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(1) To investigate if gut microbiota can be a predictor of remission in geriatric depression and to identify features of the gut microbiota that is associated with remission. (2) To determine if changes in gut microbiota occur with remission in geriatric depression.
Secondary analysis of a parent randomized placebo-controlled trial (NCT02466958).
Los Angeles, CA, USA (2016-2018)
Seventeen subjects with major depressive disorder, over 60 years of age, 41.2% female.
Levomilacipran (LVM) or placebo.
Remission was defined by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 6 or less at 12 weeks. 16S-ribosomal RNA sequencing based fecal microbiota composition and diversity were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Differences in fecal microbiota were evaluated between remitters and non-remitters as well as between baseline and post-treatment samples. LVM and placebo groups were combined in all the analyses.
Baseline microbiota showed no community level α-diversity or β-diversity differences between remitters and non-remitters. At the individual taxa level, a random forest classifier created with nine genera from the baseline microbiota was highly accurate in predicting remission (AUC = .857). Of these, baseline enrichment of Faecalibacterium, Agathobacter and Roseburia relative to a reference frame was associated with treatment outcome of remission. Differential abundance analysis revealed significant genus level changes from baseline to post-treatment in remitters, but not in non-remitters.
This is the first study demonstrating fecal microbiota as a potential predictor of treatment response in geriatric depression. Our findings need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies.
Establishing accurate population size estimates (PSE) is important for prioritising and planning provision of services. Multiple source capture−recapture sampling method increases PSE accuracy and reliability. In August 2018, the three-source capture−recapture (3S-CRC) method was employed with a stringent assumption of sample independence to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in Rwanda. Using Rwanda 2017 FSW hotspots mapping data, street and venue-based FSW were sampled at the sector level of each province and tagged with two unique gifts. Each capture was completed within one week to minimise FSW migration between provinces and recall bias. The three captures had 1042, 1204 and 1488 FSW. There were 111 FSW recaptured between captures 1 and 2; 237 between captures 2 and 3; 203 between captures 1 and 3 and 46 captured in all three. The PSE for street and venue-based FSW in Rwanda lies within 95% credible set: 8328–22 806 with corresponding median of 13 716 FSW. The 3S-CRC technique was low-cost and relatively easy to use for PSE in hard-to-reach populations. This estimate provides the basis for determining the denominators to assess HIV programme performance towards FSW and epidemic control and warrants further PSE for home- and cyber-based FSW in Rwanda.
Entropy perturbations generate sound when accelerated/decelerated by a non-uniform flow. Current analytical models provide a good prediction of this entropy noise when the flow cross-sectional area changes are gradual, as is the case for nozzle flows. However, they typically rely on quasi-1-D and isentropic assumptions, and their predictions differ significantly from experimental measurements when sudden area increases are involved. This work uses a theoretical approach to quantitatively identify the main mechanisms responsible for the mismatch. A new form of the acoustic analogy is derived in which the entropy-related source terms are systematically identified for the first time. The theory includes three-dimensional and non-isentropic effects. The approach is applied to the flow through a sudden area expansion, for which the large-scale flow separation creates a recirculation zone. The derived acoustic analogy is simplified for low Mach numbers and frequencies, and solved using a Green's function method. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that the presence and spatial extent of the recirculation zone, rather than the flow non-isentropicity, is the dominant factor causing deviation from predictions from quasi-1-D, isentropic theory.
Opioid use disorder is a major public health crisis, and evidence suggests ways of better serving patients who live with opioid use disorder in the emergency department (ED). A multi-disciplinary team developed a quality improvement project to implement this evidence.
The intervention was developed by an expert working group consisting of specialists and stakeholders. The group set goals of increasing prescribing of buprenorphine/naloxone and providing next day walk-in referrals to opioid use disorder treatment clinics. From May to September 2018, three Alberta ED sites and three opioid use disorder treatment clinics worked together to trial the intervention. We used administrative data to track the number of ED visits where patients were given buprenorphine/naloxone. Monthly ED prescribing rates before and after the intervention were considered and compared with eight nonintervention sites. We considered whether patients continued to fill opioid agonist treatment prescriptions at 30, 60, and 90 days after their index ED visit to measure continuity in treatment.
The intervention sites increased their prescribing of buprenorphine/naloxone during the intervention period and prescribed more buprenorphine/naloxone than the controls. Thirty-five of 47 patients (74.4%) discharged from the ED with buprenorphine/naloxone continued to fill opioid agonist treatment prescriptions 30 days and 60 days after their index ED visit. Thirty-four patients (72.3%) filled prescriptions at 90 days.
Emergency clinicians can effectively initiate patients on buprenorphine/naloxone when supports for this standardized evidence-based care are in place within their practice setting and timely follow-up in community is available.
Nearly 80% of new cases of myopia arise between 9 and 13 years old when puberty development also progresses rapidly. However, little is known about the association between myopia and puberty. We aim to evaluate the association between myopia and menarche, the most important puberty indicator for girls, and to test whether menarche could modify the effects of myopia-related behaviors. The participants came from two consecutive national surveys conducted in 30 provinces in mainland China in 2010 and 2014. We included 102,883 girls (61% had experienced menarche) aged 10–15 years. Risk behaviors for myopia which included sleep duration, homework time, and outdoor activity were measured by self-administrated questionnaire. Myopia was defined according to a validated method, and its relationships with menarche status and behaviors were evaluated by robust Poisson regression models based on generalized estimated equation adjusting for cluster effect of school. We found that postmenarche girls were at 13% (95% confidence interval: 11%–16%) higher risk of myopia than premenarche girls, after adjusting for exact age, urban–rural location, survey year, and four behavioral covariates. Short sleep duration (<7 h/d), long homework time (>1 h/d) and low frequency of weekend outdoor activity tended to be stronger (with higher prevalence ratios associated with myopia) risk factors for myopia in postmenarche girls than in premenarche girls, and their interaction with menarche status was all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Overall, our study suggests that menarche onset may be associated with increased risk of myopia among school-aged girls and could also enhance girls’ sensitivity to myopia-related risk behaviors.
In this paper, the authors propose a culture-centred tool called Speculative Ethnography to support the practice of design for the speculative future. Most explorations of tools and techniques of design for the speculative future focus on materialising the speculation. Instead, Speculative Ethnography provides a guideline to help designers define their speculation through the scientific imagination of the plausible future. It ensures the effectiveness of design for the speculative future and supports the interaction of culture and design for the speculative future.
Introduction: Despite an overall decline in opioid prescriptions in Canada, healthcare visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to opioid-related harms continue to rise for children. Clinicians urgently require high quality synthesized evidence to inform personalized decisions regarding opioid use for children. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the association between short-term therapeutic exposure to opioids and development of opioid use disorder. Methods: A medical librarian conducted a comprehensive search of 10 databases from inception to May 2019. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. Studies were eligible if they reported primary research in English or French, and study participants had short (<14 days) or non-specific duration of therapeutic exposure to opioids before age 18 years. Primary outcome was the development of an opioid use disorder; secondary outcomes included opioid addiction, dependence, misuse, and abuse. Data extraction involved two independent reviewers utilizing a standardized form. Methodological quality was assessed using the NIH tools for observational studies. Results are described narratively. Results: The search identified 4,072 unique citations; 82 were selected for review, and 17 were included (3 retrospective cohort, 4 prospective cohort, and 10 cross-sectional). All studies took place in the USA. A total of 1,562,503 participants were analyzed. Nine studies were administered in schools, 3 used administrative data. While most settings were non-specific, 1 study examined opioid use in dentistry, 1 in trauma, and 1 in organized sports. One comparative study showed an association between short-term therapeutic use and opioid misuse. Two studies showed opioid related adverse events (e.g., overdose) among cohorts exposed to short-term use. The remaining 14 studies did not specify duration of exposure; therefore, confirming whether misuse was due to short-term therapeutic exposure was not possible. Conclusion: A small number of studies in this review suggest an association between short-term opioid use and opioid misuse; however, further analysis is underway with consideration of methodological limitations of the individual studies (final results pending). Careful consideration of the risk and benefits of short-term opioid use should be undertaken prior to prescribing opioids. PROSPERO Registration Number: 122681.
Background: Since January 1, 2016 2358 people have died from opioid poisoning in Alberta. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is the recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and this treatment can be initiated in emergency departments and urgent care centres (EDs). Aim Statement: This project aims to spread a quality improvement intervention to all 107 adult EDs in Alberta by March 31, 2020. The intervention supports clinicians to initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals and provide rapid referrals to OUD treatment clinics. Measures & Design: Local ED teams were identified (administrators, clinical nurse educators, physicians and, where available, pharmacists and social workers). Local teams were supported by a provincial project team (project manager, consultant, and five physician leads) through a multi-faceted implementation process using provincial order sets, clinician education products, and patient-facing information. We used administrative ED and pharmacy data to track the number of visits where bup/nal was given in ED, and whether discharged patients continued to fill any opioid agonist treatment (OAT) prescription 30 days after their index ED visit. OUD clinics reported the number of referrals received from EDs and the number attending their first appointment. Patient safety event reports were tracked to identify any unintended negative impacts. Evaluation/Results: We report data from May 15, 2018 (program start) to September 31, 2019. Forty-nine EDs (46% of 107) implemented the program and 22 (45% of 49) reported evaluation data. There were 5385 opioid-related visits to reporting ED sites after program adoption. Bup/nal was given during 832 ED visits (663 unique patients): 7 visits in the 1st quarter the program operated, 55 in the 2nd, 74 in the 3rd, 143 in the 4th, 294 in the 5th, and 255 in the 6th. Among 505 unique discharged patients with 30 day follow up data available 319 (63%) continued to fill any OAT prescription after receiving bup/nal in ED. 16 (70%) of 23 community clinics provided data. EDs referred patients to these clinics 440 times, and 236 referrals (54%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Available data may under-report program impact. 5 patient safety events have been reported, with no harm or minimal harm to the patient. Discussion/Impact: Results demonstrate effective spread and uptake of a standardized provincial ED based early medical intervention program for patients who live with OUD.
The control of bluff-body wakes for reduced drag and enhanced stability has traditionally relied on the so-called direct-wake control approach. By the use of actuators or passive devices, one can manipulate the aerodynamic loads that act on the rear of the model. An alternative approach for the manipulation of the flow is to move the position of the actuator upstream, hence interacting with an easier-to-manipulate boundary layer. The present paper comprises a bluff-body flow study via large-eddy simulations to investigate the effectiveness of an upstream actuator (positioned at the leading edge) with regard to the manipulation of the wake dynamics and its aerodynamic loads. A rectangular cylinder with rounded leading edges, equipped with actuators positioned at the front curvatures, is simulated at
. A genetic algorithm (GA) optimization is performed to find an effective actuation that minimizes drag. It is shown that the GA selects superharmonic frequencies of the natural vortex shedding. Hence, the induced disturbances, penetrating downstream in the wake, significantly reduce drag and lateral instability. A comparison with a side-recirculation-suppression approach is also presented, the latter case being worse in terms of reduced drag (only 8 % drag reduction achieved), despite the total suppression of the side recirculation bubble. In contrast, the GA optimized case contributes to a 20 % drag reduction with respect to the unactuated case. In addition, the large drag reduction is associated with a reduced shedding motion and an improved lateral stability.
We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effects of strawberry interventions on cardiovascular risk factors. We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to identify eligible studies published before 19 May 2019. The endpoints were blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting blood glucose, endothelial function and inflammatory factors. Pooled analyses were performed using random- or fixed-effects models according to a heterogeneity test. We also conducted sub-group analyses by baseline endpoint levels. We included eleven RCT in this meta-analysis (six for blood pressure, seven for lipid profile, seven for fasting blood glucose and six for C-reactive protein (CRP)). Overall, the strawberry interventions significantly reduced CRP levels by 0·63 (95 % CI −1·04, −0·22) mg/l but did not affect blood pressure, lipid profile or fasting blood glucose in the main analyses. Our analysis stratified by baseline endpoint levels showed the strawberry interventions significantly reduced TC among people with baseline levels >5 mmol/l (−0·52 (95 % CI −0·88, −0·15) mmol/l) and reduced LDL-cholesterol among people with baseline levels >3 mmol/l (−0·31 (95 % CI −0·60, −0·02) mmol/l). There was little evidence of heterogeneity in the analysis and no evidence of publication bias. In summary, strawberry interventions significantly reduced CRP levels and may improve TC and LDL-cholesterol in individuals with high baseline levels.
Psychopathy is characterized by superficial charm, untruthfulness, lack of remorse, antisocial behavior, egocentricity as well as poverty in major affective reactions. This clinical profile has been empirically conceptualized and validated. Recent brain imaging studies suggest abnormal brain activity underlying psychopathic behavior. However, no reliable pattern of altered neural activity has been disclosed so far.
To identify consistent changes of brain activity in psychopaths and to investigate whether these could explain known psychopathology.
First, we used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze brain activation changes in psychopaths across 28 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies reporting 753 foci from 155 analyses (P < 0.05, corrected). Second, we functionally characterized the ensuing regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database (P < 0.05, corrected).
Psychopathy was consistently associated with decreased brain activity in the right amygdala, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), and bilaterally in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Consistently increased activity was observed bilaterally in the fronto-insular cortex (FIC) (Fig. 1). Moreover, we found that the physiological functional role of the candidate regions related to social cognition (DMFPC), cognitive speech and semantic processing (left FIC/LPFC), emotional and cognitive reward processing (right amygdala/FIC) as well as somesthesis and executive functions (RLPFC).
Psychopathy is characterized by abnormal brain activity of bilateral prefrontal cortices and the right amygdala, which mediate psychological functions known to be impaired in psychopaths. Hence, aberrant neural activity can account for pertinent psychopathology in psychopathy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Insecticide resistance is an increasing problem in citrus production. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphornia citri Kuwayama, is recognized as one of the most important citrus pests worldwide and it has developed resistance in areas where insecticides have been overused. The development of insecticide resistance is often associated with fitness costs that only become apparent in the absence of selection pressure. Here, the fitness costs associated with resistance to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were investigated in three agricultural populations of D. citri as compared with susceptible laboratory colonies. Results showed that all field populations had greater resistance than laboratory susceptible colonies. For both thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, a Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-positive (CLas+) colony was more susceptible than the CLas− colony. Resistance ratios ranged from 7.65–16.11 for imidacloprid and 26.79–49.09 for thiamethoxam in field populations as compared with a susceptible, CLas− laboratory strain. Among three resistant field populations, a significantly reduced net reproductive rate and finite rate of population increase were observed in a population from Lake Wales, FL as compared to both susceptible strains. The fecundity of field populations from Lake Wales, FL was statistically lower than both laboratory susceptible populations. Certain changes in morphological characteristics were observed among resistant, as compared, with susceptible strains. Our data suggest fitness disadvantages associated with insecticide resistance in D. citri are related to both development and reproduction. The lower fitness of D. citri populations that exhibit resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides should promote recovery of sensitivity when those populations are no longer exposed to thiamethoxam and/or imidacloprid in the field. The results are congruent with a strategy of insecticide rotation for resistance management.
Significant insights in computational fluid dynamics have been obtained in recent years by adopting the data assimilation methods developed in the meteorology community. We apply the four-dimensional variational method to reconstruct the small scales of three-dimensional turbulent velocity fields with a moderate Reynolds number, given a time sequence of measurement data on a coarse set of grid points. The problem presents new challenges because the evolution of the flow is dominated by the nonlinear vortex stretching and the energy cascade process, which are absent from two-dimensional flows. The results show that, reconstruction is successful when the resolution of the measurement data, given in terms of the wavenumber, is of the order of the threshold value
is the Kolmogorov length scale of the flow. When the data are available over a period of one large eddy turnover time scale, the filtered enstrophy and other small-scale quantities are reconstructed with a 30 % or smaller normalized pointwise error, and a 90 % pointwise correlation. The spectral correlation between the reconstructed and target fields is higher than 80 % for all wavenumbers. Minimum volume enclosing ellipsoids (MVEEs) and MVEE trees are introduced to quantitatively compare the geometry of non-local structures. Results show that, for the majority samples, errors in the locations and the sizes of the reconstructed structures are within 15 %, and those in the orientations are within
. Overall, for this flow, satisfactory reconstruction of the scales two or more octaves smaller is possible if data at large scales are available for at least one large eddy turnover time. In comparison, a direct substitution scheme results in three times bigger pointwise discrepancy in enstrophy. The spectral difference between the reconstructed and target velocity fields is more than ten times higher than what is obtained with the four-dimensional variational method. The results show that further investigation is warranted to verify the efficacy of the method in flows with higher Reynolds numbers.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with a high risk of suicide. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of suicide attempts (SA) in patients with BD and its associated factors.
A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from their inception to 11 June 2018. The prevalence of SA in BD was synthesised using the random-effects model.
The search identified 3451 articles of which 79 studies with 33 719 subjects met the study entry criteria. The lifetime prevalence of SA was 33.9% (95% CI 31.3–36.6%; I2 = 96.4%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was positively associated with female gender, BD-I, BD Not Otherwise Specified and rapid cycling BD subtypes, income level and geographic region.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA is common in BD and identified a number of factors related to SA. Further efforts are necessary to facilitate the identification and prevention of SA in BD. Long-term use of mood stabilisers coupled with psycho-social interventions should be available to BD patients to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour.
Rumen-protected betaine (RPB) can enhance betaine absorption in the small intestine of ruminants, while betaine can alter fat distribution and has the potential to affect the meat quality of livestock. Hence, we hypothesized that RPB might also affect the meat quality of lambs. Sixty male Hu sheep of similar weight (30.47 ± 2.04 kg) were selected and randomly subjected to five different treatments. The sheep were fed a control diet (control treatment, CTL); 1.1 g/day unprotected-betaine supplemented diet (UPB); or doses of 1.1 g/day (low RPB treatment; L-PB), 2.2 g/day (middle RPB treatment; M-PB) or 3.3 g/day (high RPB treatment; H-PB) RPB-supplemented diet for 70 days. Slaughter performance, meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, shoulder muscle (SM) and gluteus muscle (GM) were measured. Compared with CTL, betaine (including UPB and RPB) supplementation increased the average daily weight gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.01) of lambs. Rumen-protected betaine increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with UPB. With increasing RPB doses, the eye muscle area of the lambs linearly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, betaine supplementation decreased water loss (P < 0.05) in SM and increased pH24 in the SM (P < 0.05) and GM (P < 0.05). Compared with UPB, RPB decreased water loss in the GM (P < 0.01), decreased shear force (P < 0.05) in the LD and SM and increased the pH of the meat 24 h after slaughter (pH24). With increasing RPB doses, the shear force and b* value in the LD linearly decreased (P < 0.05), and the pH24 of the meat quadratically increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, betaine supplementation increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the GM (P < 0.05). Compared with UPB, RPB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the LD (P < 0.05) and increased the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids and UFA/SFA ratio in the LD (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, the content of histidine in the LD increased with betaine supplementation. Compared with UPB, RPB supplementation increased the content of total free amino acids and flavor amino acids in the LD of lambs (P < 0.05). With increasing RPB, the isoleucine and phenylalanine contents in the LD linearly increased (P < 0.05). Overall, the data collected indicated that the meat quality of lambs (especially in the LD) improved as a result of betaine supplementation, and RPB showed better effects than those of UPB.
We recently reported Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao in Tang et al., 2019, from the early Cambrian Hetang Formation in South China and interpreted it as a problematic animal fossil, possibly related to either sponges or bivalved arthropods (Tang et al., 2019). Slater and Budd (2019) contested our taxonomic identification and phylogenetic interpretation; instead, they claimed that Cambrowania ovata is a large acritarch referable to morphotaxon Leiosphaeridia Eisenack, 1958, and thus is not an animal. Here we refute their criticisms, clarify the differences between Cambrowania and Leiosphaeridia and other acritarchs, and reiterate why an animal affinity for Cambrowania cannot be ruled out.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Suicide attempt is an important indicator of suicide and potential future mortality. However, the prevalence of suicide attempts has been inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia and associated correlates.
Relevant publications in Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of science and Cochrane were systematically searched. Data on the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia were pooled using a random-effects model.
Thirty-five studies with 16 747 individuals with schizophrenia were included. The pooled lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 26.8% (95% CI 22.1–31.9%; I2 = 97.0%), while the 1-year prevalence, 1-month prevalence and the prevalence of suicide attempts from illness onset were 3.0% (95% CI 2.3–3.7%; I2 = 95.6%), 2.7% (95% CI 2.1–3.4%; I2 = 78.5%) and 45.9% (95% CI 42.1–49.9%; I2 = 0), respectively. Earlier age of onset (Q = 4.38, p = 0.04), high-income countries (Q = 53.29, p < 0.001), North America and Europe and Central Asia (Q = 32.83, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of suicide attempts.
Suicide attempts are common in individuals with schizophrenia, especially those with an early age of onset and living in high-income countries and regions. Regular screening and effective preventive measures should be implemented as part of the clinical care.
The lower-middle Hetang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2–3) deposited in slope-basinal facies in South China is well known for its preservation of the earliest articulated sponge fossils, providing an important taphonomic window into the Cambrian Explosion. However, the Hetang Formation also hosts a number of problematic animal fossils that have not been systematically described. This omission results in an incomplete picture of the Hetang biota and limits its contribution to the understanding of the early evolution of animals. Here we describe a new animal taxon, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, new genus new species, from the middle Hetang Formation in the Lantian area of southern Anhui Province, South China. Specimens are preserved as carbonaceous compressions, although some are secondarily mineralized. A comprehensive analysis using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-CT reveals that the new species is characterized by a spheroidal to fusoidal truss-like structure consisting of rafter-like crossbars, some of which are secondarily baritized and may have been internally hollow. Some specimens have aperture-like structures that are broadly similar to oscula of sponges, whereas others show evidence of a medial split reminiscent of gaping carapaces. While the phylogenetic affinity of Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. remains problematic, we propose that it may represent carapaces of bivalved arthropods or more likely sponges in early life stages. Along with other problematic metazoan fossils such as hyolithids and sphenothallids, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. adds to the diversity of the sponge-dominated Hetang biota in an early Cambrian deepwater slope-basinal environment.