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Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
In order to control and optimize chicken quality products, it is necessary to improve the description of the responses to dietary amino acid (AA) concentration in terms of carcass composition and meat quality, especially during the finishing period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lysine (Lys, i.e. a limiting AA used as reference in AA nutrition) and AA other than Lys (AA effect). In total, 12 experimental diets were formulated with four levels of digestible Lys content (7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5 g/kg) combined with either a low (AA−), adequate control (AAc) and high (AA+) amount of other essential AA (EAA) expressed as a proportion of Lys. They were distributed to male Ross PM3 from 3 to 5 weeks of age. No significant AA×Lys interaction was found for growth performance or carcass composition. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved by addition of Lys but were impaired in broilers receiving the AA− diets, whereas breast meat yield and abdominal fat were only affected by Lys. No additional benefit was found when the relative amount of other EAA was increased. There was a significant AA×Lys interaction on most of the meat quality traits, including ultimate pH, color and drip loss, with a significant effect of both AA and Lys. For example, AA− combined with reduced Lys level favored the production of meat with high ultimate pH (>6.0), dark color and low drip loss whereas more acid, light and exudative meat (<5.85) was produced with AA+ combined with a low Lys level. In conclusion, growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality are affected by the levels of dietary Lys and AA in finishing broilers. In addition, interactive responses to Lys and AA are found on meat quality traits, leading to great variations in breast pHu, color and drip loss according AA balance or imbalance.
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform. The hypothesis was tested using a case study of a set of dizygotic X-chromosome monosomy 53,X sheep twins. Genome-wide SNP data were available from the Illumina platform (11 082 autosomal and 191 X-chromosome SNPs) on 1848 male and 8954 female sheep and available from the AxiomTM platform (11 128 autosomal and 68 X-chromosome SNPs) on 383 female sheep. Genotype allele intensity values, either as their original raw values or transformed to logarithm intensity ratio (LRR), were used to accurately diagnose two dizygotic (i.e. fraternal) twin 53,X sheep, both of which received their single X chromosome from their sire. This is the first reported case of 53,X dizygotic twins in any species. Relative to the X-chromosome SNP genotype mean allele intensity values of normal females, the mean allele intensity value of SNP genotypes on the X chromosome of the two females monosomic for the X chromosome was 7.45 to 12.4 standard deviations less, and were easily detectable using either the AxiomTM or Illumina genotype platform; the next lowest mean allele intensity value of a female was 4.71 or 3.3 standard deviations less than the population mean depending on the platform used. Both 53,X females could also be detected based on the genotype LRR although this was more easily detectable when comparing the mean LRR of the X chromosome of each female to the mean LRR of their respective autosomes. On autopsy, the ovaries of the two sheep were small for their age and evidence of prior ovulation was not appreciated. In both sheep, the density of primordial follicles in the ovarian cortex was lower than normally found in ovine ovaries and primary follicle development was not observed. Mammary gland development was very limited. Results substantiate previous studies in other species that aneuploidy can be readily detected using SNP genotype allele intensity values generally already available, and the approach proposed in the present study was agnostic to genotype platform.
Pharyngocutaneous fistula is a cause of significant morbidity following laryngectomy. Routine use of salivary bypass tubes during laryngectomy has been proposed to reduce the incidence of fistulae and neopharyngeal strictures.
Following a systematic search of Embase, Medline and Cochrane databases (1946 – current), included articles were assessed for bias according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.
Three case–control trials showed reduced pharyngocutaneous fistula rates with the use of salivary bypass tubes; six case series reported widely varied fistula rates. With regards to stricture rates, the largest case–control trial found no improvement with salivary bypass tube use. No fatal adverse events were observed among the 204 patients who received a salivary bypass tube.
Low-level evidence suggests salivary bypass tubes may reduce the incidence of fistula in high-risk patient groups. A robust randomised controlled trial, or large, multicentre cohort studies, are needed to further examine this intervention.
Accurate genomic analyses are predicated on access to a large quantity of accurately genotyped and phenotyped animals. Because the cost of genotyping is often less than the cost of phenotyping, interest is increasing in generating genotypes for phenotyped animals. In some instances this may imply the requirement to genotype older animals with greater phenotypic information content. Biological material for these older informative animals may, however, no longer exist. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability to impute 11 129 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of non-genotyped animals (in this instance sires) from the genotypes of their progeny with or without including the genotypes of the progenys’ dams (i.e. mates of the sire to be imputed). The impact on the accuracy of genotype imputation by including more progeny (and their dams’) genotypes in the imputation reference population was also quantified. When genotypes of the dams were not available, genotypes of 41 sires with at least 15 genotyped progeny were used for the imputation; when genotypes of the dams were available, genotypes of 21 sires with at least 10 genotyped progeny were used for the imputation. Imputation was undertaken exploiting family and population level information. The mean and variability in the proportion of genotypes per individual that could not be imputed reduced as the number of progeny genotypes used per individual increased. Little improvement in the proportion of genotypes that could not be imputed was achieved once genotypes of seven progeny and their dams were used or genotypes of 11 progeny without their respective dam’s genotypes were used. Mean imputation accuracy per individual (depicted by both concordance rates and correlation between true and imputed) increased with increasing progeny group size. Moreover, the range in mean imputation accuracy per individual reduced as more progeny genotypes were used in the imputation. If the genotype of the mate of the sire was also used, high accuracy of imputation (mean genotype concordance rate per individual of 0.988), with little additional benefit thereafter, was achieved with seven genotyped progeny. In the absence of genotypes on the dam, similar imputation accuracy could not be achieved even using genotypes on up to 15 progeny. Results therefore suggest, at least for the SNP density used in the present study, that it is possible to accurately impute the genotypes of a non-genotyped parent from the genotypes of its progeny and there is a benefit of also including the genotype of the sire’s mate (i.e. dam of the progeny).
A range of precision farming technologies are used commercially for variable rate applications of nitrogen (N) for cereals, yet these usually adjust N rates from a pre-set value, rather than predicting economically optimal N requirements on an absolute basis. This paper reports chessboard experiments set up to examine variation in N requirements, and to develop and test systems for its prediction, and to assess its predictability. Results showed very substantial variability in fertiliser N requirements within fields, typically >150 kg ha−1, and large variation in optimal yields, typically >2 t ha−1. Despite this, calculated increases in yield and gross margin with N requirements perfectly matched across fields were surprisingly modest (compared to the uniform average rate). Implications are discussed, including the causes of the large remaining variation in grain yield, after N limitations were removed.
The relationship between childhood adversity and bipolar affective
disorder remains unclear.
To understand the size and significance of this effect through a
statistical synthesis of reported research.
Search terms relating to childhood adversity and bipolar disorder were
entered into Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Eligible
studies included a sample diagnosed with bipolar disorder, a comparison
sample and a quantitative measure of childhood adversity.
In 19 eligible studies childhood adversity was 2.63 times (95% CI
2.00–3.47) more likely to have occurred in bipolar disorder compared with
non-clinical controls. The effect of emotional abuse was particularly
robust (OR = 4.04, 95% CI 3.12–5.22), but rates of adversity were similar
to those in psychiatric controls.
Childhood adversity is associated with bipolar disorder, which has
implications for the treatment of this clinical group. Further
prospective research could clarify temporal causality and explanatory
The objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of genetic variation in three health-related traits namely dagginess, lameness and mastitis, in an Irish sheep population. Each of the health traits investigated pose substantial welfare implications as well as considerable economic costs to producers. Data were also available on four body-related traits, namely body condition score (BCS), live weight, muscle depth and fat depth. Animals were categorised as lambs (<365 days old) or ewes (⩾365 days old) and were analysed both separately and combined. After edits, 39 315 records from 264 flocks between the years 2009 and 2015 inclusive were analysed. Variance components were estimated using animal linear mixed models. Fixed effects included contemporary group, represented as a three-way interaction between flock, date of inspection and animal type (i.e. lamb, yearling ewe (i.e. females ⩾365 days but <730 days old that have not yet had a recorded lambing) or ewe), animal breed proportion, coefficients of heterosis and recombination, animal gender (lambs only), animal parity (ewes only; lambs were assigned a separate ‘parity’) and the difference in age of the animal from the median of the respective parity/age group. An additive genetic effect and residual effect were both fitted as random terms with maternal genetic and non-genetic components also considered for traits of the lambs. The direct heritability of dagginess was similar across age groups (0.14 to 0.15), whereas the direct heritability of lameness ranged from 0.06 (ewes) to 0.12 (lambs). The direct heritability of mastitis was 0.04. For dagginess, 13% of the phenotypic variation was explained by dam litter, whereas the maternal heritability of dagginess was 0.05. The genetic correlation between ewe and lamb dagginess was 0.38; the correlation between ewe and lamb lameness was close to zero but was associated with a large standard error. Direct genetic correlations were evident between dagginess and BCS in ewes and between lameness and BCS in lambs. The present study has demonstrated that ample genetic variation exists for all three health traits investigated indicating that genetic improvement is indeed possible.
A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7–27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29–23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09–29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.
The increasing use of unconventional feedstuffs in chicken’s diets results in the substitution of starch by lipids as the main dietary energy source. To evaluate the responses of genetically fat or lean chickens to these diets, males of two experimental lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets with either high lipid (80 g/kg), high fiber (64 g/kg) contents (HL), or low lipid (20 g/kg), low fiber (21 g/kg) contents (LL) from 22 to 63 days of age. The diet had no effect on growth performance and did not affect body composition evaluated at 63 days of age. Glycolytic and oxidative energy metabolisms in the liver and glycogen storage in liver and Sartorius muscle at 63 days of age were greater in chicken fed LL diet compared with chicken fed HL diet. In Pectoralis major (PM) muscle, energy metabolisms and glycogen content were not different between diets. There were no dietary-associated differences in lipid contents of the liver, muscles and abdominal fat. However, the percentages of saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in tissue lipids were generally higher, whereas percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower for diet LL than for diet HL. The fat line had a greater feed intake and average daily gain, but gain to feed ratio was lower in that line compared with the lean line. Fat chickens were heavier than lean chickens at 63 days of age. Their carcass fatness was higher and their muscle yield was lower than those of lean chickens. The oxidative enzyme activities in the liver were lower in the fat line than in the lean line, but line did not affect energy metabolism in muscles. The hepatic glycogen content was not different between lines, whereas glycogen content and glycolytic potential were higher in the PM muscle of fat chickens compared with lean chickens. Lipid contents in the liver, muscles and abdominal fat did not differ between lines, but fat chickens stored less MUFA and more PUFA in abdominal fat and muscles than lean chickens. Except for the fatty acid composition of liver and abdominal fat, no interaction between line and diet was observed. In conclusion, the amount of lipids stored in muscles and fatty tissues by lean or fat chickens did not depend on the dietary energy source.
Eight winter oilseed rape and two spring oilseed rape field experiments were performed in the UK in harvest years 2009–12. Each experiment consisted of at least one hybrid and one open-pollinated variety grown at five seed rates from 10 or 20 seeds/m2 to 160 or 200 seeds/m2. Linear plus exponential curves were used to describe the yield response to seed rate and to calculate economically optimal seed rates. Plant counts were then used to derive optimal plant population densities. These ranged from <10 to 39 plants/m2 for six winter oilseed rape experiments between 73 and >155 plants/m2 in two winter oilseed rape experiments with severe spring droughts, and from 47 to 65 plants/m2 for spring oilseed rape. Optimal plant population densities were lower for hybrid than for open-pollinated varieties, due to a combination of the higher cost of hybrid seed and, for some experimental sites, hybrid varieties compensating better for low plant populations. Across all sites, sowing winter oilseed rape at 30 seeds/m2 rather than common commercial rates of 70 seeds/m2 for hybrids and 100 seeds/m2 for open-pollinated varieties would have increased average gross margin by £29/ha. Sowing spring oilseed rape at 70 seeds/m2 rather than commonly used rates of 120 or 150 seeds/m2 would have increased average gross margin by £64/ha.
The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72 773 records from 44 415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, P<0.001) of cycling at the time of examination compared with cows in dairy herds; stage of lactation at the time of examination was the same in both herd types. Furthermore, cows in dairy herds had an inferior uterine score (indicating poorer tone and a greater quantity of uterine fluid present) compared with cows in beef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic structures or embryo death. Uterine score improved with parity and stage of lactation, while cows that experienced dystocia in the previous calving had an inferior uterine score. Heterosis was the only factor associated with increased likelihood of early ovulation. The fertility traits identified, and the associated risk factors, provide useful information on the reproductive status of dairy and beef cows.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on yield, oil concentration and nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency of N fertilizer applied to the foliage of oilseed rape during and soon after flowering. Four field experiments were conducted in the UK during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 seasons which investigated six rates of soil-applied N (ammonium nitrate) ranging from 0 to 280 or 320 kg N/ha with each treatment followed by 0 or 40 kg/ha of foliar N applied as a solution of urea at the end of flowering. Each experiment also investigated five rates of foliar N ranging from 0 to 120 kg N/ha applied at the end of flowering and five timings of foliar N (40 kg N/ha) from mid-flowering to 2 weeks after the end of flowering.
Foliar N at 40 kg N/ha applied at the end of flowering significantly increased the seed yield in three of the four experiments. The seed yield increase across all four experiments was 0·25 t/ha (range of 0–0·41 t/ha). In two experiments, the increase in seed yield in response to foliar N occurred irrespective of whether it followed sub-optimal or super-optimal rates of soil-applied N; in one experiment there was a greater response at sub-optimal soil-applied N rates. The foliar N treatment reduced the seed oil concentration by 11 g/kg and increased seed protein concentration by 11 g/kg. Similar yield responses were observed for foliar N applications between mid-flowering and 2 weeks after the end of flowering. The efficiency with which foliar N was taken up into the plant varied between 0 and 100% with an average uptake efficiency across the four experiments of 61%.
A phenotype describes the outcome of the interacting development between the genotype of an individual and its specific environment throughout life. Animal breeding currently exploits large data sets of phenotypic and pedigree information to estimate the genetic merit of animals. Here we describe rapid, low-cost phenomic tools for dairy cattle. We give particular emphasis to infrared spectroscopy of milk because the necessary spectral data are already routinely available on milk samples from individual cows and herds, and therefore the operational cost of implementing such a phenotyping strategy is minimal. The accuracy of predicting milk quality traits from mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) analysis of milk, although dependent on the trait under investigation, is particularly promising for differentiating between good and poor-quality dairy products. Many fatty acid concentrations in milk, and in particular saturated fatty acid content, can be very accurately predicted from milk MIR. These results have been confirmed in many international populations. Albeit from only two studied populations investigated in the RobustMilk project, milk MIR analysis also appears to be a reasonable predictor of cow energy balance, a measure of animal robustness; high accuracy of prediction was not expected as the gold standard method of measuring energy balance in those populations was likely to contain error. Because phenotypes predicted from milk MIR are available routinely from milk testing, longitudinal data analyses could be useful to identify animals of superior genetic merit for milk quality and robustness, as well as for monitoring changes in milk quality and robustness because of management, while simultaneously accounting for the genetic merit of the animals. These sources of information can be very valuable input parameters in decision-support tools for both milk producers and processors.