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Three mirrors of the White Cliffs Solar Power Station are currently being used for very high energy γ-ray Astronomy while the University of Adelaide very high energy γ-ray telescope is being designed. Use is made of fast-timing to obtain γ-ray arrival directions to an accuracy approaching 1 °. The experimental arrangement and operation of the telescope is described and our current observing program is outlined.
We report a technique for the formation of infiltrated and inverse opal structures that produces high quality, low porosity conformal material structures. ZnS:Mn and TiO2 were deposited within the void space of an opal lattice by atomic layer deposition. The resulting structures were etched with HF to remove the silica opal template. Infiltrated and inverse opals were characterized by SEM, XRD, and transmission/reflection spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra exhibited features corresponding to strong low and high order photonic band gaps in the (111) direction (γ-L). In addition, deliberate partial infiltrations and multi-layered inverse opals have been formed. The effectiveness of a post-deposition heat treatment for converting TiO2 films to rutile was also studied.
We investigated the effect of social inequalities on the uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, combining data from a feasibility study conducted in 2007–2008 in 2817 secondary schoolgirls in two UK primary-care trusts, with census and child health records. Uptake was significantly lower in more deprived areas (P<0·001) and in ethnic minority girls (P=0·013). The relatively small proportion of parents who actively refused vaccination by returning a negative consent form were more likely to come from more advantaged areas (P<0·001). Non-responding parents were from more deprived (P<0·001) and ethnic minority (P=0·001) backgrounds. Girls who did not receive HPV vaccination were less likely to have received all their childhood immunizations particularly measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). Different approaches may be needed to maximize HPV vaccine uptake in engaged and non-responding parents, including ethnic-specific approaches for non-responders.
Toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study we examined two factors that might enhance binding of toxigenic staphylococci to epithelial cells of infants in the age range in which cot deaths are prevalent: expression of the Lewisa antigen and infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). By flow cytometry we demonstrated that binding of three toxigenic strains of S. aureus to cells from non-secretors was significantly greater than to cells of secretors. Pre-treatment of epithelial cells with monoclonal anti-Lewisa or anti-type-1 precursor significantly reduced bacterial binding (P < 0·01); however, attachment of the bacteria correlated only with the amount of Lewisa antigen detected on the cells (P < 0·01). HEp-2 cells infected with RSV bound significantly more bacteria than uninfected cells. These findings are discussed in context of factors previously associated with SIDS (mother's smoking, bottle feeding and the prone sleeping position) and a hypothesis proposed to explain some cases of SIDS.
LARGE collections of material have been brought back by numerous Arctic Expeditions, and, as many writers have pointed out, much of this raised beach material proves changes of climatic and other ecological conditions during Quaternary times. Before correlation of Quaternary deposits in Spitsbergen and other Arctic lands can become at all certain, it is essential that as many detailed contributions as possible should be made to our total collection of facts.
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