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Studies investigating the development of tense/aspect in children with developmental disorders have focused on production frequency and/or relied on short spontaneous speech samples. How children with developmental disorders use future forms/constructions is also unknown. The current study expands this literature by examining frequency, consistency, and productivity of past, present, and future usage, using the Speechome Recorder, which enables collection of dense, longitudinal audio-video recordings of children's speech. Samples were collected longitudinally in a child who was previously diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, but at the time of the study exhibited only language delay [Audrey], and a typically developing child [Cleo]. While Audrey was comparable to Cleo in frequency and productivity of tense/aspect use, she was atypical in her consistency and production of an unattested future form. Examining additional measures of densely collected speech samples may reveal subtle atypicalities that are missed when relying on only few typical measures of acquisition.
We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80–200 keV electron beams.
Socio-behavioural factors and pathogens associated with childhood diarrhoea are of global public health concern. Our survey in 696 children aged ⩽2 years in rural West Bengal detected rotavirus as sole pathogen in 8% (17/199) of diarrhoeic stool specimens. Other organisms were detected along with rotavirus in 11% of faecal specimens. A third of the children with rotavirus diarrhoea, according to Vesikari score, had severe illness. The top four rotavirus genotypes were G9P (28%), G1P (19%), G2P (14%) and G8P (8%). In the multivariate model, the practice of ‘drawing drinking water by dipping a pot in the storage vessel’ [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·03–4·74, P = 0·041], and ‘children aged ⩽6 months with non-exclusive breastfeeding’ (aOR 2·07, 95% CI 1·1–3·82, P = 0·024) had twice the odds of having diarrhoea. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhoea was 24/100 child-years in children aged >6–18 months, 19/100 child-years in children aged >18–24 months and 5/100 child-years in those aged ⩽6 months. Results have translational implications for future interventions including vaccine development.
Bidirectional reflectance of a surface is defined as the ratio of the scattered radiation at the detector to the incident irradiance as a function of geometry. Accurate knowledge of the bidirectional reflection function for layers composed of discrete, randomly positioned scattering particles is essential for many remote sensing, engineering, and biophysical applications, as well as for different areas of astrophysics. Computations of bidirectional reflection functions for plane parallel particulate layers are usually reduced to solving the radiative transfer equation by the existing techniques. In this work we present our laboratory data on bidirectional reflectance versus phase angle for two sample sizes of alumina, 0.3 and 1 μm, for the He–Ne laser at wavelengths of 632.8 nm (red) and 543.5 nm (green). The nature of the phase curves of the asteroids depends on the parameters like particle size, composition, porosity, roughness, etc. In the present study we analyze data which are being generated using a single scattering phase function, that is, Mie theory of treating particles as a compact sphere. The well-known Hapke formula, along with different particle phase functions such as Mie and Henyey–Greenstein, will be used to model the laboratory data obtained at the asteroid laboratory of Assam University.
Falls represent 40 per cent of hospital accidents, and consequences range from none to serious injuries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the average hospital cost and length of stay (LOS) associated with serious injurious falls in an acute care hospital. We used data from risk management and case costing databases to identify cost associated with a serious injury after an in-hospital fall. Thirty-seven injured patients were matched with 2,113 controls by the most responsible medical diagnosis, age, and gender. Cost and LOS were compared using t-tests and multivariate regression. Average costs for seriously injured fallers and non-faller controls were CAD$44,203 and CAD$13,507, while LOS was 45 and 11 days respectively. Hospital cost for a seriously injured faller was $30,696 (95% CI: $25,158 – $36,781) greater than the cost for a non-faller. Hospital managers have a leading role in creating system-wide falls prevention programs and reducing hospital costs.
The electronic structure of Co (100 Å)/Cu (50 Å) bilayer film on Si(100) has been investigated using valence band photoemission at 50 eV. The aim is to understand the Co/Cu interface and the nature of intermixing in Co and Cu layers. The valence band of Co/Cu interface shows three features at −0.3, −1.17 and −1.9 eV binding energy. The experimental observations are explained with the help of calculations based on projected augmented wave pseudopotential method using density functional theory. The origin of −0.3 eV feature is mainly due to the Co 3d minority spin states while the features at −1.17 and −1.9 eV are due to the formation of Co and Co–Cu mixed nanoclusters at the interface.
The electronic structure of CeAg2Ge2 single crystal has been investigated by using resonant valence band photoemission and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy at different photon energies. Resonant photoemission has been observed near the 4d threshold of Ce at 121 eV. The constant initial state spectra show two photoemission features having 4f character near the Fermi level that exhibits Fano-like sharp resonance profile. Experimental energy bands have been mapped from the normal-emission photoelectron spectra of CeAg2Ge2 (001) surface along the Γ–Z direction. Four photoemission features are observed to show the dispersion related to the Ce 4f states and the hybridized Ag 4d with Ge 4p states. The experimental spectra have been interpreted with the help of calculations based on full potential linear augmented plane wave method using density functional theory.
We study resonant tunneling through a layered medium with a passive negative index medium (NIM) slab as a constituent layer. Using a causal
model for susceptibilities with the parameters of a recently reported metamaterial [G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C.M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006)] we show that resonant tunnelling and the associated delay are mostly suppressed. This is in sharp contrast with the naive approach of retaining phase velocity dispersion with arbitrary low losses, predicting sharp resonances with large associated delays. This is shown to be a nontrivial issue because of the necessity of losses for NIM behaviour, while their presence spoils the quality factor of the resonant devices.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus is a disease that affects both humans and animals. In humans the disease is treated by surgery with a supplementary option of chemotherapy with a benzimidazole compound. During the present study heat-shock protein 60 (HSP 60) was identified as one of the most frequently expressed biomolecules by E. granulosus after albendazole treatment. Data were correlated with 14-3-3 protein signature, and overexpression of this molecule after albendazole induction was an indicator of cell survival and signal transduction during in vitro maintenance of E. granulosus for up to 72 h. This observation was further correlated with a uniform expression pattern of a housekeeping gene (actin II). Out of three β-tubulin gene isoforms of E. granulosus, β-tubulin gene isoform 2 showed a conserved point mutation indicative of benzimidazole resistance.
Over a 2-year period, 25 families comprising of 181 individuals of all ages were longitudinally observed for the excretion of Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were taken from all persons with diarrhoea. Specimens were also taken from apparently healthy individuals and from domestic animals living within the confines of the study families at monthly intervals.
The overall diarrhoea attack rate was 19 episodes per 100 person-years with peak incidence in the 1- to 4-year-old age group (76/100 person-years). Eight (11·5%) of the total episodes were campylobacter-associated and the overall rate of campylobacter positive diarrhoeal episodes were 2·2 per 100 person-years. Of the 1002 stool samples from healthy individuals 32 (3·2/100 samples) were positive for campylobacter. The organism was most frequently isolated from children under 1 year of age both during diarrhoeal episodes (11·5 per 100 person-years) and non-diarrhoeal (11·1 per 100 samples). Multiple infections in a family were rare. In 19·4% of the occasions one or more animals were campylobacter positive. However, only in 7·7% of these occasions was a human infection recorded within 1 month after the animal was found to be positive.
The study showed that the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in this community was distinct compared to that observed in developed countries.
Farmers have become heavily reliant on anthelmintics for the control of nematode parasites Due to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance, alternative approaches for control of nematode parasites are needed. Cruden and Hovell (2008) reported that commercial lambs treated with quebracho tannin had reduced faecal egg counts and improved lamb growth. This paper reports a second in vivo study with quebracho tannins at higher dose rates in lambs.
The first of several cases of meningococcal meningitis was reported in April 2005, in New Delhi, India. Subsequent to this the Government declared an outbreak, which persisted for two periods, from April–July 2005 and January–March 2006. The National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) recommended using WHO criteria for diagnosis of disease. During the outbreak 380 clinically suspected cases were investigated. Of 55 cases diagnosed as confirmed/probable the mortality rate was 14·6%. Meningitis was reported in 60% of cases and meningococcaemia in 40%. Microscopy of petechial rash was positive in 87·5%, CSF Gram stain positive in 68·3%, and latex agglutination test of CSF positive in 64·9% of samples. Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup A) was isolated from 37·7% of cases, 57·7% from CSF. Blood culture was positive in 10·4% of cases. CrgA polymerase chain reaction for N. meningitidis confirmed the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin and rifampicin, with increasing resistance to ceftriaxone. Penicillin resistance was encountered in 15·4% of strains. Resistance to quinolones was very high at 100% for levofloxacin, 84·6% for ofloxacin and 65·4% for ciprofloxacin. All patients with penicillin-resistant organisms (4) or intermediate sensitivity (4) succumbed to the disease. These patients also had a higher minimum inhibitory concentration to ceftriaxone.
Fourteen strains of S. Typhi (n=13) and S. Paratyphi A (n=1) resistant to ciprofloxacin were compared with 30 ciprofloxacin decreased-susceptibility strains on the basis of qnr plasmid analysis, and nucleotide substitutions at gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE. In ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, five S. Typhi and a single S. Paratyphi A showed triple mutations in gyrA (Ser83→Phe, Asp87→Asn, Glu133→Gly) and a novel mutation outside the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) (Met52→Leu). Novel mutations were also discovered in an isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration 8 μg/ml) in gyrA gene Asp76→Asn and outside the QRDR Leu44→Ile. Out of 30 isolates with reduced susceptibility, single mutation was found in 12 strains only. Genes encoding qnr plasmid (qnr A, qnr B, AAC1-F) were not detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant or decreased-susceptibility strains. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns of resistance, which is quintessential for reappraisal of enteric fever therapeutics.
Shallow ice cores were obtained from widely distributed sites across the West Antarctic ice sheet, as part of the United States portion of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE) program. The US ITASE cores have been dated by annual-layer counting, primarily through the identification of summer peaks in non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO42–) concentration. Absolute dating accuracy of better than 2 years and relative dating accuracy better than 1 year is demonstrated by the identification of multiple volcanic marker horizons in each of the cores, Tambora, Indonesia (1815), being the most prominent. Independent validation is provided by the tracing of isochronal layers from site to site using high-frequency ice-penetrating radar observations, and by the timing of mid-winter warming events in stable-isotope ratios, which demonstrate significantly better than 1 year accuracy in the last 20 years. Dating precision to ±1 month is demonstrated by the occurrence of summer nitrate peaks and stable-isotope ratios in phase with nssSO42–, and winter-time sea-salt peaks out of phase, with phase variation of <1 month. Dating precision and accuracy are uniform with depth, for at least the last 100 years.
The effect of chemical and thermal treatments on the grains and grain boundaries of polycrystalline μ-Al2O3 has been examined using a combination of microscopy techniques. Commercially available alumina samples (Lucalox™) were chemically etched in phosphoric acid at 200°C in increments of 15 min. Thermal treatments were carried out at 1650°C before chemical treatments. Using maps obtained by visible-light microscopy (VLM) as a guide, the same regions were re-examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) after subsequent treatments. Variations in the dissolution rates of different grains and grain boundaries could then be studied using AFM. The geometry of the grain-boundary grooves was compared after thermal and chemical treatments. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) patterns recorded in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to obtain crystallographic orientations of the grains which enabled variations in dissolution rates between grains to be correlated to orientation.
The intake and the digestibility of herbage, and the effect of level of supplementary concentrate food, were measured in late spring and late summer in two studies, each with eight multiparous, pregnant sows. In the spring study sows were nose rung to prevent rooting but only four nose-rung sows were available for the summer study; the remaining four were unrung. In both cases, sows had access to a plentiful (>2·5 t organic matter (OM) per ha) ryegrass/clover sward in a paddock of 1922 m2. After a week of adaptation to the herbage in the experimental paddock, sows were offered 1·5 or 3·0 kg/day concentrate for consecutive 2-week periods in a change-over experimental design with four sows on each treatment in each period. Samples of herbage were also taken to measure the sward density, chemical composition and n-alkane content. Herbage intake and digestibility estimates were calculated using the n-alkanes technique, with the marker dosed on small food pellets. In the spring study, the herbage intake ranged from 0·9 to 1·8 kg OM per day in the first period (herbage neutral-detergent fibre(NDF) content 439 (s.e.41·6) g/kg OM) and 0·2 to 1·4 kg in the second (475 (s.e.29·3) g NDF per kg OM). The intake was affected by the level of concentrate only in the second period. The results obtained during the summer study with the rung and unrung sows showed an intake between 0·9 and 2·4 kg OM per day in the first period (524 (s.e. 16·0) g NDF per kg OM) and between 1·3 and 4·8 kg in the second (526 (s.e. 21·8) g NDF per kg OM). A high intake estimation for certain unrung individuals appeared to reflect their frenzied feeding behaviour and possible loss of some marker pellets. There were no differences between level of concentrate treatments in either period. Digestibility of the diet was affected by the intake of herbage and the level of fibre consumed (P < 0·01). These herbage intakes equated to proportionately 0·50 (s.e. 0·05) and 0·66 (s.e. 0·1) (or 0·49 (s.e. 0·07) excluding problem sows) of the maintenance energy requirement in each season. Faeces of unrung sows indicated a high ingestion of soil or stones by some individuals: one of the sows produced a bulked faeces sample containing 450 g/kg fresh weight of stones, whilst another sow had a faecal ash content of 937 g/kg DM. The results indicate that the intake of nutrients from herbage by grazing sows is highly variable between seasons and individuals.
The effect of quebracho tannin (QT) on the activities of rumen microbes was studied both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study was carried out in four rumen environments created by feeding four fistulated sheep a basal diet of chopped grass hay, grass cubes and whole barley (control) with or without the addition of QT and the dietary modifier Browse Plus (BP). The active ingredients in BP are polyethylene glycol (PEG, more than 0·95 of the dry material), polyvinyI pyrrolidone (PVP) and calcium hydroxide. The diets offered were control, control plus 50 g QT per kg diet (CQT), control plus 50 g QT per kg and 0·1 (CQT+ 0·1) or 1.0 g BP per kg (CQT + 1·0). The experiment was a 4 X 4 Latin-square design with periods of 4 weeks. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, and 8 h after feeding, 18 and 25 days after commencement of each period. Changes in free and bound proanthocyanidin (PA) concentrations, rumen pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFA), soluble protein concentrations, particle-bound cellulase and xylanase activities and rumen protozoal counts were used as indices of microbial activities. The same diets were incubated with rumen contents in vitro, except that the 0.1 g/kg level of BP was replaced by a fourth treatment made up of control plus 1·0 g BP per kg DM of hay (CBP). In vivo, bound PA concentrations in the rumen liquor of all the sheep given QT-containing diets were higher than those of the free PAs. The bound PA was higher (V < 0·05) in the rumen liquor of sheep given CQT in comparison with those containing BP. There were reductions in ammonia (P > 0·05), soluble protein (P < 0·05) and total VFA (P > 0·05) concentrations in the rumen liquor of sheep given CQT in comparison with those given the control and BP-containing diets. Reductions (P > 0·05) were also observed in the cellulase and xylanase activities of the rumen microbes and in protozoal counts (P < 0·05) in the presence of QT in the diet. In vitro, QT reduced (P > 0·05) the viable bacterial counts, gas production and the total VFA concentrations after incubation. In both the in vivo and in vitro experiments, BP was able to alleviate some but not all of the depression in microbial activities. The main constituent (PEG) in BP binds to some of the tannins in solution and may displace tannins from tannin-protein complexes.
One hundred and six patients suffering from severe
dehydrating diarrhoea were studied of
whom 36 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae.
Out of 36, 15 were positive for V. cholerae
O1, 10 for V. cholerae O139 and 11 for V.
cholerae non-O1 non-O139. O1 and O139 were
positive for the 301-bp ctxA amplicon and 471-bp
tcpA amplicon indicating that the strains
possessed toxigenic capability whereas no non-O1 non-O139
strain possessed ctxA or tcpA
genes. Post-admission severity of purging and amount of
ORS required were less in the
V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 group
(P<0·05) compared to the V.
cholerae O1 and O139
groups. It appears from this study that a cholera-like
clinical condition can be caused in the
absence of CT as exemplified by strains of non-O1 non-O139.