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Recursive formulae satisfied by the Fourier coefficients of meromorphic modular forms on groups of genus zero have been investigated by several authors. Bruinier et al. [‘The arithmetic of the values of modular functions and the divisors of modular forms’, Compositio Math. 140(3) (2004), 552–566] found recurrences for SL(2,ℤ); Ahlgren [‘The theta-operator and the divisors of modular forms on genus zero subgroups’, Math. Res. Lett.10(5–6) (2003), 787–798] investigated the groups Γ0(p); Atkinson [‘Divisors of modular forms on Γ0(4)’, J. Number Theory112(1) (2005), 189–204] considered Γ0(4), and S. Y. Choi [‘The values of modular functions and modular forms’, Canad. Math. Bull.49(4) (2006), 526–535] found the corresponding formulae for the groups Γ+0(p). In this paper we generalize these results and find recursive formulae for the Fourier coefficients of any meromorphic modular form f on any genus-zero group Γ commensurable with SL(2,ℤ) , including noncongruence groups and expansions at irregular cusps. The form of the recurrence relations is well suited for the computation of the Fourier coefficients of the functions and forms on the groups which occur in monstrous and generalized moonshine. The required initial data has, in many cases, been computed by Norton (private communication).
Bile and the bile salts are substances of great importance in connection with typhoid fever. On the one hand, they are extensively used in differential media for the isolation of B. typhosus from the excreta, and in media designed to cultivate the bacillus from the blood; while on the other, the survival of the organism in the gall bladder and its association with gall stones and cholicystitis indicate that bile may play an important rôle in the etiology of the disease. It would appear therefore that a study of the mode of action of bile in culture media for the isolation of B. typhosus might, apart from its bearing on bacteriological technique, incidentally throw light on the far more important question of typhoid fever and the production of typhoid carriers.
While investigating the effects of silica dust and coal dust respectively in the production of respiratory disease in coal miners, we have been struck by the sharp contrast between silicotic coal miners in South Wales as compared with silicotic gold miners in South Africa in their respective liability to pulmonary tuberculosis. Coal miners have always been noted for their relatively low tuberculosis mortality, while gold miners and other workers in hard rock, but exempt from simultaneous exposure to coal dust, are conspicuous for their marked liability to fatal pulmonary tuberculosis in late middle age. And yet the recent findings of Cummins and Sladden (1930) and of the Medical Staff of the Welsh National Memorial Association (1930) indicate that both in the pathological, histological and chemical characters of the lungs of Welsh coal miners and in the X-ray appearances observed in long-service colliers of over forty years of age, there is nothing to distinguish them from Band gold miners suffering from silicosis except the added presence of large amounts of coal dust in the lung tissue of coal miners and their relatively low tuberculosis mortality. This contrast has been discussed by one of us (S.L.C.) in a recent paper (1931) and the suggestion made that the well-known adsorption power of finely divided carbon particles for colloidal substances might be a factor in reducing the liability of the coal miner to pulmonary tuberculosis.
There are many forms of bacterial disease in which the search for the causal organism is complicated by the fact that it is present, not in pure culture, but associated with the number of other bacteria which may or may not be taking part in the infective process.
One of us (S. L. C.), with C. Weatherall and E. T. Waters, published in 1931 the results of some experiments on the adsorption of the active principle of tuberculin by the dust of anthracite coal and showed that the activity of a diluted tuberculin was greatly diminished after contact with pulverized anthracite. In view of this fact, we made the suggestion that some such adsorbent action of autotuberculin by the finely divided coal-dust retained in the lung tissues of silico-anthracotic coal-miners might, perhaps, explain the relative freedom of these latter from the progressive pulmonary tuberculosis so commonly noted as a sequel to silicosis in gold-miners and others exposed to silicious dust free from admixture with coal-dust. These experiments have since been repeated by us with similar results and we, therefore, planned to try out the adsorption effects of other dusts liable to be inhaled in the course of coal-mining in South Wales.
In an article on Pneumonoconiosis published in 1935 I attempted to simplify the problem of lung diseases caused by exposure to dust in industry by means of a classification which might allow of the placing of individual cases into appropriate categories. The importance of some such classification has been emphasized during the past year or so by the gradual realization of the fact that, especially in the South Wales coalfield, cases of more or less disabling lung conditions are frequently met with which cannot conscientiously be fitted into the category of “silicosis”, as defined at the International Conference at Johannesburg in 1930. These cases cannot be “certified” for compensation under existing Statutes, and yet present a picture of respiratory distress and dyspnoea on exertion which marks them out as quite unfit for work.
In 1931 Cummins, Weatherall & Waters investigated the adsorption of tuberculin by anthracite dust and the subject was further investigated by Cummins & Williams in 1938. After the publication by Kettle (1934) of his observation that the intra-tracheal inoculation of kaolin dust mixed with dead tubercle bacilli gave rise to a much greater reaction than did the inoculation of kaolin alone, the result of the mixture being comparable to an early silicotic lesion, the author, thinking that this effect might have been due to adsorption of the products of the bacilli on to the dust, tried the same experiment with a number of other dusts, met with in mines, such as those of silica, sericite and anthracite. He obtained comparable results with all of them, though of different degrees according to the dust used (Cummins, 1940b).
Gye and Kettle (1922), from a study of the effects of subcutaneous inoculation of silica alone, tubercle bacilli alone and tubercle bacilli with silica, arrived at the conclusion that there is, after the introduction of tubercle bacilli with silica, “a much greater local reaction than with an infection of tubercle bacilli alone and, further, that general dissemination is earlier and more active.” As a result, “a small dose of bacilli becomes a dose of considerable magnitude and, inasmuch as an important factor in determining an infectious process is the number of organisms introduced, a simple explanation is forthcoming of the effect of silica upon such tuberculous lesions as we have described.”
Neighbourhood differences in access to fresh fruit and vegetables may explain social inequalities in diet. Investigations have focused on variations in cost and availability as barriers to the purchase and consumption of fresh produce; investigations of quality have been neglected. Here we investigate whether produce quality systematically varies by food store type, rural–urban location and neighbourhood deprivation in a selection of communities across Scotland.
Cross-sectional survey of twelve fresh fruit and vegetable items in 288 food stores in ten communities across Scotland. Communities were selected to reflect a range of urban–rural settings and a food retail census was conducted in each location. The quality of twelve fruit and vegetable items within each food store was evaluated. Data from the Scottish Executive were used to characterise each small area by deprivation and urban–rural classification.
Quality of fruit and vegetables within the surveyed stores was high. Medium-sized stores, stores in small town and rural areas, and stores in more affluent areas tended to have the highest-quality fresh fruit and vegetables. Stores where food is secondary, stores in urban settings and stores in more deprived areas tended have the lowest-quality fresh produce. Although differences in quality were not always statistically significant, patterns were consistent for the majority of fruit and vegetable items.
The study provides evidence that variations in food quality may plausibly be a micro-environmental mediating variable in food purchase and consumption and help partially explain neighbourhood differences in food consumption patterns.
To develop an objective, nutrient-based, healthy eating indicator shopping basket (HEISB) tool for use in studies of access to healthy food.
Tool development used a literature search to identify previous practice, web information on current definition of healthy foods by the UK Food Standards Agency, and population-based dietary surveys to identify culturally acceptable foods. These findings were then appraised with respect to practical fieldwork considerations.
The review took account of surveys undertaken in a range of geographical areas.
Previous tools have varied in the foods selected and the rationale for inclusion. Most have considered nutritional composition but no systematic definition has been used and foods have been subjectively classified as ‘less healthy’ or ‘more healthy’. Recent UK work on nutrient profiling enabled individual food items to be objectively assessed for inclusion. Data from national food surveys enabled commonly consumed and culturally acceptable foods to be identified. Practical considerations included item use in meals, convenience, price, and fieldwork constraints. Other issues including health and price discriminators as well as regional preferences were considered. The final HEISB tool comprised 35 items within the following categories – 17 from fruit and vegetables, nine from potatoes, bread and cereal, five from fish/meats, three from dairy, and one from fatty and sugary foods.
The tool provides a rational basis for examining access and availability of healthy foods in cross-sectional and longitudinal retail and consumer studies.
A tendency to make hasty decisions on probabilistic reasoning tasks and a difficulty attributing mental states to others are key cognitive features of persecutory delusions (PDs) in the context of schizophrenia. This study examines whether these same psychological anomalies characterize PDs when they present in the context of psychotic depression.
Performance on measures of probabilistic reasoning and theory of mind (ToM) was examined in five subgroups differing in diagnostic category and current illness status.
The tendency to draw hasty decisions in probabilistic settings and poor ToM tested using story format feature in PDs irrespective of diagnosis. Furthermore, performance on the ToM story task correlated with the degree of distress caused by and preoccupation with the current PDs in the currently deluded groups. By contrast, performance on the non-verbal ToM task appears to be more sensitive to diagnosis, as patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders perform worse on this task than those with depression irrespective of the presence of PDs.
The psychological anomalies associated with PDs examined here are transdiagnostic but different measures of ToM may be more or less sensitive to indices of severity of the PDs, diagnosis and trait- or state-related cognitive effects.
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency calculated as the difference between an animal’s actual intake and its expected intake based on its liveweight and growth rate over a specified period of time (Richardson, Herd et al. 2002). The efficiency with which an animal utilises energy during growth, is dependent on a number of physiological factors including body composition and the relative proportions of lean tissue mass (LTM) and fat tissue mass (FTM), due to differences in the energy cost of depositing and maintaining these tissues. Protein or lean tissue is continually degraded and resynthesised and thus the rate at which this occurs may contribute to the variation in energy required by an animal for maintenance and growth (Archer, Richardson et al. 1999). The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed:kg gain) and residual feed intake (RFI) with body composition in rams at six months of age (6mo), and then again in the same rams at thirteen months of age (13mo).
In this study the intermolecular interactions of small diameter (∼0.7nm) carbon nanotubes and γ-cyclodextrin were examined. Four samples of γ cyclodextrin and HiPco carbon nanotubes were prepared. The first, by grinding the tubes and the cyclodextrin (1:30 ratio) together in a dry mixture, the second was prepared in a similar fashion but was ground in the presence of water (1ml). Finally an aqueous solution of γ-cyclodextrin (0.3M) and HiPco carbon nanotubes (5mg) was prepared by refluxing for ∼100 hours, forming a pale yellow solution from which a number of crystals were produced, both the solution and the recrystallised material were analysed. The samples were analysed using UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopy. The results presented are the first spectroscopic evidence of an intermolecular interaction between γ-cyclodextrin and single wall nanotubes.
The constructive interference between direct and indirect channels above the absorption threshold of a core level leads to a massive increase in the emission cross section leading to a phenomenon called “resonant photoemission”. Using novel magnetic linear dichroism in angular distribution photoelectron spectroscopy experiment we have tried to understand the nature of the resonant photoemission process in Gd metal. The presence of dichroism in Gd 4f photoemission intensity at a photon energy corresponding to resonant photoemission clearly demonstrates the photoemission-like nature of the resonant photoemission process.