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We present initial results of a new campaign of simulations focusing on the interaction of planetary winds with stellar environments using Adaptive Mesh Refinement methods. We have confirmed the results of Stone & Proga (2009) that an azimuthal flow structure is created in the planetary wind due to day/night temperatures differences. We show that a backflow towards the planet will occur with a strength that depends on the escape parameter. When a stellar outflow is included, we see unstable bow waves forming through the outflow's interaction with the planetary wind.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
PolarBase contains stellar spectropolarimetric data collected with the NARVAL & ESPaDOnS instruments (Petit et al. 2014). Their respective spectral resolutions are 65 000 and 68 000, in spectropolarimetric mode. As the first part of this work, we use the NARVAL spectropolarimetric repositories. We selected spectra from a sample of cool stars with effective Temperature (Teff) ranging between 4900 to 6000 K. This sample contains stellar systems with and without reported exoplanets. We exploit the full wavelength range from 380 to 900 nm in order to obtain chromospheric indexes such as the Ca ii H&K S-Index, and a Ca ii IRT and Hα index. We calibrated our measurements using the Mount Wilson S-Index values. Furthermore, we employ lithium (Li) abundance measurements from the literature (Gonzalez et al. 2010; Delgado Mena et al. 2014; Israelian et al. 2004), investigating in this way a possible correlation between the chromospheric activity measurements and the Li abundance in 32 selected cool stars.
The emergency telephone number 9-1-1 serves as a lifeline to the public during emergencies, and first responders rely on information gathered by 9-1-1 telecommunicators who speak with callers. Timely, accurate information from the telecommunicators is essential for providing appropriate care on scene. Language barriers can hamper these efforts and result in less efficient information exchange. Although 9-1-1 telecommunicators may access over-the-phone interpreter (OPI) services to facilitate communication, managing three-way communication during an emergency is challenging.
There is little published on the relationship between limited English proficient (LEP) callers and 9-1-1 police telecommunicators, and the role of OPI services during these calls. Further, little is known about effective strategies to manage such calls.
In King County, Washington, 9-1-1 police telecommunicators were surveyed about their experiences handling LEP calls and managing three-way communication with OPI services. The survey contained 13 multiple-choice and three open-response questions addressing communication strategies, challenges with LEP callers, and three-way communication with OPI services. Goodman-Kruskal Gamma and chi-square tests were conducted with OPI use as the dependent variable. Additional analyses were conducted using stress levels as the dependent variable.
Of 123 respondents, 69 (56.5%) 9-1-1 telecommunicators reported utilizing OPI services at least 75% of the time when receiving a call from an LEP caller. Further, 35 (28.7%) of these telecommunicators reported calls with LEP individuals as more stressful than calls with fluent English speakers. Dispatcher stress level during LEP calls compared with stress during calls with fluent English speakers was positively associated with use of OPI services (P < .01). Further, stress level was also positively associated with telecommunicator difficulties in assessing the situation with respect to officer safety (P < .01). Sixty-three (58.3%) of the telecommunicators described difficulties assessing the situation to determine the appropriate response as the biggest challenge with LEP callers. Additionally, 62 (53%) identified knowing their location in English as information LEP callers need to know prior to calling 9-1-1.
These results highlight intervention opportunities for both 9-1-1 telecommunicators and LEP communities. Together, interventions such as working with LEP communities to educate them on best communication practices during 9-1-1 calls, and with 9-1-1 telecommunicators to help them manage three-way communication and reduce stress associated with concern for officer safety may improve emergency communication during 9-1-1 calls.
CarrollLN, CalhounRE, SubidoCC, PainterIS, MeischkeHW. Serving Limited English Proficient Callers: A Survey of 9-1-1 Police Telecommunicators. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(3):1-6.
To develop a method to validate an FFQ for reported intake of episodically consumed foods when the reference instrument measures short-term intake, and to apply the method in a large prospective cohort.
The FFQ was evaluated in a sub-study of cohort participants who, in addition to the questionnaire, were asked to complete two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR). FFQ-reported intakes of twenty-nine food groups were analysed using a two-part measurement error model that allows for non-consumption on a given day, using 24HR as a reference instrument under the assumption that 24HR is unbiased for true intake at the individual level.
The National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, a cohort of 567 169 participants living in the USA and aged 50–71 years at baseline in 1995.
A sub-study of the cohort consisting of 2055 participants.
Estimated correlations of true and FFQ-reported energy-adjusted intakes were 0·5 or greater for most of the twenty-nine food groups evaluated, and estimated attenuation factors (a measure of bias in estimated diet–disease associations) were 0·4 or greater for most food groups.
The proposed methodology extends the class of foods and nutrients for which an FFQ can be evaluated in studies with short-term reference instruments. Although violations of the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased could be inflating some of the observed correlations and attenuation factors, results suggest that the FFQ is suitable for testing many, but not all, diet–disease hypotheses in a cohort of this size.
We evaluated the performance of the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered to participants in the US NIH–AARP (National Institutes of Health–American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study, a cohort of 566 404 persons living in the USA and aged 50–71 years at baseline in 1995.
The 124-item FFQ was evaluated within a measurement error model using two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) as the reference.
Participants were from six states (California, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina and Louisiana) and two metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia and Detroit, Michigan).
A subgroup of the cohort consisting of 2053 individuals.
For the 26 nutrient constituents examined, estimated correlations with true intake (not energy-adjusted) ranged from 0.22 to 0.67, and attenuation factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.49. When adjusted for reported energy intake, performance improved; estimated correlations with true intake ranged from 0.36 to 0.76, and attenuation factors ranged from 0.24 to 0.68. These results compare favourably with those from other large prospective studies. However, previous biomarker-based studies suggest that, due to correlation of errors in FFQs and self-report reference instruments such as the 24HR, the correlations and attenuation factors observed in most calibration studies, including ours, tend to overestimate FFQ performance.
The performance of the FFQ in the NIH–AARP Diet and Health Study, in conjunction with the study’s large sample size and wide range of dietary intake, is likely to allow detection of moderate (≥1.8) relative risks between many energy-adjusted nutrients and common cancers.
The antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter isolates recovered from a range of retail food samples (n=374) and humans (n=314) to eight antimicrobial compounds were investigated. High levels of resistance in food C. jejuni isolates were observed for ceftiofur (58%), ampicillin (25%) and nalidixic acid (17%) with lower levels observed for streptomycin (7·9%) and chloramphenicol (8·3%). A total of 80% of human C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ceftiofur, while 17% showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, 8·6% to streptomycin and 4·1% to chloramphenicol. Resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobials such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was 6·7, 12, and 15% respectively for all food isolates and was similar to corresponding resistance prevalences observed for human isolates, where 6·4, 12 and 13% respectively were found to be resistant. Comparisons of C. jejuni isolates in each location showed a high degree of similarity although some regional variations did exist. Comparison of total C. jejuni and C. coli populations showed minor differences, with C. jejuni isolates more resistant to ampicillin and ceftiofur. Multidrug resistance patterns showed some profiles common to human and clinical isolates.
To understand amorphous and structurally disordered materials requires the application of a wide-range of advanced physical probe techniques and herein a combined methodology is outlined. The relatively short-range structural sensitivity of solid state NMR means that it is a core probe technique for characterizing such materials. The aspects of the solid state NMR contribution are emphasized here with examples given from a number of systems, with especial emphasis on the information available from 17O NMR in oxygen-containing materials. 17O NMR data for crystallization of pure sol-gel prepared oxides is compared, with new data presented from In2O3 and Sc2O3. Sol-gel formed oxide mixtures containing silica have been widely studied, but again the role and effect of the other added oxide varies widely. In a ternary ZrO2-TiO2-SiO2 silicate sol-gel the level of Q4 formation is dependent not only on the composition, as expected, but also the nature of the second added oxide. Sol-gel formed phosphates have been much less widely studied than silicates and some 31P NMR data from xerogel, sonogel and melt-quench glasses of the same composition are compared. The effect of small amounts of added antibacterial copper on phosphate glass networks is also explored.
Due to their exceptional thermal properties, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are considered as very promising filler materials for improving the thermal conductivity of conventional polymers. We carefully investigated the thermal conductivity of SWNT/PMMA nanocomposites with SWNT loading in the range up to10 wt% using the comparative technique. The samples were prepared by coagulation method. We demonstrated moderate improvement in the composites’ thermal conductivity of about 250% at 10wt%. The experimental results were analyzed using the versatile Nielsen model, which takes into account many important factors, like the fillers aspect ratio and maximum packing fraction. The aspect ratio of SWNT material used to prepare our composites was determined by AFM and careful image analysis in order to use it as an input parameter in the Nielsen model. We obtained good agreement between our experimental results and the predictions of the Nielsen model. Based on our analysis we concluded that higher aspect ratio of filler material was needed to achieve better improvement in the composites thermal conductivities. One should also take steps in order to improve the thermal contact between the SWNT network and the matrix material.
Wavelength-resolved femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is used to follow the electronic dynamics of single-walled carbon nanotubes in polymers following visible and near IR photoexcitation. Electron-hole (e-h) pairs give rise to sharp features in the transient spectra that decay in amplitude and exhibit rapid spectral shifts. The decay reflects (e-h) recombination on both short (1.3 ps) and long (35 ps) time scales. Transient spectra also exhibit a broad photobleach at early times that arises from the cooling of a hot electron gas created via excitation at the red edge of a π-plasmon band.
We report the synthesis of organized colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal / carbon singlewalled nanotube hybrid nanostructures. The synthetic protocol described here avoids the need for covalent chemical modification of carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. Specifically, InP quantum dots (QDs) and CdSe QDs were found to strongly adsorb onto the surfaces of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) by gentle heating in organic solvents. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) / SWNT assemblies, and revealed that the surfaces of the SWNT bundles template the adsorption of the NCs from solution. Small QDs were found to randomly absorb onto SWNTs, while larger QDs self-assembled into long linear chains. The nature of binding and ordering was investigated by simply considering van der Waals (vdW) forces for both NC-SWNT and NC-NC interactions. Quantum rods (QRs) were also found to adsorb along the nanotube surfaces. These findings have important implications for the synthesis of NC / SWNT hybrid nanostructures.
The switching of resistance between two discrete values, known as random telegraph noise (RTN), was observed in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The RTN has been studied as a function of bias-voltage and gate-voltage as well as temperature. By analyzing the features of the RTN, we identify three different types of RTN existing in the SWNT related systems. While the RTN can be generated by the various charge traps in the vicinity of the SWNTs, the RTN for metallic SWNTs is mainly due to reversible defect motions between two metastable states, activated by inelastic scattering with electrons.