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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this project was to a) evaluate the first five years of Miami CTSI’s Pilot Translational and Clinical Studies Program using outcome measures that quantify research productivity augmented by the CTSA Common Metrics; and b) use the results to shape future program management. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pilot Program applicant and awardee demographic data were collected during the first 5-year cycle of the Miami CTSI grant. Projects were categorized into the translation spectrum based on type of research using published guidelines. Research productivity from funded pilot projects were tracked annually using internal institutional grant award databases and external databases such as PubMed and NIH Reporter. CTSA Common Metrics were tracked using the Results Based Accountability framework. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR), NIH percentile and translation impact of pilot project publications were determined using the iCite tool (NIH Office of Portfolio Analysis). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The Miami CTSI’s Pilot Award Program demonstrated notable success in its first five years. Of the twenty-two projects that were funded during that time period, 45% led to follow-on funding for a total of $17.2M—a strong return on investment of 15:1. Further, 77% of awardees had at least one publication. A total of four patents and 43 publications resulted directly from the funded projects. The mean RCR for all publications was 2.7, weighted RCR was 99.87, and nine papers were been cited by clinical documents. Overall, 63% of the projects were classified as T1/T2 (pre-clinical/clinical research) and 37% as T3/T4 (post-clinical translational research/public health). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Miami CTSI’s Pilot Award Program demonstrated success in scholarly output, follow on funding, and scientific impact. These results will serve as benchmarks going forward and will allow the CTSI to leverage program strengths in collaborating with other institutional internal award mechanisms.
To examine treatment, comorbidity status and diagnosis among the French sample of the Caregiver Perspective of Pediatric ADHD (CAPPA) survey.
Carers in 10 EU countries, including France, completed an Internet survey regarding ADHD diagnosis, treatment and comorbidities. Descriptive statistics were calculated for categorical [n (%)] and continuous variables [mean, standard deviation (SD), median, range].
EU carers representing 3688 children/adolescents (6–17 years) with ADHD completed the survey; 486 were from France (median age 10 years, 84% male). Most (77%) French children/adolescents were currently receiving pharmacological treatment(s): 74% stimulant, 15% non-stimulant and 22% antipsychotic. Across countries, stimulant use ranged from 60% (Italy) to 93% (Germany/Netherlands), non-stimulant use from 1% (Germany) to 18% (Sweden) and antipsychotic use from 8% (Germany) to 46% (Italy). Many French children/adolescents received behaviour therapy (BT) after ADHD diagnosis (59%). Among those receiving BT, 52% began prior to starting medication. BT was often discontinued within 6 months (44%) or 6–12 (30%) months. 52% of carers reported ≥ 1 comorbidity; they reported the highest rates of conduct (24%), sleep (11%), eating (6%) and motor-coordination (6%) disorders, and the second-highest rates of anxiety (22%), learning difficulties (15%), oppositional defiant disorder (5%), bipolar disorder (4%) and epilepsy (2%). Time to diagnosis from first doctor's visit averaged 7 months (SD 11, median 3). 81% received a specialist referral. French carers reported the highest perceived difficulty (‘great deal’/’a lot’ of difficulty) obtaining a diagnosis (43%) and a specialist referral (53%).
This sample of French children/adolescents with ADHD had higher non-stimulant and antipsychotic use than most other countries and higher reports of certain comorbid conditions. Carers perceived greater difficulty in obtaining a diagnosis and seeing a specialist, although time to diagnosis was lower compared with a number of other countries.
There is ample evidence for a distorted presentation of the mentally ill in the media. However, only little is known about its impact on attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between watching TV and reading the newspaper on the one hand, and the desire for social distance towards people with schizophrenia on the other. In 2001, a representative population survey was conducted in Germany, using a fully structured personal interview. We found that the desire for social distance towards people with schizophrenia increases almost continuously with the amount of TV consumption. The association between reading the newspaper and social distance is less pronounced and depends on the type of newspaper people read. Since, obviously, there is a relationship between media consumption and attitudes towards people with schizophrenia, inaccurate and one-sided messages about mental disorders should be replaced by accurate and more balanced messages.
Increased levels of anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse are associated with unemployment. This study compares both DSM-IV-TR Axis-I and Axis-II mental disorders between a representative and a referred sample of unemployed youths aged 16.0 to 24.9.
One hundred subjects were randomly recruited on the premises of the vocational services centre in the urban region of Essen, Germany (representative sample, RS). One hundred and sixty-five subjects constituting the ‘clinical sample’ (CS) were preselected and referred by case managers to the on-site psychiatric liaison service. Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II), measures of psychopathology and health service utilization were administered.
Ninety-eight percent and 43% of CS and RS subjects fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for mental disorders. Mood-, anxiety- and substance-related disorders were the most common Axis-I disorders in both samples. Personality disorders were diagnosed significantly more frequently in the CS. Despite the more severe psychopathology in subjects with mental disorders from the CS compared to the RS, no differences were found for recent mental health service utilisation.
Because the sample of unemployed youths referred by case managers was significantly more disturbed in psychiatric terms, such a pre-selection is deemed useful in conjunction with a psychiatric liaison service on the premise of a job centre.
There is a growing evidence for clinical effectiveness of Home Treatment for <a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1">patients with severe psychotic disorders</a>. Here we present the development and implementation of a manualised assessment-based Home Treatment in Germany.
We compared the 6-month effectiveness of an assessment-based Home Treatment in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder to standard care in a catchment area design.
The primary outcome criteria was the rehospitalisation rate. Secondary outcomes comprised improvement of symptoms, functioning, quality of life, medication adherence and satisfaction with care.
Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 3 and 6 month. Inpatient admission and treatment contacts were assessed from the hospital database.
We visited 20 patients with severe psychotic disorder (ICD10: F2.x) almost 400 times in twelve months. The median was 15.5 visits per patient. The intervention resulted in a highly significant reduction of the rehospitalisation rate (−51%, P<.01) and we found a significant improvement in Medication Adherence within the first 3 months using the Morisky-Score (P<.01). There wasn´t any significant change in clinical outcome regarding variables from Psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrom Scale (PANNS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Quality of Life (The World Health Organization Quality of Life, WHO-QUOL) and client satisfaction (ZUF-8).
Applying assessment-based Home Treatment for patients with severe psychotic disorders is an alternative treatment compared with standard care resulting in a significant lower rehospitalisation rate with an equivalent clinical outcome.
Many foreign aid donors brand development interventions. How do citizens in the donor country react to seeing this branding in action? We test the proposition that citizens will express higher levels of support for foreign aid when they see a branded foreign aid project relative to seeing the same project without branding. We present results from a survey-based laboratory experiment conducted in the United Kingdom where subjects learned about a typical foreign aid project and received a randomized UK branding treatment. Our results suggest that the branding treatments increase the likelihood that donor country respondents believe that aid recipients can identify the source of the foreign aid. Only among conservative respondents, however, does the evidence imply that branding increases support for foreign aid. “UK aid” branding increases conservative opinion that aid dollars are well spent and increases support among this group for the expansion of foreign aid.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Background: This study examines whether age is a key determinant for inflammatory response, oligodendroglial apoptosis and axonal survival after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: This study includes post-mortem spinal cord tissue from 64 cases of SCI (at cervical or high-thoracic level) and 38 controls cases. Each group was subdivided into younger and elderly individuals (≥65 years). Alternating sections from 2 to 3 segments caudal to SCI and age/sex/level-matched segments from controls were stained for: (i) neuroinflammation (neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes); (ii) apoptotic oligodendrocytes; (iii) axons; (iv) extent of degeneration. The number of cells or axons was counted in the motor and sensory areas within the spinal cord using unbiased stereological techniques. Results: Younger and elderly individuals had statistically similar number of inflammatory cells in most of the stages post-SCI. Younger and elderly individuals had similar number of oligodendrocytes in apoptosis in all stages following SCI. The number of preserved axons did not significantly differ between younger and elderly individuals with SCI and without prior CNS injury. Extend of degeneration within the spinal cord white matter did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions: Our results indicate that age at the time of injury does not adversely affect the cellular inflammatory response, oligodendroglial apoptosis and axonal survival after traumatic SCI.
Branding of foreign aid may undermine government legitimacy in developing countries when citizens see social services being provided by external actors. We run a survey experiment on a sample of Indian respondents. All subjects learn about an HIV/AIDS program; treated subjects learn that it was foreign-funded. We find null results that, along with existing results in the literature obtained from observational data, call into question the view that foreign-funded service delivery interferes with the development of a fiscal contract between the state and its citizens.
Weak lensing detections and measurements of filaments have been elusive for a long time. The reason is that the low density contrast of filaments generally pushes the weak lensing signal to unobservably low scales. To nevertheless map the dark matter in filaments exquisite data and unusual systems are necessary. SuprimeCam observations of the supercluster system Abell 222/223 provided the required combination of excellent seeing images and a fortuitous alignment of the filament with the line-of-sight. This boosted the lensing signal to a detectable level and led to the first weak lensing mass measurement of a large-scale structure filament. The filament connecting Abell 222 and Abell 223 is now the only one traced by the galaxy distribution, dark matter, and X-ray emission from the hottest phase of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The combination of these data allows us to put the first constraints on the hot gas fraction in filaments.
Despite their pivotal role as primary producers, there is little information as to the diversity and physiology of cyanobacteria in the meltwater ecosystems of polar regions. Thirty cyanobacterial mats from Adelaide Island, Antarctica were investigated using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, and screened for cyanobacterial toxins using molecular and chemical approaches. A total of 274 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected. The richness ranged between 8 and 33 cyanobacterial OTUs per sample, reflecting a high mat diversity. Leptolyngbya and Phormidium (c. 55% and 37% of the OTUs per mat) were dominant. Cyanobacterial community composition was similar between mats, particularly those obtained from closely adjacent locations. The cyanotoxin microcystin was detected in 26 of 27 mats (10–300 ng g-1 organic mass), while cylindrospermopsin, detected for the first time in Antarctica, was present in 21 of 30 mats (2–156 ng g-1 organic mass). The latter was confirmed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by the presence of the cyrAB and cyrJ genes. This study demonstrates the usefulness of pyrosequencing for characterizing diverse cyanobacterial communities, and confirms that cyanobacteria from extreme environments produce a similar range of cyanotoxins as their temperate counterparts.
We have investigated the electrical properties of a ZnO microwire grown by carbo-thermal evaporation, a ZnO thin film grown by pulsed-laser deposition on an a-plane sapphire, and a hydrothermally grown Zn-face ZnO single crystal (Tokyo Denpa Co. Ltd.). The samples were investigated by means of current-voltage measurements, capacitance-voltage measurements, and deep-level transient spectroscopy.
The defects T2 [1,2] and E3 [1,3,4] were identified in all three sample types. Additionally, in the single crystal and thin film samples E64  and E4  were detected. These findings support the common opinion that T2 is an intrinsic defect since it is found in all the samples investigated and thus its occurrence is not related to any growth technique.
While the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) method enables the calculation of transition rates from a realistic potential, implementations of it were usually limited to one specific surface orientation. An example is the fcc (111) surface in Latz et al. 2012, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24, 485005. This work provides an extension by means of detecting the local orientation, and thus allows for the accurate simulation of arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We applied the model to the diffusion of Ag monolayer islands and voids on a Ag(111) and Ag(001) surface, as well as the relaxation of a three-dimensional spherical particle.