Pyrethroid insecticides were intensively used against Cydia pomonella in the Río Negro and Neuquén valley, main production area of pome fruits in Argentina. Therefore, the first objective was to evaluate lambda-cyhalothrin resistance levels in C. pomonella larvae from orchards in this area that are currently under pyrethroids treatments. The second objective was to evaluate the frequency of kdr mutation in C. pomonella across Argentina. High levels of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (resistance ratios > 30) were determined in all the populations evaluated. The L1014F (kdr) mutation was evaluated in 355 diapausing larvae collected in 12 orchards from San Juan to Santa Cruz provinces (1690 km away from each other). The highest frequency of kdr mutation was determined in larvae from the Río Negro and Neuquén valley (0.61), followed by those from Mendoza (0.36). The kdr allele was absent or present at very low frequencies in orchards subjected to low pyrethroid pressure. The frequency of detection of kdr mutation in C. pomonella from Argentina is related to the use of pyrethroids against this pest in different areas. Target-site insensitivity is, at least, one of the mechanisms involved in resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in codling moth from the Río Negro and Neuquén valley.