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This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.
Many new approaches have been developed to treat borderline personality disorder (BPD) by means of psychotherapy. Though there is a clear research trend towards short-interventions, the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on longer-term programmes still accumulates. On the one hand, well-established treatments like Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) or Mentalisation-Based Treatment (MBT) are now subject to real-world effectiveness studies; on the other hand, new dynamic approaches have been studied, lasting longer than 6 months.
We are currently updating the cochrane Collaboration review on psychological interventions for BPD. First findings on the effects of longer-term psychotherapies will be presented.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) according to cochrane collaboration standards. Any randomized comparisons of psychological interventions versus unspecific control interventions, waitlist or specific psychotherapeutic interventions in adult BPD patients were eligible. Primary outcomes were BPD core pathology as depicted by DSM criteria. Secondary outcomes included associated pathology, i.e., depression and anxiety, general psychopathology severity and functioning as well as tolerability and safety. Two researchers selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data independently.
The current evidence of longer-term psychological interventions in general, and the types of interventions for which RCT evidence is available will be evaluated and critically discussed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Though prescription is off-lable, “atypical” or “second-generation” antipsychotics (SGAs) are prevalently given to borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients. They have also been the focus of research on pharmacological agents in BPD in recent years, as the previous version of the relating cochrane systematic review shows.
We are currently updating this cochrane systematic review on pharmacological interventions for BPD. First findings on the up-to-date evidence relating to SGAs will be presented.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) according to cochrane collaboration standards. Any randomized comparisons of drug vs. placebo, drug vs. drug, or drug vs. a combination of drugs in adult BPD patients were eligible. Primary outcomes were BPD core pathology as depicted by DSM criteria. Secondary outcomes included associated pathology, i.e., depression and anxiety, general psychopathology severity and functioning as well as tolerability and safety. Two researchers selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data independently.
The current RCT evidence on SGAs in BPD will be presented, and their use in everyday clinical care settings will critically be discussed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common and disabling personality disorder associated with difficulties in controlling emotions and impulses, self-injury, feelings of emptiness and abandonment. It is associated with problems in many areas of life, most notably relationships. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment for people with borderline personality disorder widely used; however, the evidence is not thoroughly investigated. In addition, several specific short-term interventions have been developed during the last decades.
We are currently updating this cochrane collaboration review on psychological interventions for BPD. First findings on the up-to-date evidence relating to short-term psychological interventions will be presented.
We conducted a cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Any randomized comparisons of psychological interventions versus unspecific control interventions, waitlist or specific psychotherapeutic interventions in adult BPD patients were eligible. Primary outcomes were BPD core pathology as depicted by DSM criteria. Secondary outcomes included depression, anxiety, general psychopathology, dropouts and adverse events. Two independent researchers selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data independently.
The current evidence of short-term psychological interventions in general and the different types of interventions for which RCT evidence is currently available will be evaluated.
Disclosure of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Despite the relatively weak evidence base, individuals with borderline personality disorder are often treated with pharmacological interventions. Amongst the drugs, which have shown most promise, are mood stabilizers, which were one of the two drug classes with the most beneficial effects in a previous cochrane review though the robustness of findings was described as low (Stoffers et al., 2010). Here we present data on the latest evidence for mood stabilizers based on an updated cochrane review currently underway.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. All randomized comparisons of drug vs. placebo, drug vs. drug, or drug vs. a combination of drugs in adult BPD patients were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes comprised BPD core pathology as depicted by DSM criteria, associated pathology, i.e., depression and anxiety, general measures of overall psychopathology severity, tolerability, and adverse effects. Two researchers selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data independently.
Only a limited number of additional trials using mood stabilizers was identified since the publication of the last cochrane review, mainly utilizing Sodium Valproate. This added to the evidence base for mood stabilizers though the overall evidence remains very limited.
Mood stabilizers show some initial evidence for their effectiveness in borderline personality disorder. However, these have to be replicated before wider conclusions can be drawn for clinical practice.
Disclosure of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Ascarid parasites infect a variety of hosts and regular anthelmintic treatment is recommended for all species. Parascaris spp. is the only ascarid species with widespread anthelmintic resistance, which allows for the study of resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro drug exposure protocol for adult anthelmintic-naïve Parascaris spp. and report a preliminary transcriptomic analysis in response to drug exposure. Live worms were harvested from foal necropsies and maintained in RPMI-1640 at 37 °C. Serial dilutions of oxibendazole (OBZ) and ivermectin (IVM) were prepared for in vitro drug exposure, and worm viability was monitored over time. In a second drug trial, worms were used for transcriptomic analysis. The final drug concentrations employed were OBZ at 40.1 μm (10 μg mL−1) and IVM at 1.1 μm (1 μg mL−1) for 24 and 3 h, respectively. The RNA-seq analysis revealed numerous differentially expressed genes, with some being potentially related to drug detoxification and regulatory mechanisms. This report provides a method for in vitro drug exposure and the phenotypic responses for Parascaris spp., which could be extrapolated to other ascarid parasites. Finally, it also provides preliminary transcriptomic data following drug exposure as a reference point for future studies of Parascaris spp.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an important legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS continues to foster engagement in education, outreach and communication (EOC) activities relating to the polar regions and provide training for early career researchers (ECRs). We highlight opportunities for training, leadership and skills development, such as the annual Polar Weeks and Antarctica Day celebrations. Participation and engagement in EOC activities actively contributes to career development by enabling ECRs to develop valuable soft skills such as networking, communication and interdisciplinary knowledge. A pilot survey on EOC engagement highlighted that those who organise events also gain leadership skills such as team management. We discuss several factors contributing to the success of APECS in training the next generation of polar leaders. These include the geographical rather than discipline-specific focus of the organisation, utilisation of online resources, including social media, and the strong links with partner organisations. These examples demonstrate how the EOC legacy of IPY has continued due to APECS’ targeted efforts to create EOC opportunities and provide skills and leadership training for ECRs.
Textual data are plagued by underreporting bias. For example, news sources often fail to report human rights violations. Cook et al. propose a multi-source estimator to gauge, and to account for, the underreporting of state repression events within human codings of news texts produced by the Agence France-Presse and Associated Press. We evaluate this estimator with Monte Carlo experiments, and then use it to compare the prevalence and seriousness of underreporting when comparable texts are machine coded and recorded in the World-Integrated Crisis Early Warning System dataset. We replicate Cook et al.’s investigation of human-coded state repression events with our machine-coded events, and validate both models against an external measure of human rights protections in Africa. We then use the Cook et al. estimator to gauge the seriousness and prevalence of underreporting in machine and human-coded event data on human rights violations in Colombia. We find in both applications that machine-coded data are as valid as human-coded data.
The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans. This creates a need for estimation of parameters. This study presents a new analysis of a previously published study. A full likelihood framework is presented including the impact of model assumptions on the estimated transmission parameters. As animals were only tested every other day, an interpretation was introduced to cover the weighted infectiousness on unobserved days for the individual animals (WIU). Based on our model and the set of assumptions, the within- and between-pen transmission parameters were estimated to βw = 1·05 (95% CI 0·62–1·72), βb = 0·46 (95% CI 0·17–1·00), respectively, and the WIU = 1·00 (95% CI 0–1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would be detected 13–19 days after introduction.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed between boys and girls. Mother–infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother–infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also followed-up 100 children with assessment of growth, blood pressure, diet by FFQ and physical activity by 7-d accelerometry at 13·5 (sd 0·4) years of age. Dried whole-blood fatty acid composition was analysed in a subgroup (n 49). At 13 years of age, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA, diet, physical activity and body composition did not differ between the three groups. The children from the FO group were 3·4 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·6) cm shorter (P=0·035) than those from the OO group, and tended to have less advanced puberty (P=0·068), which explained the difference in height. There was a sex-specific effect on diastolic blood pressure (Psex×group=0·020), which was driven by a 3·9 (95 % CI 0·2, 7·5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure in the FO compared with the OO group among boys only (P=0·041). Our results indicate that early n-3 LCPUFA intake may reduce height in early adolescence due to a delay in pubertal maturation and increase blood pressure specifically in boys, thereby tending to counteract existing sex differences.
Technological advancements in remote sensing and telemetry provide opportunities for assessing the effects of expanding extractive industries on animal populations. Here, we illustrate the applicability of resource selection functions (RSFs) for modelling wildlife habitat selection on industrially-disturbed landscapes. We used grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) from a threatened population in Canada and surface mining as a case study. RSF predictions based on GPS radiocollared bears (nduring mining = 7; npost mining = 9) showed that males and solitary females selected areas primarily outside mineral surface leases (MSLs) during active mining, and conversely inside MSLs after mine closure. However, females with cubs selected areas within compared to outside MSLs irrespective of mining activity. Individual variability was pronounced, although some environmental- and human-related variables were consistent across reproductive classes. For males and solitary females, regional-scale RSFs yielded comparable results to site-specific models, whereas for females with cubs, modelling the two scales produced divergent results. While mine reclamation may afford opportunities for bear persistence, managing public access will likely decrease the risk of human-caused bear mortality. RSFs are powerful tools that merit widespread use in quantitative and visual investigations of wildlife habitat selection on industrially-modified landscapes, using Geographic Information System layers that precisely characterize site-specific conditions.
Right heart function is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension and many CHD. We investigated whether treatment with the prostacyclin analogue treprostinil could prevent pressure overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and failure.
Male Wistar rats were randomised to severe pulmonary trunk banding with a 0.5-mm banding clip (n=41), moderate pulmonary trunk banding with a 0.6-mm banding clip (n=36), or sham procedure (n=10). The banded rats were randomised to 6 weeks of treatment with a moderate dose of treprostinil (300 ng/kg/minute), a high dose of treprostinil (900 ng/kg/minute), or vehicle.
Pulmonary trunk banding effectively induced hypertrophy, dilatation, and decreased right ventricular function. The severely banded animals presented with decompensated heart failure with extracardial manifestations. Treatment with treprostinil neither reduced right ventricular hypertrophy nor improved right ventricular function.
In the pulmonary trunk banding model of pressure overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and failure, moderate- and high-dose treatment with treprostinil did not improve right ventricular function neither in compensated nor in decompensated right heart failure.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.