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Depression is projected to be the primary cause of disability worldwide by 2030. Our aim was to test the feasibility of a supportive text messaging mobile health intervention in improving treatment outcomes in depressed patients.
We performed a single-rater-blinded randomised trial involving 73 patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Patients in the intervention group (n = 35) received twice-daily supportive text messages for 3 months while those in the control group (n = 38) received a single text message every fortnight thanking them for participating in the study.
After adjusting for baseline BDI scores, a significant difference remained in the three month mean BDI scores between the intervention and control groups: (20.8 (SD = 11.7) vs. 24.9 (SD = 11.5), F (1, 60) = 4.83, P = 0.03, ηp2 = 0.07). The mean difference in the BDI scores change was significant with an effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.67. Furthermore, after adjusting for baseline scores, a significant difference remained in the three month mean self-rated VAS scores (EQ-5D-5L scale) between the intervention and control groups, 65.7 (SD = 15.3) vs. 57.4 (SD = 22.9), F (1, 60) = 4.16, P = 0.05, ηp2 = 0.065. The mean difference in change mean self-rated VAS scores was also statistically significant with an effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.51.
Our findings suggest that supportive text messages are a potentially useful psychological intervention for depression, especially in underserved populations. Further studies are needed to explore the implications of our findings in larger clinical samples.
To complement the oversubscribed counselling services in Alberta, the Text4Mood program which delivers daily supportive text messages to subscribers was launched on the 18th of January, 2016. This report presents an evaluation of self-reports of the impact of the program on the mental wellbeing of subscribers.
An online link to a survey questionnaire was created by an expert group and delivered via text messages to mobile phones of all 4111 active subscribers of the Text4Mood program as of April 11, 2016.
Overall, 894 subscribers answered the survey (overall response rate 21.7%). The response rate for individual questions varied and is reported alongside the results. Most respondents were female (83%, n = 668), Caucasian (83%, n = 679), and diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (38%, n = 307), including Depression (25.4%, n = 227) and Anxiety (20%, n = 177). Overall, 52% (n = 461) signed up for Text4Mood to help elevate their mood and 24.5% (n = 219) signed up to help them worry less. Most respondents felt the text messages made them more hopeful about managing issues in their lives (81.7%, n = 588), feel in charge of managing depression and anxiety (76.7%, n = 552), and feel connected to a support system (75.2%, n = 542). The majority of respondents felt Text4Mood improved their overall mental well-being (83.1%, n = 598).
Supportive text messages are a feasible and acceptable way of delivering adjunctive psychological interventions. Given that text messages are affordable, readily available, and can be delivered to thousands of people simultaneously, they present an opportunity to help close the psychological treatment gap for mental health patients.
This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of wideband acoustic absorbance testing in otitis media with effusion.
This prospective study compared middle-ear wideband acoustic absorbance rates in three paediatric patient groups: a healthy group of 34 volunteers; 48 patients diagnosed with otitis media with effusion; and 28 patients with chronic effusion but no sign of effusion during myringotomy. The diagnostic value of absorbance testing was analysed with the receiver operating characteristic test.
The wideband acoustic absorbance rate was significantly lower in the otitis media with effusion group than in both the otitis media and healthy groups at the 0.375–2 kHz averaged mean absorbance (p < 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest diagnostic value for the 0.375–2 kHz averaged mean (area under the curve 0.984), followed by those at 1 and 1.5 kHz (area under the curve: 0.973 and 0.967, respectively).
The wideband acoustic absorbance test is more accurate for detecting middle-ear effusion compared with conventional 226-Hz tympanometry. Its practicality and objectivity suggest that the wideband acoustic absorbance test may be a better alternative for diagnosing otitis media with effusion.
The use of endoscopic techniques is becoming more widespread in otological and neuro-otological surgery. One such procedure, endoscopic tympanoplasty, is used in chronic otitis media treatment. This study aimed to analyse the results of endoscopic transcanal cartilage tympanoplasty.
Data of tubotympanic chronic otitis media patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty between June 2012 and May 2013 were analysed. The main outcome measures were graft success and hearing improvement.
Graft success rates were 94.3 per cent and 92.5 per cent at post-operative months one and six, respectively. Post-operative air–bone gap values were significantly improved over pre-operative values (p < 0.01).
Transcanal endoscopic type I cartilage tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive, effective and reliable surgical treatment option for chronic otitis media.
Turkey has the youngest population in Europe with about 25 million people aged below 19 years and Turkish-speaking people comprise the biggest migrant group in Europe with 2.5 million people dispersed in different countries, but conducting epidemiologic surveys on Turkish people is challenging due to the lack of a suitable diagnostic tool. The Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) is one of the most widely used diagnostic interviews in child and adolescent psychiatry. In this study, we aimed at translating the DAWBA into Turkish and then examined its validity and reliability.
The validity of the Turkish version was examined in clinical (n = 50) and community (n = 104) samples. The interrater reliability was also evaluated on 20 cases.
The translation method used in the study achieved semantic, conceptual, content, technical, item and criterion equivalence between the Turkish and original forms. The validity of the Turkish DAWBA was good or excellent for different diagnostic categories (κ: 0.43–0.84); the interrater reliability was also excellent (κ: 0.85–1).
The Turkish DAWBA may be useful for future prevalence studies in Turkey. European clinicians and researchers who work with Turkish-speaking families can use the online Turkish DAWBA to gather structured information from Turkish-speaking informants and review the answers in their own language.
The aetiology of tympanosclerosis is not yet clear. This prospective, controlled, clinical study investigated the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and tympanosclerosis aetiology.
Materials and methods:
The study included 14 patients with tympanosclerosis and 26 with other forms of chronic otitis media. All patients underwent surgery for chronic otitis media. Mucosal biopsies were taken, and examined for H pylori using the Campylobacter-Like Organism (CLO) test.
Tympanoplasty was performed in 29 patients (72.5 per cent), radical mastoidectomy in eight (20 per cent) and myringoplasty in three (7.5 per cent). The presence of H pylori was tested in all tympanosclerosis biopsies, but in only 26.9 per cent of biopsies from other forms of chronic otitis media. A statistically significant difference in H pylori presence was found (p ≤ 0.01).
This study represents a preliminary investigation of the association between H pylori and tympanosclerosis development.
We report a patient who developed sudden, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss during therapeutic use of iloprost for Raynaud's phenomenon. The sudden hearing loss was attributed to iloprost use and completely reversed in eight days with conservative therapy. Iloprost may be a potentially ototoxic drug, causing sudden hearing loss.
To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls.
Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case).
In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.
This paper gives results demonstrating the production of nanoporous platinum through the de-alloying of Cu0.75Pt0.25 alloy in 1 M H2SO4. Both field emission scanning electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering confirm the presence of porosity with a diameter of approximately 3.4 nm. This is the smallest porosity quantitatively reported from a de-alloying process to date. The small size is attributed to the extremely small values of surface diffusivity expected for Pt at room temperature, effectively eliminating room-temperature coarsening processes. The results also show that larger length scales can be achieved through coarsening at elevated temperatures. The ease of production of porous platinum makes it attractive for possible applications, such as high surface area electrodes for biomedical devices or as catalyst materials.
Comunicamos tres casos en los que se desarrolló síndrome de serotonina tóxico en relación con tres inhibidores selectivos de la recaptación de la serotonina (SSRI) (a saber, fluoxetina, sertralina y paroxetina), y que respondieron a la interruptión de los SSRI y también a un tratamiento adicional con propranolol.
Fasting plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine and the pteridines, neopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured in seven patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and 10 healthy controls. Plasma kynurenine was significantly elevated in the GTS patients. The lowest patient value was higher than the highest control value. Values for tryptophan, neopterin and tetrahydrobiopterin were similar in TS patients and controls. However, in TS patients only, there was a significant negative correlation between tryptophan and neopterin and a significant positive correlation between kynurenine and neopterin when controlling for tryptophan. This finding indicates that activation of cellular immune processes is a possible explanation for the rise in plasma kynurenine.
Sulphur (S) is an essential element for the growth and activity of organisms, occuring free in abundant quantities. It is found in valence states ranging from +6 in sulphates to -2 in sulphides, the most stable state being S6+. Globally, natural emissions of S into the atmosphere from biogenic sources have been estimated to range between 78.9 and 142.6 Tg yr-1, of which 5.0 to 63.9 Tg yr-1 arises from land (Schlesinger, 1991; Andreae & Jaeschke, 1992; Germida, Wainwright & Gupta, 1992). Estimates of the relative significance of anthropogenic to natural sulphur emissions are variable, but globally the ratio is probably about 4: 1 (Möller, 1984), atmospheric S emissions from land being in the order: anthropogenic 93 Tg yr-1 > biogenic gases 22 > dust 20 > volcanoes 10 (Brimblecombe et al., 1989). Sulphur emissions to the atmosphere are not constant with time, having increased dramatically since the industrial revolution as a result of combustion of fossil fuels. Global anthropogenic emissions have increased from an estimated 5 Tg in 1860 to 180 Tg in 1985, with considerable increases predicted up to 2000 (Fig. 6.1; Möller, 1984; Schlesinger, 1991), despite electives by European countries to have reduced emissions by 1993 to 30% of 1980 emissions.