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The crystal structure of the partially ordered vacancy compound Cu2In14/3□4/3Se8, belonging to the system I3-III7-□2-VI12, was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction data. Several structural models were derived from the structure of the selenium-rich phase β-Cu0.39In1.2Se2 by permuting the cations in the available Wyckoff positions. The refinement of the best model by the Rietveld method in the tetragonal space group P
$\overline 4 $
2c (No 112), with unit-cell parameters a = 5.7487(3) Å, c = 11.5106(6) Å, V = 380.40(3) Å3, led to Rp = 9.0%, Rwp = 9.9%, Rexp = 7.2%, S = 1.4 for 134 independent reflections. This model has the following Wyckoff site atomic distribution: Cu in 2e (0,0,0); In in 2b (½,0,¼), 2d (0,½,¼), and 2f (½,½,0);□ in 2f (½,½,0); Se in 8n (x,y,z).
The aim of this study was to evaluate transcriptome changes in the muscle tissue of Bos taurus indicus cull cows subjected to recovery weight gain under grazing conditions. In all, 38 Nellore cull cows were divided randomly into two different management groups: (1) Maintenance (MA) and (2) Recovery gain (RG) from weight loss by moderate growth under high forage availability. After slaughter, RNA analysis was performed on the Longissimus thoracis muscle. Semaphorin 4A, solute carrier family 11 member 1, and Ficolin-2 were expressed in the RG, which may indicate an inflammatory response during tissue regrowth. Signaling factors, such as Myostatin, related to fibroblast activation, negative control of satellite cell proliferation in adults and muscle protein synthesis were less abundant in the RG group. The only gene related to anabolic processes that were more abundant in the MA group was related to fat deposition. The genes that were differentially expressed in the experiment showed muscle repair-related changes during RG based on the greater expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and the lower expression of negative regulators of muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy.
Goats have played a key role as source of nourishment for humans in their expansion all over the world in long land and sea trips. This has guaranteed a place for this species in the important and rapid episode of livestock expansion triggered by Columbus’ arrival in the Americas in the late 1400s. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive perspective on genetic diversity in American goat populations and to assess their origins and evolutionary trajectories. This was achieved by combining data from autosomal neutral genetic markers obtained in more than two thousand samples that encompass a wide range of Iberian, African and Creole goat breeds. In general, even though Creole populations differ clearly from each other, they lack a strong geographical pattern of differentiation, such that populations of different admixed ancestry share relatively close locations throughout the large geographical range included in this study. Important Iberian signatures were detected in most Creole populations studied, and many of them, particularly the Cuban Creole, also revealed an important contribution of African breeds. On the other hand, the Brazilian breeds showed a particular genetic structure and were clearly separated from the other Creole populations, with some influence from Cape Verde goats. These results provide a comprehensive characterisation of the present structure of goat genetic diversity, and a dissection of the Iberian and African influences that gave origin to different Creole caprine breeds, disentangling an important part of their evolutionary history. Creole breeds constitute an important reservoir of genetic diversity that justifies the development of appropriate management systems aimed at improving performance without loss of genomic diversity.
Concentrates-fed lamb meat is often associated with an unfavourable lipid profile (high levels of saturated and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA and PUFA). For this reason, Spanish sheep producers from Mediterranean areas are turning to traditional grazing by ewes to obtain healthier lamb meat. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of maternal grazing on the fatty acid (FA) composition of weaned lamb meat. The ewes (Segureña breed) were allocated to two different rearing systems during pregnancy (5 months) and lactation (45 days): (i) feeding indoors on barley grain and lucerne pellets; (ii) grazing on cereal stubble, fallow land and seasonal pastures consisting of Mediterranean shrubs, herbs and trees. Two groups of 20 autumn and spring lambs were sampled. The lambs were weaned at 13.1±0.9 kg and 45.0±4.1 days age and fed on grain-based concentrates until they reached 24.8±2.1 kg live weight (light lambs slaughtered at 98.3±3.6 days of age). The FA content was determined in the intramuscular loin fat by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The ewe diet did not affect the levels of the main lamb FAs (C18:1c+t, C16:0 and C18:2c), and so did not provide any additional reduction in fat saturation. Saturated fatty acids represented around 40% of total FAs determined in the meat. Ewe grazing acted as an n-3 PUFA-promoting diet, providing a lamb meat with a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Spring lamb meat had higher proportions of n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2c9t11+c11t9) to the detriment of the n-6 PUFAs (C20:4, C20:2 and C22:4), while autumn lamb meat also had higher levels of C18:3n-3 and C18:3n-6, and lower level of C20:4, which points to little seasonal differences. The n-6/n-3 ratio achieved by ewe grazing fell from 8.2 to 4.1 (Spring) and from 7.6 to 5.5 (Autumn), values which are close to those recommended in human diet for good cardiovascular health. These n-6/n-3 reductions were associated with lower levels of total PUFA and C20:4n-6. Our research concluded that grazing on stubble and Mediterranean shrubland by ewes, a sustainable rearing practice involving local agro resources, contributed to obtaining weaned lamb meat with a more favourable lipid profile and so can be recommended to sheep farmers.
Suicide is a major public health problem, especially in young people. It is one of the most significant causes of mortality and potential years of life lost. Medical students are a vulnerable group presenting mental health problems.
To study the prevalence of common mental illnesses among medical students from the university of Valladolid in order to assess the need for intervention programs.
Cross-sectional study in which, 584 students participated during the academic year 2015–2016 by completing an online self-administered questionnaire. Mental health outcomes were measured by different batteries of depression, anxiety and suicide (BDI, GAD-7 and MINI). Information about possible related risk factors was also obtained. Statistical Chi2 and Student t-tests were applied to estimate associations between socio-demographic, socioeconomic data and clinical results.
We found a prevalence of 15.8% for depression, 11.6% for ideation suicide and 38.5% for anxiety, with gender differences in the latter case. Prevalence rates were higher than those described in general population. Compared to other international studies, prevalence estimates were also higher among our sample.
This study shows for the first time data of these three psychiatric disorders among medical students in Spain. It suggests the urge to implementing preventive activities to alleviate maladaptive behaviors, academic stress, improve the quality of life and adaptation of students to college life. Larger, prospective, multicentre studies are needed to draw conclusions about the causes and consequences of students’ stress, since evidence shows that mental health problems are perpetuated throughout professional performance.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Current Galactic surveys, including the Gaia mission, rely on the efficiency of the spectral analysis techniques to provide precise and accurate spectral information (i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and chemical abundances) in the shortest computational time. In this work, we present a new package to preform complete spectral analyses based on the spectral synthesis technique (Tsantaki et al. 2017, submitted). We focus on deriving atmospheric parameters for FGK-type stars using both high and medium resolution (GIRAFFE) spectra. This method is implemented on the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars to confirm its validity, achieving similar accuracy for the two resolution setups.
Some studies suggested that the chemical abundance trend with the condensation temperature, Tc, is a signature of rocky planet formation. Very recently, a strong Tc trend was reported in ζ2 Ret relative to its companion (ζ1 Ret) and was explained by the presence of a debris disk around ζ2 Ret. We re-evaluated the presence and variability of the Tc trend in this system with a goal to understand the impact of the presence of the debris disk on a star. Our results confirm the reported abundance difference between ζ2 Ret and ζ1 Ret and its dependence on the Tc. However, we also found that the Tc trends depend on the individual spectrum used. We conclude that for the ζ Reticuli system, for example, nonphysical factors can be at the root of the Tc trends for the case of individual spectra. For more details see Adibekyan et al. (2016b).
In this work we present chemical abundances of heavy elements (Z>28) for a homogeneous sample of 1059 stars from HARPS planet search program. We also derive ages using parallaxes from Hipparcos and Gaia DR1 to compare the results. We study the [X/Fe] ratios for different populations and compare them with models of Galactic chemical evolution. We find that thick disk stars are chemically disjunt for Zn adn Eu. Moreover, the high-alpha metal-rich population presents an interesting behaviour, with clear overabundances of Cu and Zn and lower abundances of Y and Ba with respect to thin disk stars. Several abundance ratios present a significant correlation with age for chemically separated thin disk stars (regardless of their metallicity) but thick disk stars do not present that behaviour. Moreover, at supersolar metallicities the trends with age tend to be weaker for several elements.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
To determine whether demographic characteristics or balance examination findings can predict the adherence of older people with instability to a vestibular rehabilitation programme.
A prospective case–control study was conducted of 120 patients aged 65 years or more (mean age, 77.3 ± 6.33 years). Two groups were classified according to patients’ adherence with the follow-up post-rehabilitation protocol. Analysed variables included: age, sex, body mass index, Timed Up and Go test findings, computerised dynamic posturography, Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and Short Falls Efficacy Scale – International questionnaire results, number of falls, and type of vestibular rehabilitation.
Two groups were established: adherents (99 individuals) and non-adherents (21 individuals). There were differences between the groups regarding: sex (female-to-male ratio of 4.8:1 in adherents and 1.63:1 in non-adherents), age (higher in non-adherents) and voluntary movement posturographic test results (non-adherents had poorer scores).
The patients most likely to abandon a vestibular rehabilitation programme are very elderly males with low scores for centre of gravity balancing and limits of stability.
The intensity of annual Spanish influenza activity is currently estimated from historical data of the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System (SISSS) using qualitative indicators from the European Influenza Surveillance Network. However, these indicators are subjective, based on qualitative comparison with historical data of influenza-like illness rates. This pilot study assesses the implementation of Moving Epidemic Method (MEM) intensity levels during the 2014–2015 influenza season within the 17 sentinel networks covered by SISSS, comparing them to historically reported indicators. Intensity levels reported and those obtained with MEM at the epidemic peak of the influenza wave, and at national and regional levels did not show statistical difference (P = 0·74, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), suggesting that the implementation of MEM would have limited disrupting effects on the dynamic of notification within the surveillance system. MEM allows objective influenza surveillance monitoring and standardization of criteria for comparing the intensity of influenza epidemics in regions in Spain. Following this pilot study, MEM has been adopted to harmonize the reporting of intensity levels of influenza activity in Spain, starting in the 2015–2016 season.
Boarding admitted patients decreases emergency department (ED) capacity to accommodate daily patient surge. Boarding in regional hospitals may decrease the ability to meet community needs during a public health emergency. This study examined differences in regional patient boarding times across the United States and in regions at risk for public health emergencies.
A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed by using 2012 ED visit data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) database and 2012 hospital ED boarding data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database. Hospitals were grouped into hospital referral regions (HRRs). The primary outcome was mean ED boarding time per HRR. Spatial hot spot analysis examined boarding time spatial clustering.
A total of 3317 of 4671 (71%) hospitals were included in the study cohort. A total of 45 high-boarding-time HRRs clustered along the East/West coasts and 67 low-boarding-time HRRs clustered in the Midwest/Northern Plains regions. A total of 86% of HRRs at risk for a terrorist event had high boarding times and 36% of HRRs with frequent natural disasters had high boarding times.
Urban, coastal areas have the longest boarding times and are clustered with other high-boarding-time HRRs. Longer boarding times suggest a heightened level of vulnerability and a need to enhance surge capacity because these regions have difficulty meeting daily emergency care demands and are at increased risk for disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:576–582)
Smoking is an addictive and chronic disease. Twenty-four percent of the Spanish population in 2012 smoked daily.
Aims and objectives
To evaluate a smoking cessation program in a Primary Care Center.
Observational, prospective study. We describe an individualized smoking cessation in Plaza del Ejército Health Center (Valladolid). Inclusion criteria: active smoker, ≥ 18 years old and belonging to the Health Center. Exclusion: severe mental illness. Included patients from November 2013 until January2014. Ended in July 2014. Four Medical residents participated, we present the results of one of them. During the first consultation motivational interviewing was conducted, physical examination and treatment was prescribed (cognitive behavioral therapy or drug treatment: varenicline). In subsequent consultations interview and follow-up. Variables: age, gender, pack-years, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom) and Prochaska and DiClemente phase, weight, treatment used, dropout rate and final withdrawal of snuff.
Eleven patients, mean age 48.18 (13.61), 7 (63.6) women. Comorbidity: 6 (54.5) anxious-depressive pathology, 1 (9.1) dysthymia, 2 (18.2) endocrine pathology and 1 (9.1) respiratory disease. Four (36.4) showed high dependency and 2 (18.2) extreme. Media packages 20.50/year (19,20). Seven (63.6) were in action phase of Prochaska and DiClemente and 2 (18.2) in preparation. Visits range: 1-11. The average was 4.55 (3.64). Three (27.27) patients attended only the first visit. Four (36.4) achieved complete abstinence, 3 (27.27) met maintenance phase. One (9.1) reduced consumption in half. Patients gained average 0.5 kg (2.47).
The results are similar to those reported in other series. Modest dropout rate. No pharmacological treatment was used due to high coexistence of comorbidities, the only patient who used varenicline suffered insomnia. Average age and media packages were superior to other series.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The consumption of toxic substances often causes agitation, which makes more difficult the pharmacological management of the symptoms.
About one case, a search was performed of the different therapeutic options in the agitation takes place in the context of intoxication.
Thirty-five-year-old male patient diagnosed of dual pathology under treatment since 2003 in our outpatient. The patient shows paranoid schizophrenia disorder due to alcohol, cannabis and cocaine use disorder, summing up different pharmacological treatments with no remission. Whilst the examination is taking place the patient is under alcohol and cannabis effects. His physical and verbal behaviour are aggressive showing psychotic instability. The therapeutic team administers loxapine to its patient.
The inhaled loxapine turned out to be a good alternative in the case given.
Handling agitation when toxics are involved is complex. The new formulation of inhaled loxapine helps to control agitation quickly and it might be a feasible option for this kind of patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper studies the genetic importance of growth curve parameters and their relevance as selection criteria in breeding programmes of Segureño sheep. Logistic and Verhulst growth functions were chosen for their best fit to BW/age in this breed; the first showed the best general fit and the second the best individual fit. Live weights of 41 330 individuals from the historical archives of the National Association of Segureña Sheep Breeders were used in the analysis. The progeny of 1464 rams and 27 048 ewes were used to study the genetic and phenotypic parameters of growth curve parameters and derived traits. Reproductive management in the population consists in controlled natural mating inside every herd, with a minimum of 15% of the females fertilized by artificial insemination with fresh semen; with the purpose being the herd genetic connections, all herd genealogies are screened with DNA markers. Estimates of growth curve parameters from birth to 80 days were obtained for each individual and each function by the non-linear regression procedure using IBM SPSS statistics (version 21) with the Levenberg–Marquart estimation method. (Co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by using the REML/Animal model methodology. The heritability of mature weight was estimated as 0.41±0.042 and 0.38±0.021 with the logistic and Verhulst models, respectively, and the heritability of other parameters ranged from 0.41 to 0.62 and 0.37 to 0.61, with the models, respectively. A negative genetic correlation between mature weight and rate of maturing was found.
This study aimed to analyse the existence of an association between social class (categorized by type of occupation) and the occurrence of A(H1N1)pmd09 infection and hospitalization for two seasons (2009–2010 and 2010–2011). This multicentre study compared ambulatory A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases with ambulatory controls to measure risk of infection, and with hospitalized A(H1N1)pmd09 confirmed cases to asses hospitalization risk. Study variables were: age, marital status, tobacco and alcohol use, pregnancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic respiratory failure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic liver disease, body mass index >40, systemic corticosteroid treatment and influenza vaccination status. Occupation was registered literally and coded into manual and non-manual worker occupational social class groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. There were 720 hospitalized cases, 996 ambulatory cases and 1062 ambulatory controls included in the study. No relationship between occupational social class and A(H1N1)pmd09 infection was found [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·74–1·27], but an association (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01–2·31) between occupational class and hospitalization for A(H1N1)pmd09 was observed. Influenza vaccination was a protective factor for A(H1N1)pmd09 infection (aOR 0·41, 95% CI 0·23–0·73) but not for hospitalization. We conclude that manual workers have the highest risk of hospitalization when infected by influenza than other occupations but they do not have a different probability of being infected by influenza.