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High-intensity laser–plasma interactions produce a wide array of energetic particles and beams with promising applications. Unfortunately, the high repetition rate and high average power requirements for many applications are not satisfied by the lasers, optics, targets, and diagnostics currently employed. Here, we aim to address the need for high-repetition-rate targets and optics through the use of liquids. A novel nozzle assembly is used to generate high-velocity, laminar-flowing liquid microjets which are compatible with a low-vacuum environment, generate little to no debris, and exhibit precise positional and dimensional tolerances. Jets, droplets, submicron-thick sheets, and other exotic configurations are characterized with pump–probe shadowgraphy to evaluate their use as targets. To demonstrate a high-repetition-rate, consumable, liquid optical element, we present a plasma mirror created by a submicron-thick liquid sheet. This plasma mirror provides etalon-like anti-reflection properties in the low field of 0.1% and high reflectivity as a plasma, 69%, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Practical considerations of fluid compatibility, in-vacuum operation, and estimates of maximum repetition rate are addressed. The targets and optics presented here demonstrate a potential technique for enabling the operation of laser–plasma interactions at high repetition rates.
High temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) was used to determine the peritectic melting sequence of BI2Sr2CaCu2O8 (Bi-2212) and Bi-2212+20 wt.% Ag thick films on MgO substrates. The optimized sample preparation technique includes tape casting the powders to form 10μm thick films, and reducing the residual carbon concentration to 1600 ppm by careful thermal treatment before the HTXRD measurements. Lattice parameter analyses were used to determine the compositions of solid solutions present in the partially-melted state. Pour phases form during melting Bi-2212 or Bi-2212 + Ag, including an unidentified phase, (C0,4Sr0,6CuO2, (Ca1,4Sr0,6)CuO3, and (Sr,Ca)0.
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary benign brain tumors in adults. Given the extended life expectancy of most meningiomas, consideration of quality of life (QOL) is important when selecting the optimal management strategy. There is currently a dearth of meningioma-specific QOL tools in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we analyze the prevailing themes and propose toward building a meningioma-specific QOL assessment tool. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted, and only original studies based on adult patients were considered. QOL tools used in the various studies were analyzed for identification of prevailing themes in the qualitative analysis. The quality of the studies was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria. Fifteen different QOL assessment tools assessed social and physical functioning, psychological, and emotional well-being. Patient perceptions and support networks had a major impact on QOL scores. Surgery negatively affected social functioning in younger patients, while radiation therapy had a variable impact. Any intervention appeared to have a greater negative impact on physical functioning compared to observation. CONCLUSION: Younger patients with meningiomas appear to be more vulnerable within social and physical functioning domains. All of these findings must be interpreted with great caution due to great clinical heterogeneity, limited generalizability, and risk of bias. For meningioma patients, the ideal QOL questionnaire would present outcomes that can be easily measured, presented, and compared across studies. Existing scales can be the foundation upon which a comprehensive, standard, and simple meningioma-specific survey can be prospectively developed and validated.
Improving compliance with hand hygiene is a cornerstone of infection prevention. However, data regarding practical methods for monitoring compliance are limited. We found that product use metrics have a moderate correlation with direct observation in ward settings and limited correlation in intensive care units.
The objective of this study was to evaluate weed control, crop yields, potential soil loss, and net returns to management of an integrated weed management system in no-till corn and soybean compared to an herbicide-based strategy. The integrated weed management system reduced herbicide inputs by delayed cover crop termination, herbicide banding, and high-residue cultivation (reduced herbicide [RH]), while the other system used continuous no-tillage and herbicides to control weeds (standard herbicide [SH]). Research was conducted within the Penn State Sustainable Dairy Cropping Systems Experiment, where corn and soybean are each planted once in a 6-yr crop rotation. In this 3-yr study, weed density and biomass were often greater under RH management, but weed biomass never exceeded 19 g m–2 in corn and 21 g m–2 in soybean. Corn yield and population did not differ in any year, and net returns to management were $33.65 ha–1 higher in RH corn due to lower herbicide costs and slightly, though not significantly, higher yields. Soybean yield was lower in RH compared to SH in 2 of 3 yr, and was correlated with soybean population and cover crop residue. Net financial returns were $43.69 ha–1 higher in SH soybean compared to RH. Predicted soil loss never exceeded T (maximum allowable soil loss) for any treatment and slope combination, though soil loss was 100% greater on a 10% slope under RH management (vs. SH) due to cultivation.
The discovery and dating of a volcanic ash bed within the upper Phosphoria Formation in SE Idaho, USA, is reported. The ash occurs 11 m below the top of the phosphatic Meade Peak Member and yielded a 206Pb/238U date of 260.57 ± 0.07 / 0.14 / 0.31 Ma, i.e. latest Capitanian, Guadalupian. The stratigraphic position of this ash near the top of the Meade Peak phosphatic Member of Phosphoria Formation indicates plausible completeness of the sedimentation within the Guadalupian–Lopingian and probably at the Permo-Triassic (P-T) transitions. The new radiometric age reveals that the regional biostratigraphy and palaeontology of Phosphoria and Park City formations requires serious reconsideration, particularly in cool water conodonts, bryozoans and brachiopods. The new age proposes that the Guadalupian–Lopingian boundary (GLB) coincides with the Meade Peak – Rex contact and consequently with the end-Guadalupian extinction event. The lack of a major unconformity at the P-T transition suggests that the effects of the Sonoma orogeny were not as extensive as has been assumed.
This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training—Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.
A dual scaffold structure made of biodegradable polymers and seeded with neural stem cells has been developed to address the issues of spinal cord injury including axonal severance and the loss of neurons and glia. The general design of the scaffold is derived the structure of the spinal cord with an outer section which mimics the white matter with long axial pores to provide axonal guidance and an inner section seeded with neural stem cells to address the issues of cell replacement and mimic the general character of the gray matter. The seeded scaffold leads to improved functional recovery as compared with the lesion control or cells alone following spinal cord injury.
Acute periodontal lesions generally respond to conventional therapy. In AIDS patients, however, further deterioration is the usual consequence. Candida albicans(CA) lesions of the oral mucosa have been observed in 88% of AIDS patients; 59% of male homosexual and IV drug abuser oral candidiasis patients subsequently developed AIDS. Indeed HIV may be hard to find in AIDS patients in whom CA lesions are very prominent.
Rapid reproducible silver stains have been developed in our laboratories to detect Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and protozoa. They demonstrate these microorganisms by the microwave-accelerated metallization of the aldehydes produced in their surface carbohydrates or lipopolysaccharides after periodic acid oxidation (Giammara and Hanker, US Patent No. 4,690,901, 1987; Sigma Diagnostics Kit No. HT-100). We thought that these stains might be useful to demonstrate by microscopy the large numbers of CA which culture studies had suggested were present in subgingival plaque at atypical periodontal disease sites of AIDS patients. Direct staining of plaque smears and their evaluation under the light microscope could be done in much less time than that required for culture. Any equivocal microorganisms could be positively identified as CA by immediate examination of the slide or coverslip by scanning electron microscopy. Although our PATS reaction was more valuable for identifying Gram-negative bacteria especially spirochetes and for studying substructure of CA and their epiphytic interactions with bacteria, the SIGMA DIAGNOSTICS Silver Stain HT-100 was much easier to use for rating CA concentration in disease sites. This test was applied to subgingival plaque smears from 28 periodontal disease sites of 22 HIV-seronegative patients and 45 sites of 12 HIV-seropositive patients. After staining, the smears were examined and scored (Davenport Index). None of the 12 HIVseropositive patients but 15 of the 22 HIV-seronegative patients had a score of zero at all sites. The score ranged from 0 (no CA) to 3 (large numbers of CA in all fields). In the seropositive patients the median score was 2 while in the seronegative group it was 0.
The much higher scores obtained in specimens from periodontal disease sites of the AIDS patients suggest that this simple rapid test might be valuable for screening individuals and indicating those requiring further testing or monitoring for AIDS.
Nanocrystalline TiO2 compacts having initial approximate mean grain sizes of 14 nm and approximate green densities of 70% of theoretical were sintered by short-time exposure in a 2.45 GHz microwave cavity to maximum temperatures of 800, 1000 or 1200 ºC. Sample densities were measured before and after exposure to microwaves using Archimede's method. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were utilized to monitor grain growth and phase changes. Rutherford backscattering was used to monitor any changes in oxygen stoichiometry. The results of this study indicate that enhanced densification behavior is obtained for microwavesintered samples relative to samples sintered using conventional pressureless-sintering techniques.
Microwave-assisted oxidation of trichloroethane (TCE) performed at 500-580°C has been found to be significantly more efficient than conventional oxidation methods. Experiments were conducted using a 6 kW, 2.45 GHz power supply and a 6 inch bed of silicon carbide granules in a 1 inch diameter quartz reactor tube which in turn was placed in a microwave cavity. After heating the reactor to a given temperature a TCE-air stream was passed through the silicon carbide bed. TCE was almost completely detoxified (98-99%) in a single pass through the silicon carbide bed at 500-580°C. The oxidation products are HC1, CO2 and CO. By comparison the corresponding single-pass detoxification using conventional thermal methods results in only partial conversion. The principal products being dichloroethylene (C2H2C12) and HCl.
An experimental method using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to determine the distribution of neutral manganese in a gas tungsten welding arc is described. The theoretical consideration and experimental difficulties encountered when extending LIF techniques from flames to thermal plasmas are discussed, and preliminary results are presented.
This paper reports an application of the planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique to visualize species in a plasma jet. For the experiment, 10 μm manganese particles were injected through a center feed in the cathode of a 8 kW plasma torch. A tunable laser beam (−20 mJ/pulse) was focused by a cylinderical lens into a sheet, approximately 2.4 cm high and 550 μm thick, which passed through the center of the plasma plume, exciting manganese lying within the plane defined by the laser. The fluorescence generated was imaged onto a gated, intensified CID camera, converted to digital format, and processed by an image analyzer to form a 2-D map of the relative manganese vapor concentration within the plasma. The results of this proof-of-principle experiment demonstrate that the PLIF measurement holds considerable promise for obtaining simultaneous spatially resolved measurements of species concentration.
Nanocrystalline copper ferrite (Cu0.5Fe2.5O4) was synthesized using a forward strike gelation method with polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a gelating agent. The dried gel was calcined at a low temperature of 400 °C to get the final powder. The effect of pH and the ratio of the cation to the carboxylic group in the initial gel were studied with respect to both the phases and the crystallite size of the final powders synthesized. Phase and crystallite size analysis were done using x-ray diffraction and TEM. Saturation magnetization results were obtained using a SQUID magnetometer. The reactions occurring in the nano-size copper ferrite, in air as a function of temperature, were tracked using adynamic high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) system.
Many U.S. Army systems, such as ground vehicles and fully equipped soldiers, are comprised of multiple subcomponents which each typically perform unique functions. Combining these functions into single, multifunctional components could reduce mass and improve overall system efficiency. In particular, creating structural materials that also provide power generating or energy storing capacity could provide significant weight savings over a range of platforms. In this study, structural composite batteries, fuel cells, and capacitors are proposed. To ensure performance benefits, these multifunctional composites are designed so that the materials involved in power and energy processes are also load bearing, rather than simply packaged within monofunctional structural materials. Fabrication and design details for these multifunctional systems, as well as structural and power/energy performance results, are reported. Critical material properties and fabrication considerations are highlighted, and important technical challenges are identified.
Samples of CoP3, CoAs3 and CoP1.5As1.5 have been synthesized and their thermoelectric properties measured. All three samples show semiconducting behavior. The Seebeck coefficients of CoP3 and CoAs3 are weakly dependent on temperature and are relatively small with maximum values of about 40 and 50 μV/K, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient of the solid solution gradually decreases with increasing temperature and the values are larger than those of CoP3 and CoAs3 in the temperature range investigated, with a maximum value of about 89 μV/K near room temperature. The thermal conductivity of CoP3 and CoAs3 are higher than that of CoSb3, as can be expected from the effect of anionic size on lattice vibration. A substantial reduction in thermal conductivity was observed for the solid solution compared to the constituent binary compounds due to additional phonon scattering from lattice disorder and other possible point defects such as vacancies. Other compositions in the CoP3-xAsx system have also been synthesized and their thermoelectric properties are currently being investigated to provide essential information about lattice thermal conductivity reduction by point defect scattering and to further develop strategies for optimizing the thermoelectric properties of skutterudite materials.
The performance of the thermoelectric devices and materials is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and K is the thermal conductivity. ZT can be increased by increasing S, increasing σ or decreasing K. We have prepared 100 alternating nanolayered films of SiO2/SiO2+CoSb3 using the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum clusters in the nanolayered superlattice films at the three different fluences to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. We have characterized 100 alternating nanolayered films of SiO2/SiO2+CoSb3 before and after Si ion bombardments as we measured the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient, the cross-plane electrical conductivity, and the cross-plane thermal conductivity for three different fluences.
The performance of the thermoelectric materials and devices is shown by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and K is the thermal conductivity. ZT can be increased by increasing S, increasing σ, or decreasing K. We have prepared 100 alternating multi-nano layer of SiO2/SiO2+Cu superlattice films using the ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The 5 MeV Si ions bombardments have been performed at the different fluences using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to make quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross plane thermal conductivity increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and cross plane electrical conductivity. To characterize the thermoelectric thin films before and after Si ion bombardments we have measured the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient, the cross-plane electrical conductivity, and the cross-plane thermal conductivity for different fluences.