To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An association between psychiatric disorders in childhood and the later development of major depressive disorders (MDD) has been suggested. However, no prospective population-based cohort study has been able to directly compare the risks of MDD following a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.
To use a large, register-based cohort to establish whether or not psychiatric disorders in childhood lead to a higher risk of later MDD and, if so, which disorders are associated with the highest risks.
To estimate and compare the risk of later MDD in children diagnosed with one of ten psychiatric disorders
Using Danish population-based registers all persons born in Denmark from 1990 through 2000 were identified and followed from their 5<sup>th</sup> birthday through 2012. Cumulative incidences and incidence rate ratios of MDD following each of ten exposure disorders were calculated
We followed 960,026 persons, contributing 8,778,331 person-years. Among these 7,787 were diagnosed with MDD (incidence=1.7/1000 pyrs).
Diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder led to an absolute risk of MDD within eight years of 1.6% in males and 4.98% in females with early onset (ages 0-14) and 7.02% in males and 15.98% in females with late onset (ages 14-18).
For all groups, anxiety and eating disorders were associated with the highest risks of MDD.
Most disorders were associated with a significantly increased risk of later MDD and children with anxiety and eating disorders carry the greater risk. Future research should focus on common pathways between depression and other psychiatric disorders.
To estimate the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood among children and adolescents with ADHD compared to the background population.
Subjects/materials and methods:
Two hundred and eight youths with ADHD (183 boys; 25 girls) were followed prospectively. Diagnoses of schizophrenia were obtained from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The relative risk (RR) of schizophrenia for cases with ADHD, compared to the normal population, was calculated as risk ratios. Hazard ratios (HR's) by Cox regression were calculated in the predictor analyses.
Mean age for ADHD cases at follow-up was 31.1 years. Schizophrenia diagnoses were given to 3.8% of these cases. Compared to the general population, RR of schizophrenia in cases with ADHD was 4.3 (95% CI 1.9–8.57).
Discussion and conclusion:
This prospective follow-up study found children with ADHD to be at higher risk of later schizophrenia than controls. If replicated, these results warrant increased focus on the possible emergence symptoms of schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis during clinical follow-up of patients with ADHD.
In addition to problems with inattention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD show poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Poor organizational skills are associated with academic underachievement as well as psychosocial, occupational and economic difficulties. Behavioral approaches for ADHD are effective in reducing hyperactivity symptoms and behavioral problems, but the effects on academic functioning have been modest. An increasing emphasis on treatment of organizational skills has emerged in recent years, as difficulties with time management and organization of materials tend to persist and increase with age despite medication and behavioral treatments.
The primary objective is to investigate whether organizational skills training has a positive effect on organizational skills. The secondary and exploratory objectives are to investigate the effect on ADHD symptoms, adaptive functioning, academic performance and cognitive functions with a 24 weeks follow up.
Our goal is to provide cost-effective group-based treatment for children with ADHD and their parents. This will be the first randomized and controlled trial of organizational skills in Denmark.
Participants are included in two sites in Southern Denmark and will be randomized to Organizational skills training or treatment as usual. Organizational skills training will be provided in a group format for children and parents over 10 weeks.
Perspectives Given the strong association between organizational skills and functional outcome, it is very important to address organizational skills in children and adolescents with ADHD as organizational skills deficits hinder the academic performance of even gifted students with ADHD and increase with age.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Norovirus (NoV) infections occur very frequently yet are rarely diagnosed. In Denmark, NoV infections are not under surveillance. We aimed to collect and describe existing laboratory-based NoV data. National NoV laboratory data were collected for 2011–2018, including information on patient identification number, age and sex, requesting physician, analysis date and result. We defined positive patient-episodes by using a 30-day time window and performed descriptive and time series analysis. Diagnostic methods used were assessed through a survey. We identified 15 809 patient-episodes (11%) out of 142 648 tested patients with an increasing trend, 9366 in 2011 vs. 32 260 in 2018. This corresponded with a gradual introduction of polymerase chain reaction analysis in laboratories. The highest positivity rate was in patients aged <5 years (15%) or >85 years (17%). There was a large difference in test performance over five Danish geographical regions and a marked seasonal variation with peaks from December to February. This is the first analysis of national NoV laboratory data in Denmark. A future laboratory-based surveillance system may benefit public health measures by describing trend, burden and severity of seasons and possibly pinpoint hospital outbreaks.
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor that is involved in lipid metabolism and angiogenesis. Animal studies have suggested that the ANGPTL4 protein is modulated by the gut microbiota, possibly through increased concentrations of SCFA, such as C4, found in whole-fat milk or as a result of fermentation of inulin. This study investigated whether a standardised diet either high in fat content or supplemented with inulin powder would increase plasma ANGPTL4 in overweight men and whether this increase was mediated through a compositional change of the gut microbiota. The study had a crossover design with three arms, where participants were given a standardised isoenergetic diet supplemented with inulin powder, whole-fat milk or water (control). Plasma and urine samples were collected before and after each intervention period. Faecal samples and adipose tissue biopsies were collected after each intervention period. The study included twenty-one participants of whom eighteen completed the study. The dietary interventions did not change ANGPTL4 plasma concentration, nor was plasma ANGPTL4 associated with plasma lipids, TAG or NEFA concentration. The relative abundance of bifidobacteria following the inulin diet was higher, compared with the control diet. However, the changes in microbiota were not associated with plasma ANGPTL4 and the overall composition of the microbiota did not change between the dietary periods. Although weight was maintained throughout the dietary periods, weight was negatively associated with plasma ANGPTL4 concentration. In the adipose tissue, ANGPTL4 expression was correlated with leptin expression, but not with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression.
The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9·4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0·05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0·05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0·01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species.
The effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content on performance, nutrient retention efficiency and the de novo lipogenesis of DP origin were examined in triplicate groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed nine extruded experimental diets. In order to trace the metabolic fate of dietary protein, 1·8 % fishmeal was replaced with isotope-labelled whole protein (>98 % 13C). The experiment was divided into a growth period lasting 89 d, growing fish from approximately 140 to 350 g, followed by a 3 d period feeding isotope-enriched diets. Isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify the 13C enrichment of whole-body lipid from dietary DP. Between 18·6 and 22·4 % of the carbon derived from protein was recovered in the lipid fraction of the fish, and between 21·6 and 30·3 % of the total lipid deposited could be attributed to dietary protein. DP retention was significantly improved by reductions in dietary DP:DE ratio, while the opposite was true for apparent digestible lipid retention. Both overall DE retention and whole-body proximate composition of whole fish were largely unaffected by dietary treatments, while feed conversion ratios were significantly improved with increasing dietary energy density. The present study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently utilises dietary nutrients over a wide range of DP:DE ratios and energy densities. In addition, they appear to endeavour a certain body energy status rather than maximising growth, which in the present trial was apparent from inherently high de novo lipogenesis originating from DP.
The effects of replacing a digestible energy source from fat (fish oil) with carbohydrate (wheat starch) on performance, glycogenesis and de novo lipogenesis was examined in triplicate groups of juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed four extruded experimental diets. In order to trace the metabolic fate of dietary starch, 0·7 % wheat starch was replaced with isotope-labelled starch (>98 % 13C). Fish were fed the experimental diets for three consecutive 10 d periods, and isotope ratio MS was applied to quantify 13C enrichment of liver and whole-body glycogen and lipid pools over the three feeding periods. Glycogenesis originating from dietary starch accounted for up to 68·8 and 38·8 % of the liver and whole-body glycogen pools, respectively, while up to 16·7 % of the liver lipid could be attributed to dietary starch. Between 5 and 8 % of dietary starch carbon was recovered in whole-body lipid, and estimated deposition rates of de novo synthesised lipid originating from starch ranged from 18·7 to 123·7 mg/kg biomass per d. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect growth, feed performance or body composition of the fish, while the hepatosomatic index and glycogen content of whole fish and livers correlated directly with dietary starch inclusion level. The study suggests that gilthead sea bream efficiently synthesises glycogen from both dietary starch and endogenous sources. In contrast, lipogenesis from carbon derived from starch seems to play a minor role in overall lipid synthesis and deposition under the specified experimental conditions.
The Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) is being developed as a network of 1-meter spectroscopic telescopes designed for and primarily dedicated to asteroseismology. It is patterned after the highly successful GONG project. The Danish prototype telescope will be installed in Tenerife in early 2011. Ultimately we hope to have as many as 8 identical nodes providing continuous high-resolution spectroscopic observations for targets anywhere in the sky. The primary scientific goals of SONG are asteroseismology and the search for Earth-mass exoplanets. The spectroscopic requirements for these programs push the limits of current technology, but the resulting spectrograph design will enable many secondary science programs with less stringent requirements. Doppler imaging of starspots can be accomplished using continuous observations over several stellar rotations using identical instrumentation at each node. It should be possible to observe the evolution of starspot morphology in real-time, for example. We discuss the design and status of the SONG project in general, and we describe how SONG could be used to probe short timescale changes in stellar surface structure.
Due to its unique long-term coverage and high photometric precision, observations from the Kepler asteroseismic investigation will provide us with the possibility to sound stellar cycles in a number of solar-type stars with asteroseismology. By comparing these measurements with conventional ground-based chromospheric activity measurements we might be able to increase our understanding of the relation between the chromospheric changes and the changes in the eigenmodes.
In parallel with the Kepler observations we have therefore started a programme at the Nordic Optical Telescope to observe and monitor chromospheric activity in the stars that are most likely to be selected for observations for the whole satellite mission. The ground-based observations presented here can be used both to guide the selection of the special Kepler targets and as the first step in a monitoring programme for stellar cycles. Also, the chromospheric activity measurements obtained from the ground-based observations can be compared with stellar parameters such as ages and rotation in order to improve stellar evolution models.
Several areas of stellar observations depend critically on nearly continuous observations of individual objects over very extended periods. Important examples are investigations of stellar oscillations to carry out asteroseismology, and the search for extra-solar planets. To meet this requirement we are establishing the SONG network, consisting of 8 sites with a 1-meter-class telescope with a suitable geographical distribution. These will be optimized for asteroseismology based on Doppler-velocity observations and the characterization of extra-solar planets with photometry, using gravitational microlensing. Funding has been obtained towards the construction of the prototype SONG telescope which will be set up on Tenerife, with first light expected in 2011. The full network will be established in parallel with the tests of the prototype and is planned to be operational in 2014.
This study investigated fluoroquinolone, macrolide resistances and serotype distributions among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children in Bangkok and rural settings during 1991–2000. Phenotypic identification, serotyping, and susceptibility testing were performed by standard microbiological procedures. The predominant serotypes of C. jejuni were Lior 36, 2 and 4 and of C. coli were Lior 8, 29 and 55. Resistance to nalidixic acid increased significantly during 1991–2000 and the frequency of isolates resistant to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin in Bangkok was significantly greater than in rural settings. In 1996–2000, a significant trend was observed in C. jejuni isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin from Bangkok but not for macrolide resistance from both settings. In summary, fluoroquinolone resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates became widespread in both Bangkok and rural settings in Thailand in the 1990s while widespread resistance to macrolides was undetected.
We present recent work undertaken by the Evolution and Seismic Tools Activity (ESTA) team of the CoRoT Seismology Working Group. The new ESTA-Task 3 aims at testing, comparing and optimising stellar evolution codes which include microscopic diffusion of the chemical elements resulting from pressure, temperature and concentration gradients. The results already obtained are globally satisfactory, but some differences between the different numerical tools appear that require further investigations.
The seismology and physics of localized structures beneath the surface of the Sun takes on a special significance with the completion in 2006 of a solar cycle of observations by the ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and by the instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Of course, the spatially unresolved Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BiSON) has been observing for even longer. At the same time, the testing of models of stellar structure moves into high gear with the extension of deep probes from the Sun to other solar-like stars and other multi-mode pulsators, with ever-improving observations made from the ground, the success of the MOST satellite, and the recently launched CoRoT satellite. Here we report the current state of the two closely related and rapidly developing fields of helio- and asteroseimology.
We report the major highlights of variable star research within the past three years. This overview is limited to intrinsically variable stars, because the achievements in variable star research stemming from binarity, or multiplicity in general, is covered by the summary report of Commissions 26 and 42.
This paper is an interim report of our inferences about the hydrostatic structure of the Sun, following the first report of the GONG team in Science (Gough et al., 1996). That work confirms that the spherically averaged structure of the Sun is more or less in agreement with current standard solar models. However, there remain some significant deviations which we regard as important clues to the existence of dynamical phenomena which are not taken into account in standard solar modelling.
The European Union Network ANTENA started to work in October 1993. During these last three years, several collaborative projects have been undertaken. ANTENA has offered a very good opportunity for most of the European people doing asteroseismology to work together. The asteroseismological networks STEPHI and STACC have run within the framework of the project, obtaining fairly good results. New instrumentation has also been developed, such as the Four-Channel Stellar Photometer.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.