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Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
With growing demand for better fuel economy for automobiles, multimaterial solutions are increasingly being utilized in the automotive industry for reducing weight in the vehicle body structure. This poses challenges in terms of joining dissimilar metals, especially those with vastly different properties such as aluminum to steel joining. General Motors has developed a new resistance spot-welding technique for dissimilar materials using a multi-ring domed (MRD) electrode and multiple solidification weld schedules to address this challenge. Originally developed for aluminum to aluminum resistance spot welding, this technology is being deployed as the mainstream aluminum joining solution to leverage existing infrastructure and workforce competency in resistance spot welding. With the recent expansion of MRD technology to aluminum to steel resistance spot welding, there is an ever-greater need to experimentally verify the quality of each aluminum to steel resistance spot-weld application with limited time and resources. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) would enable the transfer of resistance spot-welding technology to dissimilar aluminum to steel joints. This article describes the current state of the art of aluminum to steel resistance spot welding and the challenges in developing a robust NDE process for this technology.
Laser interaction with an ultra-thin pre-structured target is investigated with the help of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. With the existence of a periodic structure on the target surface, the laser seems to penetrate through the target at its fundamental frequency even if the plasma density of the target is much higher than the laser’s relativistically critical density. The particle-in-cell simulations show that the transmitted laser energy behind the pre-structured target is increased by about two orders of magnitude compared to that behind the flat target. Theoretical analyses show that the transmitted energy behind the pre-structured target is actually re-emitted by electron ‘islands’ formed by the surface plasma waves on the target surfaces. In other words, the radiation with the fundamental frequency is actually ‘surface emission’ on the target rear surface. Besides the intensity of the component with the fundamental frequency, the intensity of the high-order harmonics behind the pre-structured target is also much enhanced compared to that behind the flat target. The enhancement of the high-order harmonics is also related to the surface plasma waves generated on the target surfaces.
The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effects of high-concentration phytase (5000 FTU/kg) feeding to diverse lines of chickens fed phosphorus (P) adequate maize–soybean meal diets (4.5 g/kg non-phytate P) on the performance and intestinal immune function. Performance was measured for outbred broiler (Ross 308) and inbred Fayoumi lines over 0–21 days, and duodenum and ileum were harvested for the determination of mucin-2, interleukin (IL)-1β and IgA mRNA by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Over the 0–7-day period, there was a significant line × diet interaction, as high phytase supplementation increased broiler average daily gain (ADG), but had no effect on Fayoumi ADG. Treatment of diets with phytase increased expression of the mucin-2 gene in the duodenum mucosa. There were significant interactions between line and age, and line, diet and age on duodenal expression of the IL-1β gene as phytase supplementation of the broiler line reduced IL-1β in comparison to control fed broilers without change in the Fayoumi line. Overall, the addition of a high concentration of phytase to broilers fed adequate concentrations of non-phytate P resulted in improved growth performance early with a reduction in this effect over time. Mucosal mucin-2 expression was increased with high-concentration phytase feeding across both lines, but IL-1β mRNA expression was reduced in the duodenum of broilers fed high concentrations of phytase, suggesting that the increased performance noted might be related to decreased inflammation.
In this paper we have studied space weather conditions near 53 potentially habitable exoplanets reported in literature using available information on the chromoshperic activity of their host stars and nature of dynamical interactions possible in the respective star-planetary systems.
Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are high-energy particles ejected by the Sun which consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions having energies in the range of a few tens of keVs to several GeVs. The statistical features of the solar energetic particles (SEPs) during different periods of solar cycles are highly variable. In the present study we try to quantify the long-range dependence (or long-memory) of the solar energetic particles during different periods of solar cycle (SC) 23 and 24. For stochastic processes, long-range dependence or self-similarity is usually quantified by the Hurst exponent. We compare the Hurst exponent of SEP proton fluxes having energies (>1MeV to >100 MeV) for different periods, which include both solar maximum and minimum years, in order to find whether SC-dependent self-similarity exist for SEP flux.
We could find a new 5 year periodicity in the occurrences of peaks in sunspot activity and inferred deviations of annual Indian monsoon rainfall variations from the normal during the Maunder minimum (MM) period. This result is explained in terms of solar dynamo functioning in a different mode from normal during the MM where quadrupole field (first harmonic, 5-5.5 years) dominate over dipole field (fundamental, 11 years) causing extreme north south asymmetry in sunspot activity.
The solar magnesium II core-to-wing ratio has been a well-studied proxy for chromospheric activity since 1978. Daily measurements at high spectral (0.1 nm) resolution began with the launch of the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) in 2003. The next generation of measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 16 (GOES-16) will add high time cadence (every 30 seconds) to the observational Mg II irradiance record. We present a comparison of the two measurements during the period of overlap.
In this paper we will present our investigations on the characteristics of geomagnetic storms deduced from direct and proxy observations for the years 1601–2016 AD. We show that we could infer epoch of reversal of solar polar magnetic fields from geomagnetic data. Such an inference is done back to the 18th century using geomagnetic and Aurora observations. We could also infer secular changes in the intensity of geomagnetic storms for the past 415 years.
We could identify three categories of solar proton events (SPE) with distinct solar origin from an analysis of direct and indirect observations during the years 1561-2016 CE spanning 42 sunspot cycles. They are (i) 10 MeV SPE whose number of occurrences closely follow the sunspot cycles (ii) 30 MeV SPE which show secular changes with peaks near Gleissberg solar cycle minima and inferred to be associated with distinct enhancements in the efficiency of the solar dynamo and (iii) those associated with Impulsive and irregular solar activity changes such as the Carrington event of September 1859. The relevance of above results for stars exhibiting cyclic and irregular activity changes will be also discussed.
Ultraviolet (UV) Solar spectral Irradiance (SSI) has been measured from orbit on a regular basis since the beginning of the space age. These observations span four Solar Cycles, and they are crucial for our understanding of the Sun-Earth connection and space weather. SSI at these wavelengths are the main drivers for the upper atmosphere including the production and destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. The instruments that measure UV SSI not only require good preflight calibration, but also need a robust method to maintain that calibration on orbit. We will give an overview of the catalog of current and former UV SSI measurements along with the calibration philosophy of each instrument and an estimation of the uncertainties in the published irradiances.
Using the data obtained from Kepler satellite, we have analyzed an F-type ultra-fast rotator KIC 6791060. We derive a rotational period of 0.34365±0.00004 d. Multiple periodicity with a period separation of ~0.00016 d was detected, which appears to be a result of the relative velocity between the multiple spot-groups in different stellar latitudes due to the surface differential rotation. Modeling of the surface inhomogeneities using the light curve of 3899 epochs shows the evidence of single active longitude region. The active longitude is found to drift along the longitude at a rate similar to the detected period separation of the F-type star. The surface coverage of cool spots is found to be in the range of ~0.07–0.44%. The low value of the spottedness can be interpreted probably due to the thinner convection zone on the F-type star.
The next-generation radio telescopes such as LOFAR and SKA will give access to high time-resolution and high instantaneous sensitivity that can be exploited to study slow and fast transients over the whole radio window. The search for radio transients in large datasets also represents a new signal-processing challenge requiring efficient and robust signal reconstruction algorithms. Using sparse representations and the general ‘compressed sensing’ framework, we developed a 2D–1D algorithm based on the primal-dual splitting method. We have performed our sparse 2D–1D reconstruction on three-dimensional data sets containing either simulated or real radio transients, at various levels of SNR and integration times. This report presents a summary of the current level of performance of our method.
Introduction: Youth injured by violence is a major public health concern in Canada. It is the fourth leading cause of death in youth and the foremost reason youth visit an emergency department (ED). In Winnipeg, 20% of youth who visit an ED with an injury due to violence will have an ED visit for a subsequent violent injury within one year. Youth injured by violence are in a reflective and receptive state of mind, rendering the ED setting appropriate for intervention. Methods: We completed a randomized control trial in November 2015 comparing wraparound care for youth age 14 - 24 who were injured by violence to standard ED care. Youth were excluded if their injury was due to child maltreatment, sexual assault or self-harm. An adapted pre-consent randomization methodology was used. The intervention was developed using a community based participatory research approach. Wraparound care was delivered by a support worker with lived experience with violence. Support workers were on call 24/7 in order to start the intervention in the ED and take advantage of the “teachable moment.” Care continued in the community for approximately one year. Results: A total of 133 youth were randomized (68 intervention, 65 control) in one year. There was no difference in age, gender, or severity of injury between the two groups. Patients randomized to the intervention spent a median of 30 minutes less in the ED than those receiving standard care (p=0.22). Youth are safely housed, have enrolled in education opportunities, and are engaged in addictions care. Results of a chart review examining repeat visits to the ED for violent injury, substance use and mental health will be completed in Spring 2016 and will be presented. Conclusion: There were no differences between standard care and intervention groups on baseline characteristics reflecting effective randomization. The introduction of an intervention at bedside in the ED did not have a negative impact on patient length of stay.
Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.
Auditory implantation into the inner ear is increasingly performed for a variety of indications. Infective complications are rare, but when they occur they can have devastating consequences.
This paper reports two cases where vestibular sequestration of the bony labyrinth developed following implantation into the middle ear.
To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases where vestibular sequestration has resulted from auditory implant surgery. This paper outlines the radiological changes characteristic of this pathology. It also describes the surgical and conservative treatment options for this condition, challenging the previously accepted belief that affected patients always require aggressive surgical intervention.
Dysregulation of the striatum and altered corticostriatal connectivity have been associated with psychotic disorders. Social anhedonia has been identified as a predictor for the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine corticostriatal functional connectivity in individuals with high social anhedonia.
Twenty-one participants with high social anhedonia score and 30 with low social anhedonia score measured by the Chinese version of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale were recruited from university undergraduates (age 17–21 years) to undergo resting-state functional MRI scans. Six subdivisions of the striatum in each hemisphere were defined as seeds. Voxel-wise functional connectivity analyses were conducted between each seed and the whole brain voxels, followed by repeated-measures ANOVA for the group effect.
Participants with high social anhedonia showed hyper-connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula, and between the dorsal striatum and the motor cortex. Hypo-connectivity in participants with high social anhedonia was also observed between the ventral striatum and the posterior cingulate cortex. Partial correlation analyses further showed that the functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the prefrontal cortex was associated with pleasure experience and emotional suppression.
Our findings suggest that altered corticostriatal connectivity can be found in participants with high levels of social anhedonia. Since social anhedonia has been considered a predictor for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, our results may provide novel evidence on the early changes in brain functional connectivity in at-risk individuals.