To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In a large and comprehensively assessed sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI), we investigated the prevalence of psychotic features and their relationship with life course, demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics. We hypothesized that groups of psychotic symptoms (Schneiderian, mood incongruent, thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) have distinct relations to risk factors.
In a cross-sectional study of 1342 BDI patients, comprehensive demographical and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview. In addition, levels of childhood maltreatment and intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. The relationships between these characteristics and psychotic symptoms were analyzed using multiple general linear models.
A lifetime history of psychotic symptoms was present in 73.8% of BDI patients and included delusions in 68.9% of patients and hallucinations in 42.6%. Patients with psychotic symptoms showed a significant younger age of disease onset (β = −0.09, t = −3.38, p = 0.001) and a higher number of hospitalizations for manic episodes (F11 338 = 56.53, p < 0.001). Total IQ was comparable between groups. Patients with hallucinations had significant higher levels of childhood maltreatment (β = 0.09, t = 3.04, p = 0.002).
In this large cohort of BDI patients, the vast majority of patients had experienced psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms in BDI were associated with an earlier disease onset and more frequent hospitalizations particularly for manic episodes. The study emphasizes the strength of the relation between childhood maltreatment and hallucinations but did not identify distinct subgroups based on psychotic features and instead reported of a large heterogeneity of psychotic symptoms in BD.
Objectives: One of the most prominent features of schizophrenia is relatively lower general cognitive ability (GCA). An emerging approach to understanding the roots of variation in GCA relies on network properties of the brain. In this multi-center study, we determined global characteristics of brain networks using graph theory and related these to GCA in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: Participants (N=116 controls, 80 patients with schizophrenia) were recruited from four sites. GCA was represented by the first principal component of a large battery of neurocognitive tests. Graph metrics were derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. Results: The global metrics of longer characteristic path length and reduced overall connectivity predicted lower GCA across groups, and group differences were noted for both variables. Measures of clustering, efficiency, and modularity did not differ across groups or predict GCA. Follow-up analyses investigated three topological types of connectivity—connections among high degree “rich club” nodes, “feeder” connections to these rich club nodes, and “local” connections not involving the rich club. Rich club and local connectivity predicted performance across groups. In a subsample (N=101 controls, 56 patients), a genetic measure reflecting mutation load, based on rare copy number deletions, was associated with longer characteristic path length. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of characteristic path lengths and rich club connectivity for GCA and provide no evidence for group differences in the relationships between graph metrics and GCA. (JINS, 2016, 22, 240–249)
A Web-based electronic health record (EHR) system was compared with traditional paper-based documentation and vaccination tracking during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In a cohort of 8,411 healthcare network employees, EHRs improved completeness of self-reported contraindication data and reduced medical discrepancies. Vaccination program quality and accuracy are enhanced by EHRs.
This paper describes a three-step process regime for the integration of porous SiCOH based ultra low-k materials in existing copper damascene technologies. During the work with these complex and sensitive materials, it became more and more clear, that a successful patterning depends not only on the etch step but also on the adjustment between the etch and the following cleaning and k-restore processes. The presented process regime starts with a reactive ion etch process for trench patterning followed by a post etch clean to remove etch residues. Finally a k-restore process was performed to repair the damaged regions in the trench sidewalls. In this work it became clear, that the etch chemistry influences not only the results of the etch process ostensibly sidewall damage but also kind and effect of the post etch clean. Each plasma composition results in the necessity of a customized post etch cleaning solution. Finally a k-restore process using Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as restore chemical was demonstrated successfully. Enhanced temperatures and an additional UV-treatment are possibilities to promote the restore effect.
Dye-sensitized solar cells composed of an n-doped ZnO nanowire array and a p-doped polymer layer appears to be a promising candidate for low-cost production of environment-friendly solar cells. In this work, we investigate hybrid devices consisting of a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate, ZnO-nanowires (ZnO-NW) or a sol-gel prepared ZnO layer, a ruthenium dye (N719) and a PEDOT:PSS or P3HT layer. The dense polycrystalline ZnO layer is able to prevent short circuits, which have a strong effect on the performance of the solar cells. This is demonstrated by the use of only the ZnO layer which improves the open circuit voltage by a factor of 2 and the efficiency by a factor of 1.7 compared to cells with nanowires. That indicates that the system combined with a thin but dense ZnO layer and NW grown on it will show further improvement. Furthermore three different TCO substrates were investigated. Impedance spectroscopy (IS) reveals at least one additional Schottky barrier formed with ZnO:Al substrates. Spectral photovoltage measurements clearly show distinct absorption features correlated with the ZnO and N719 dye.
The metallurgical industry of ferrous and non-ferrous metals produce huge amount of wastes. In Slovakia, the factory for nickel production was closed in 1993, but around 5.5 kt of wastes remain in a dump. This waste was used as a model sorbent of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Co) from wastewater treatments. The TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test of precipitated heavy metals on waste materials has confirmed the necessity of waste stabilization. The microwave vitrification was applied because of a high content of iron in waste. After vitrification, the chemical durability and microhardness by indentation have been tested in the glassy and glassceramics obtained.
We investigate the optical properties of arrays of closely spaced metal nanoparticles in view of their potential to guide electromagnetic energy with a lateral mode confinement below the diffraction limit of light. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of short arrays of noble metal nanospheres show that electromagnetic pulses at optical frequencies can propagate along the arrays due to near-field interactions between plasmon-polariton modes of adjacent nanoparticles. Near-field microscopy enables the study of energy transport in these plasmon waveguides and shows experimental evidence for energy propagation over a distance of 0.5 νm for plasmon waveguides consisting of spheroidal silver particles fabricated using electron beam lithography.
We study the influence of optical near-field interactions on the dipole surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles in closely spaced particle arrays using finite-difference timedomain simulations. In particular, the resonance energies of the collective plasmon-polariton modes are determined for longitudinal and transverse polarization for different particle array lengths and inter-particle spacings of 50 nm Au spheres in air. The obtained results are set in context with recent publications suggesting the possibility to use ordered arrays of closely spaced noble metal nanoparticles as plasmon waveguides for electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit of light.
The influence of local structure variations on the charge transport properties are still not well understood at an atomic level. In this work the experimentally observed drastic conductivity enhancement in epitactic stacks of BaF2:CaF2 heterolayers compared to any of the two fluoride ion conducting phases is reproduced by molecular dynamics simulations and analyzed in detail with particular emphasis on the variation of properties with the distance to the two-phase boundary. Ion mobility varies with the distance to the interface but remains significantly enhanced throughout the modeled layers when compared to bulk materials.
The bond valence method is utilized to study correlations between the conductivity enhancement and the microstructure. A time-averaged violation of local electroneutrality postulated in the mesoscopic multiphase model is verified by the bond valence analysis of the molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The variation of the ion mobility can be related to the extension of clusters of unoccupied accessible pathway regions.
A Cobalt-20wt.% Nickel polycrystal produced by electrodeposition has been investigated in planar and cross sections using a high resolution scanning electron microscope. The local texture, grain size, amount of phase and grain boundaries, were characterized by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). The average grain size perpendicular to the grain growth direction was 400 nm. Parallel to it, a pronounced bimodal grain structure was observed with grains reaching more than 10 μm and grains of approximately 800 nm diameter.
Bulk silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys and two SiGe thick films (4 and 5 μm) on Si wafers were tested with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) using wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS) for heterogeneity and composition for use as reference materials needed by the microelectronics industry. One alloy with a nominal composition of Si0.86Ge0.14 and the two thick films with nominal compositions of Si0.90Ge0.10 and Si0.75Ge0.25 on Si, evaluated for micro- and macroheterogeneity, will make good microanalysis reference materials with an overall expanded heterogeneity uncertainty of 1.1% relative or less for Ge. The bulk Ge composition in the Si0.86Ge0.14 alloy was determined to be 30.228% mass fraction Ge with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.195% mass fraction. The thick films were quantified with WDS-EPMA using both the Si0.86Ge0.14 alloy and element wafers as reference materials. The Ge concentration was determined to be 22.80% mass fraction with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.12% mass fraction for the Si0.90Ge0.10 wafer and 43.66% mass fraction for the Si0.75Ge0.25 wafer with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.25% mass fraction. The two thick SiGe films will be issued as National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Materials (RM 8905).