worldwide that permit the ion irradiation of thin foils in-situ in a transmission electron microscope. MIAMI has been developed with a particular focus on enabling the in-situ implantation of helium and hydrogen into thin electron transparent foils, necessitating ion energies in the range 1 – 10 keV. In addition, however, ions of a variety of species can be provided at energies of up to 100 keV (for singly charged ions), enabling studies to focus on the build up of radiation damage in the absence or presence of implanted gas.
This paper reports on a number of ongoing studies being carried out at MIAMI, and also at JANNuS (Orsay, France) and the IVEM / Ion Accelerator Facility (Argonne National Lab, US). This includes recent work on He bubbles in SiC and Cu; the former work concerned with modification to bubble populations by ion and electron beams and the latter project concerned with the formation of bubble super-lattices in metals.
A study is also presented consisting of experiments aimed at shedding light on the origins of the dimensional changes known to occur in nuclear graphite under irradiation with either neutrons or ions. Single crystal graphite foils have been irradiated with 60 keV Xe ions in order to create a non-uniform damage profile throughout the foil thickness. This gives rise to varying basal-plane contraction throughout the foil resulting in almost macroscopic (micron scale) deformation of the graphite. These observations are presented and discussed with a view to reconciling them with current understanding of point defect behavior in graphite.
*Microscope and Ion Accelerator for Materials Investigations
We present a catalogue of the 322 damped Lyman alpha absorbers taken from the literature. All damped Lyman alpha absorbers are included, with no selection on redshift or quasar magnitude. Of these, 123 are candidates and await confirmation using high resolution spectroscopy. For all 322 objects we catalogue the radio properties of the background quasars, where known. Around 60 quasars have radio flux densities above 0.1 Jy and approximately half of these have optical magnitudes brighter than V = 18. This compilation should prove useful in several areas of extragalactic/cosmological research.
Self-harm is a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) attendance. We aimed to develop a clinical tool to help identify patients at higher risk of repeat self-harm, or suicide, within 6 months of an ED self-harm presentation.
The tool, the ReACT Self-Harm Rule, was derived using multicentre data from a prospective cohort study. Binary recursive partitioning was applied to data from two centres, and data from a separate centre were used to test the tool. There were 29 571 self-harm presentations to five hospital EDs between January 2003 and June 2007, involving 18 680 adults aged ⩾16 years. We estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values to measure the performance of the tool.
A self-harm presentation was classified as higher risk if at least one of the following factors was present: recent self-harm (in the past year), living alone or homelessness, cutting as a method of harm and treatment for a current psychiatric disorder. The rule performed with 95% sensitivity [95% confidence interval (CI) 94–95] and 21% specificity (95% CI 21–22), and had a positive predictive value of 30% (95% CI 30–31) and a negative predictive value of 91% (95% CI 90–92) in the derivation centres; it identified 83/92 of all subsequent suicides.
The ReACT Self-Harm Rule might be used as a screening tool to inform the process of assessing self-harm presentations to ED. The four risk factors could also be used as an adjunct to in-depth psychosocial assessment to help guide risk formulation. The use of multicentre data helped to maximize the generalizability of the tool, but we need to further verify its external validity in other localities.
The properties for members of a new class of nonlinear optical (NLO)
materials which stoichiometrically incorporate organic and inorganic
constituents into a single crystalline lattice are reported. Recent results
for our synthetic, crystal growth, and optical studies suggest that a number
of these relatively transparent “semiorganic” compounds have significant
second and/or third order NLO responses and often display favorable crystal
The prototype material of this class, zinc tris(thiourea) sulfate, or ZTS,
has a UV cutoff at about 325 nm, can be readily grown to cm3
sizes, and has been shown to be a highly efficient Type II frequency doubler
for 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser radiation. ZTS also possesses a moderate third
order nonlinear optical response (ca. 0.1 × CS2) which occurs on
at least a picosecond time scale as determined by degenerate four-wave
mixing (DFWM) experiments at 532 nm.
Refractive index, second harmonic generation, and DFWM data for a number of
these new compounds are presented.
We used polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements together with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-SiHx) films 0.5-1.0 microns in thickness. We deposited the films using hot-wire or plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods (HWCVD or PECVD, respectively) on crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride substrates. Our ATR technique gave a spectral range from 2100-400 cm-1, although the Si-H wagging mode absorption band at 640 cm-1 was somewhat distorted in the a-SiHx/Si samples by impurity and lattice absorption in the silicon ATR substrates. We report the identification of a Si-O-C impurity band with maximum intensity at 1240-1230 cm-1. The assignment of this band to a Si-O-C vibration is supported by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Our polarized FTIR-ATR spectra of HWCVD and PECVD a-SiHx films on <111> Si ATR substrates show that the impurity dipoles are oriented strongly parallel to the film growth direction. The wagging mode absorbance band is more intense in the film plane. This trend is less pronounced for the Si-H stretching vibrations. These observations are consistent with some degree of anisotropy or medium-range order in the films. The anisotropy in the Si-H bands may be related to residual stress in the films. Our scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the samples offer additional evidence of bulk structural anisotropy in the a-SiHx/Si films. However, the Si-O-C impurity band was not observed in the polarized ATR-FTIR spectra of the a-SiHx/CdTe samples, thus indicating that the Si substrates influence formation of the impurity in the a-SiHx/Si films.