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Only a few treatment studies of personality disorders (PD) patients are on longer-term psychotherapy, general outcome measures are used, and follow-up periods are usually short. More studies of long-term therapies, using outcome measures of core psychopathology, are needed.
This study is a dismantling randomized controlled clinical trial, specifically designed to study long-term effects of transference interpretation. Forty-six patients with mainly cluster C personality disorders were randomly assigned to 1 year of dynamic psychotherapy with or without transference interpretations. The outcome measures were remission from PD, improvement in interpersonal functioning, and use of mental health resources in the 3-year period after treatment termination.
After therapy with transference interpretation PD-patients improved significantly more in core psychopathology and interpersonal functioning, the drop-out rate was reduced to zero, and use of health services was reduced to 50%, compared to therapy without this ingredient. Three years after treatment termination, 73% no longer met diagnostic criteria for any PD in the transference group, compared to 44% in the comparison group.
PD-patients with co-morbid disorders improved in both treatment arms in this study. However, transference interpretation improved outcome substantially more. Long-term psychotherapy that includes transference interpretation is an effective treatment for cluster C personality disorders and milder cluster B personality disorders.
Anxiety is the most prevalent psychological disorder among youth, and even following treatment, it confers risk for anxiety relapse and the development of depression. Anxiety disorders are associated with heightened response to negative affective stimuli in the brain networks that underlie emotion processing. One factor that can attenuate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in high-risk youth is parental warmth. The current study investigates whether parental warmth helps to protect against future anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with histories of anxiety and whether neural functioning in the brain regions that are implicated in emotion processing and regulation can account for this link. Following treatment for anxiety disorder (Time 1), 30 adolescents (M age = 11.58, SD = 1.26) reported on maternal warmth, and 2 years later (Time 2) they participated in a functional neuroimaging task where they listened to prerecorded criticism and neutral statements from a parent. Higher maternal warmth predicted lower neural activation during criticism, compared with the response during neutral statements, in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC), right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Maternal warmth was associated with adolescents’ anxiety and depressive symptoms due to the indirect effects of sgACC activation, suggesting that parenting may attenuate risk for internalizing through its effects on brain function.
Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease, in Europe caused by Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica. Many lagomorphs and a variety of small rodents are wildlife species prone to develop clinical disease, while predators and scavengers are relatively resistant and may serve as sentinels. Blood samples from 656 Swedish wild predators and scavengers were serologically investigated using slide agglutination and microagglutination. In the slide agglutination test, 34 seropositive animals were detected, and they were found among all species investigated: brown bear (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo). Due to haemolysis the microagglutination test was more difficult to read at low titres, and only 12 animals were classified as seropositive. F. tularensis subsp. holarctica was detected by a polymerase chain reaction in lymphatic tissues of the head in one brown bear, one red fox and one wolf. The significance of this finding regarding possible latency of infection is not clear. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that all predator and scavenger species included in this study may serve as sentinels for tularaemia in Sweden. Their role as reservoirs is unclear.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Engabreen is an outlet glacier of the Svartisen Ice Cap located in Northern Norway. It is a unique glacier due to the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory which allows direct access to the glacier bed. In this study, we combine both sub- and supraglacial observations with ice-flow modelling in order to investigate conditions at the bed of Engabreen both spatially and temporally. We use the full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice and satellite-based surface-velocity maps from 2010 and 2014 to infer patterns of basal friction. Direct measurements of basal sliding and deformation of lower layers of the ice are used to adjust the ice viscosity and provide essential input to the setup of our model and influence the interpretation of the results. We find a clear seasonal cycle in the subglacial conditions at the higher elevation region of the study area and discuss this in relation to the subglacial hydrological system. Our results also reveal an area with an overdeepening where basal friction is significantly lower than elsewhere on the glacier all year round. We attribute this to either water pooling at the base, or saturated sediments and increased strain heating at this location which softens the ice further.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
We study the use of small counter-rotating cylinders to control the streaming flow past a larger main cylinder for drag reduction. In a water tunnel experiment at a Reynolds number of 47 000 with a three-dimensional and turbulent wake, particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements show that rotating cylinders narrow the mean wake and shorten the recirculation length. The drag of the main cylinder was measured to reduce by up to 45 %. To examine the physical mechanism of the flow control in detail, a series of two-dimensional numerical simulations at a Reynolds number equal to 500 were conducted. These simulations investigated a range of control cylinder diameters in addition to rotation rates and gaps to the main cylinder. Effectively controlled simulated flows present a streamline that separates from the main cylinder, passes around the control cylinder, and reattaches to the main cylinder at a higher pressure. The computed pressure recovery from the separation to reattachment points collapses with respect to a new scaling, which indicates that the control mechanism is viscous.
The flow mechanisms of shape-changing moving bodies are investigated through the simple model of a foil that is rapidly retracted over a spanwise distance as it is towed at constant angle of attack. It is shown experimentally and through simulation that by altering the shape of the tip of the retracting foil, different shape-changing conditions may be reproduced, corresponding to: (i) a vanishing body, (ii) a deflating body and (iii) a melting body. A sharp-edge, ‘vanishing-like’ foil manifests strong energy release to the fluid; however, it is accompanied by an additional release of energy, resulting in the formation of a strong ring vortex at the sharp tip edges of the foil during the retracting motion. This additional energy release introduces complex and quickly evolving vortex structures. By contrast, a streamlined, ‘shrinking-like’ foil avoids generating the ring vortex, leaving a structurally simpler wake. The ‘shrinking’ foil also recovers a large part of the initial energy from the fluid, resulting in much weaker wake structures. Finally, a sharp edged but hollow, ‘melting-like’ foil provides an energetic wake while avoiding the generation of a vortex ring. As a result, a melting-like body forms a simple and highly energetic and stable wake, that entrains all of the original added mass fluid energy. The three conditions studied correspond to different modes of flow control employed by aquatic animals and birds, and encountered in disappearing bodies, such as rising bubbles undergoing phase change to fluid.
Colquitt, Murphy, and Ollander-Krane (Adler et al., 2016) argue that performance ratings are problematic in part because of the problems associated with feedback: Ratees dislike and dismiss performance feedback, raters are reluctant to provide tough feedback, and organizations do not enact research findings about improving feedback processes (Adler et al.). Discarding performance ratings on these grounds is effectively “throwing out the baby with the bath water,” given that we know quite a lot about how to improve the delivery and receptivity of feedback. Our commentary is intended to briefly illustrate ways to leverage research on feedback receptivity to improve performance management systems. Specifically, we focus on (a) cultivating supportive feedback environments, (b) integrating employee coaching into performance management systems, and (c) attending to the characteristics of feedback recipients to understand how they process feedback.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
A bimodal mixture of silver nanoparticles consisting of spheres and triangular nanoplates was synthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3) and polyvinylpyrrolidone with the aid of a microwave reactor system, reducing total reaction time from days to minutes; a specific shape-directing reagent was not used. It is known that freshly prepared solutions of AgNO3 contain a high population of Ag3+, while aged solutions contain fewer trimers. We propose that the product ratios of spheroidal to triangular particles are proportional to the relative population of trimers in solution prior to initiation of the microwave reaction.
Flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was applied to produce nanopowders of Ti1-xMxO2 and Sn1-xMxO2, where x = 0.05 and M = Nb/Sb, for use as catalyst support materials in PEM fuel cells/ electrolysers. FSP powders in the SnO2-IrO2 system were produced for the same applications. Homogenous particle size distribution (5-20 nm) was demonstrated by TEM, supported by BET and XRD analysis. Whereas two polymorphs were indicated for the Ti-based oxides, the Sb/Nb-doped SnO2 powders were single phase. FSP powders of Mn3O4 intended for supercapacitors were produced and the influence of the precursor/solvent mixtures on the physical and electrochemical properties evaluated.
A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present work describes a method to automatically estimate the atomic structure in two-dimensional materials. As an example graphene is chosen, in which the positions of the carbon atoms are reconstructed. Lattice parameters are extracted in the frequency domain and an initial atom positioning is estimated. Next, a plausible neighborhood structure is estimated. Finally, atom positions are adjusted by simulation of a Markov random field model, integrating image evidence and the strong geometric prior. A pristine sample with high regularity and a sample with an induced hole are analyzed. False discovery rate-controlled large-scale simultaneous hypothesis testing is used as a statistical framework for interpretation of results. The first sample yields, as expected, a homogeneous distribution of carbon–carbon (C–C) bond lengths. The second sample exhibits regions of shorter C–C bond lengths with a preferred orientation, suggesting either strain in the structure or a buckling of the graphene sheet. The precision of the method is demonstrated on simulated model structures and by its application to multiple exposures of the two graphene samples.
Radio-echo sounding surveys over the Greenland ice sheet show clear, extensive internal layering, and comparisons with age–depth scales from deep ice cores allow for dating of the layering along the ice divide. We present one of the first attempts to extend the dated layers beyond the ice core drill sites by locating the depth of the Bølling–Allerød transition in >400 flight-lines using an automated fitting method. Results show that the transition is located in the upper one-third of the ice column in the central part of North Greenland, while the transition lowers towards the margin. This pattern mirrors the present surface accumulation, and also indicates that a substantial amount of pre-Holocene ice must be present in central North Greenland.
The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) group is a consortium of eight longitudinal twin studies established to explore the nature of social context effects and gene-environment interplay in late-life functioning. The resulting analysis of the combined data from over 17,500 participants aged 25–102 at baseline (including nearly 2,600 monogygotic and 4,300 dizygotic twin pairs and over 1,700 family members) aims to understand why early life adversity, and social factors such as isolation and loneliness, are associated with diverse outcomes including mortality, physical functioning (health, functional ability), and psychological functioning (well-being, cognition), particularly in later life.