To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
In Australia, junglerice and feather fingergrass are problematic weeds in sorghum. The high seed production potential of these weeds increases their seedbank in the soil and makes weed control practices more difficult and expensive, particularly when weeds have evolved resistance to herbicides. A study was conducted to evaluate the seed production and seed retention behavior of junglerice and feather fingergrass at sorghum crop maturity following four transplanting times: 0, 2, 4, and 6 wk after sorghum emergence. Averaged across years, junglerice and feather fingergrass produced 4,060 and 5,740 seeds plant-1, respectively,when they were transplanted with the emergence of a sorghum crop. Seed retention ranged from 42% to 56% for junglerice and 67% to 75% for feather fingergrass when these weeds were transplanted from 0 to 4 wk after crop emergence. A positive correlation (r = 0.75 for junglerice; r = 0.44 for feather fingergrass) was found between seed production and weed biomass in both weeds, indicating that larger plants produced more seeds than smaller plants. However, no correlation was found between weed biomass and seed retention for junglerice. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.44) was found between feather fingergrass biomass and percent seed retention, indicating that seed retention was greater in larger plants compared with smaller plants. Our results suggest that feather fingergrass is a good candidate for harvest weed seed control (HWSC) tactics if crop harvest is timely. There is limited opportunity to use HWSC tactics for targeting junglerice seeds in sorghum crops, because most seeds dispersed before crop maturity. Additional research is required to evaluate seed retention levels of these weeds in other summer crops such as corn and soybean to determine the potential for HWSC for management of these species.
Parthenium hysterophorus is a prolific invasive weed species, which infests many crops in over 40 countries around the world. A 2-year field study was carried out to quantify the potential impacts of this weed on direct-seeded rice. Parthenium weed was allowed to compete for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks after crop emergence, while full season weedy and weed-free plots were maintained as controls. Parthenium weed plants grew taller and attained more biomass as the competition duration prolonged. The yield and yield-related attributes of rice were negatively affected with increasing competition duration. The season-long competition caused the highest reductions in panicle number (28–34%), panicle length (26–27%), grains per panicle (22–23%) and grain yield (33 and 38%) of rice in both years. Weed competition for 2–8 weeks caused 5–34% and 6–33% losses in rice grain yield during both years, respectively. Importantly, Parthenium weed control after 8 weeks of competition did not improve rice yield significantly. The results suggested that Parthenium weed should be controlled in rice fields between 4 and 8 weeks after crop emergence under direct-seeded conditions to avoid over 10% yield losses.
Pre-weaning animals exit a flock through death induced by various reasons, causing significant economic losses to the goat producers. In this study, we investigated the survival from birth to weaning of Sirohi goat kids within framework of the survival analysis. Kid records were accessed from 1997 to 2017, with the information on 4417 pre-weaning animals of farmed Sirohi goat native to the Rajasthan State of India. A multivariable Cox regression was fitted to the data after checking the assumptions of regression. The explanatory variables were sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight, doe weight at kidding and year of birth. Model selection eliminated doe weight from the model, and sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight and year of birth were retained in the model. With model calibration also, these five covariates were retained in the model. The mortality on the first day after birth was 0.3%, constituting 3.5% of all pre-weaning mortality. The mortality until the end of weaning period was 7.8%. Regression analysis revealed that the higher birthweight at kidding was associated with reduced hazard of death among the kids. Male kids had higher hazards of death compared with female kids. The single-born kids had lower risks of death compared with twin-born kids after accounting for heterogeneity. The winter season had a very high adverse effect on the survival of the kids. With each passing year, risks of death decreased. The results of this study indicate that better survival of kids can be achieved by controlling both environmental and animal-related factors.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Glyphosate-resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] crops in Australia. Due to limited herbicide options in mungbean, there is an increased interest in developing integrated management strategies for the sustainable control of E. colona. Pot experiments were conducted in a screenhouse in 2017 and 2018 by growing E. colona plants (glyphosate-resistant [GR] and glyphosate-susceptible [GS] biotypes) alone (1 plant pot−1) and in competition with 4 and 8 mungbean plants pot−1. Both biotypes were developed from a single population using the clone method. The growth and seed production of both GR and GS biotypes were similar in response to mungbean competition. Averaged over biotypes, there was a reduction in the growth and seed production of E. colona as crop plants increased. Compared with the weed plants grown alone, crop interference reduced E. colona height by 17% to 19%, tiller numbers by 69% to 82%, total shoot biomass by 85% to 91%, and inflorescence numbers by 74% to 91%. When E. colona was grown with 8 mungbean plants pot−1, leaf weight ratio increased by 42% compared with plants grown alone. Compared with weed plants grown alone, mungbean interference (4 and 8 plants pot−1) reduced weed seed production by 85% to 95%. These reductions were similar for both biotypes (GR and GS), suggesting that there was no fitness penalty associated with resistance. The results of this study suggest that mungbean interference can reduce E. colona growth and seed production, but it should not be considered as a stand-alone strategy to manage E. colona and similar species in mungbean. These results also highlight the need for integrating crop competition with other management strategies to achieve complete and sustainable management of this weed.
Chloris spp. are warm-season grasses that outcompete crops for scarce resources throughout Australia. In Queensland, mild winters and increased adoption of conservation tillage practices have led to an increase of this warm-season grass family in winter crops. The objective of this study is to understand whether droplet size (nozzle type) effects herbicide efficacy of summer perennial grasses, as previous research found no effect of droplet size (nozzle type) on herbicide efficacy of winter annual grasses. A study to compare droplet-size (nozzle type) effects on control of windmillgrass and its domesticated relative, rhodesgrass, was conducted at the University of Queensland in Gatton, QLD, Australia. Results showed little difference in dry weight reductions for windmillgrass or rhodesgrass across droplet size (nozzle type). Paraquat applications with the TTI nozzle resulted in significantly lower dry weight reductions compared with other droplet-size sprays (nozzle types) for rhodesgrass. Glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr, and clodinafop resulted in commercially acceptable control for both species, regardless of the droplet size (nozzle type) selected, indicating droplet size (nozzle type) has relatively little impact on the efficacy of these herbicides. Proper nozzle selection can result in control of Chloris spp., a hard to control weed species, while reducing the occurrence of spray drift to nearby sensitive areas.
Soldier thistle [Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass.] is widely distributed throughout rainfed fields across western Iran, where it decreases crop yields and interferes with harvest operations. This study was conducted to determine the influence of different factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of P. acarna. Freshly harvested seeds were dormant and required an after-ripening period for breaking dormancy. Seed germination was greatly promoted by light. Germination occurred over a wide spectrum of constant and fluctuating temperature regimes, ranging from 5 to 35 C, with highest germination at constant (74%) and fluctuating (94%) temperatures of 20 and 20/10 C. Seed germination of P. acarna was tolerant to osmotic potential, while salt stress significantly inhibited its germination percentage. pH was not an inhibiting factor for germination of P. acarna seeds. Seedling emergence decreased exponentially with an increase in seed burial depth in the soil; at soil burial depths of 4 cm or greater, no seedlings were able to reach the soil surface. The results suggest that significant seed germination of P. acarna in rainfed fields is possible, and the weed has great potential to spread throughout rainfed systems in western Iran. Based on these results, effective control of P. acarna can be achieved by applying interrow cultivation in row crops and deep tillage at seedbed preparation.
Sesbania [Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers.] is a problematic emerging weed species in Australian cotton-farming systems. However, globally, no information is available regarding its seed germination biology, and better understanding will help in devising superior management strategies to prevent further infestations. Laboratory and glasshouse studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of various environmental factors such as light, temperature, salt, osmotic and pH stress, and burial depth on germination and emergence of two Australian biotypes of S. cannabina. Freshly harvested seeds of both biotypes possessed physical dormancy. A boiling-water scarification treatment (100±2 C) of 5-min duration was the optimum treatment to overcome this dormancy. Once dormancy was broken, the Dalby biotype exhibited a greater germination (93%) compared with the St George biotype (87%). The nondormant seeds of both biotypes showed a neutral photoblastic response to light and dark conditions, with germination marginally improved (6%) under illumination. Maximum germination of both biotypes occurred under an alternating temperature regime of 30/20 and 35/25 C and under constant temperatures of 32 or 35 C, with no germination at 8 or 11 C. Seed germination of both biotypes decreased linearly from 87% to 14% with an increase in moisture stress from 0.0 to −0.8 MPa, with no germination possible at −1.0 MPa. There was a gradual decline in germination for both biotypes when imbibed in a range of salt solutions of 25 to 250 mM, with a 50% reduction in germination occurring at 150 mM. Both biotypes germinated well under a wide range of pH values (4.0 to 10.0), with maximum germination (94%) at pH 9.0. The greatest emergence rate of the Dalby (87%) and St George (78%) biotypes was recorded at a burial depth of 1.0 cm, with no emergence at 16.0 cm. Deep tillage seems to be the best management strategy to stop S. cannabina’s emergence and further infestation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The findings of this study will be helpful to cotton agronomists in devising effective, sustainable, and efficient integrated weed management strategies for the control of S. cannabina in cotton cropping lands.
African turnipweed (Sisymbrium thellungii O. E.Schulz) is an emerging problematic broadleaf weed of the northern grain region of Australia. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, light, salinity, pH, seed burial depth, and the amount of wheat crop residue on germination and emergence of two Australian S. thellungii weed populations (population C, cropped area; population F, fence line). Both populations behaved similarly across different environmental conditions, except in the residue study. Although the seeds of both populations of S. thellungii could germinate under complete darkness, germination was best (~95%) under light/dark conditions at the 20/10 C temperature regime. Both populations of S. thellungii germinated over a wide range of day/night temperatures (15/5, 20/10, 25/15, and 30/20 C). Osmotic stress had negative effects on germination, with 54% seeds (averaged over populations) able to germinate at −0.1MPa. Complete germination inhibition for both populations was observed at −0.8MPa osmotic potential. Both populations germinated at sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 mM, beyond which germination was completely inhibited. There were substantial reductions in seed germination, 32% (averaged over populations) under highly acidic conditions (pH 4.0) as compared with the control (water: pH 6.4). Seed germination of both populations on the soil surface was 77%, and no seedlings emerged from a burial depth of 1 cm. The addition of 6 Mg ha−1 of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue reduced the emergence of the C and F populations of S. thellungii by 75% and 64%, respectively, as compared with the control (no residue). Information gathered from this study provides a better understanding of the factors favorable for germination and emergence of S. thellungii, which will aid in developing management strategies in winter crops, especially wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.).
Burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) is a highly invasive vine that has become naturalized in the humid Black Sea region of Turkey, but previous to this study there was no information on the germination biology of this weed. The germination biology of three naturalized populations of S. angulatus from the Black Sea region was studied in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The germination of nondormant seeds was observed under different photoperiods, constant temperatures, and varying levels of pH, salinity, and osmotic potential. Furthermore, seedling emergence from various soil depths was investigated. The seeds of all populations proved nonphotoblastic (82% to 90%, 55% to 66%, and 48% to 56% germination under 12-, 24-, and 0-h photoperiod, respectively) and germinated over a wide range of temperatures (5 to 40 C). Seedlings emerged from all seed burial depths (0 to 15 cm); however, germination was drastically reduced (>90% reduction) beyond 6 to 8 cm. Seed germination was 30% to 38% for seeds placed on the surface and increased to 78% to 88% for seeds buried 2 cm deep, while germination was severely reduced for seeds buried 10 and 15 cm deep (8 to 12% and 0 to 6%, respectively). Seeds of all populations were found to be sensitive to osmotic and salinity stress and to highly acidic and alkaline pH levels. All populations had similar requirements for germination that are directly related to their area of naturalization. These results indicate that the species has limited potential for range expansion to arid, semiarid (nonirrigated), and relatively saline areas. However, humid, salinity-free, and frequently irrigated areas of the country are at high risk of invasion. In arable lands, deep tillage followed by shallow tillage and effective management of emerging seedlings could deplete the soil seedbank in the long run. However, there is an urgent need for effective strategies to manage the species in other nonarable areas.
Ragweed parthenium is a highly invasive weed species in several countries, including Australia. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature, light, salinity, pH, and moisture on germination of two Australian biotypes of ragweed parthenium: Clermont (highly invasive) and Toogoolawah (noninvasive). Although seeds of both biotypes could germinate under complete darkness, germination was improved by 20% to 49% under a 12-h photoperiod. Both biotypes germinated over a wide range of constant (8 to 35 C), and alternating day/night (15/5 to 35/25 C) temperatures. However, the Clermont biotype exhibited significantly higher germination than Toogoolawah biotype over the range of temperatures studied. Highest germination of Clermont (100%) and Toogoolawah (97%) was observed at constant temperatures of 14 to 23 C and 23 C, respectively. The best alternating day/night temperature for germination of both biotypes was 25/15 C. Clermont also germinated better than Toogoolawah under osmotic- and salt-stress conditions. Osmotic stress had moderate negative effects on germination, with 52% and 36% of the Clermont and Toogoolawah seeds able to germinate at −0.60 MPa, respectively. Complete germination inhibition for both biotypes was observed at an osmotic potential of −1.2 MPa. Both biotypes also germinated at a very high sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration of 250 mM. A 50% reduction in germination of Toogoolawah and Clermont was caused by 99 and 154 mM NaCl, respectively. Germination of the Clermont biotype was not affected by a wide range of pH (4.0 to 10.0), whereas the strong acidic and alkaline pH levels (4.0 and 10.0) caused 18% and 25% reductions in germination of the Toogoolawah biotype compared with control. The Clermont biotype had a higher ability to germinate across all treatments compared with the Toogoolawah biotype, which might be a contributing factor toward the high invasive ability of the former compared with the latter.
Bhutan is a small country in the Himalayan mountains where subsistence agriculture is practiced due to small land holdings and undulating mountainous terrains. Due to diverse altitudinal and agro-ecological environments, many food crops are cultivated. Wheat is currently a secondary cereal, grown over an area of 1,964 ha with a total production of 3,465 Mg. While there are enormous opportunities to increase wheat production in Bhutan, it is challenged by numerous biotic and socio-economic factors such as labour shortage and low economic return. Among the biotic constraints, stripe rust and leaf rust are the most important diseases. Stem rust has not yet been reported. Poor crop nutrition, both through low soil fertility and inadequate external supply, also results in low productivity. In addition, better remunerative crops and affordable-imported products discourage wheat production. However, the availability and accessibility to higher yielding disease-resistant varieties, fertilization (both organic and inorganic), appropriate seed rate, optimum planting time, mechanization, rotation with legumes and expansion of wheat area are some measures that will play a crucial role in managing sustainable wheat production in Bhutan. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of the current scenario of wheat production, discuss the constraints and provide strategic guidance to improve wheat production in Bhutan.
Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the effect of several environmental factors on seed germination of feather fingergrass, one of the most significant emerging weeds in warm regions of the world. Seed germination occurred over a broad range of temperatures (17/7, 25/10, and 30/20 C), but germination being highest at alternating temperatures of 30/20 C under both 12 h light/12 h dark and 24 h dark conditions. Although seed germination was favored by light, some seeds were capable of germinating in the dark. Increasing salt stress decreased seed germination until complete inhibition was reached at 250-mM sodium chloride. Germination decreased from 64 to 0.7% as osmotic potential decreased from 0 to −0.4 MPa, and was completely inhibited at −0.6 MPa. Higher seed germination (> 73%) was observed in the range of pH 6.4 to 8 than the other tested pH levels. Heat shock had a significant effect on seed germination. Germination of seeds placed at 130 C for 5 min was completely inhibited for both dry and presoaked seeds. The results of this study will help to develop protocols for managing feather fingergrass, and to thus avoid its establishment as a troublesome weed in economically important cropping regions.
Green galenia is a South African woody prostrate perennial that was first
recorded in Australia in the early 1900s and has since become a serious
threat to indigenous temperate grasslands and surrounding agricultural
areas. Laboratory and field based experiments were conducted to examine the
effect of environmental factors on the germination and viability of green
galenia seed. It was shown that green galenia was able to germinate over a
broad range of temperatures, but short bursts (5 min) of high temperatures
(80 C to 120 C replicating possible exposures to a fire) reduced seed
germination. Seed germination was positively favored by light, declined
rapidly in darkness, and decreased by > 80% at a depth of only 0.5 cm in
soil. Water stress greatly reduced seed germination (45% germination at
osmotic potentials below −0.2 MPa). Germination was completely inhibited at
water potentials of −0.4 to −1.0 MPa. This species is moderately tolerant to
salinity, with over 50% of seeds germinating at low levels of salinity (60
mM NaCl), and moderate germination (49%) occurring at 120 mM NaCl, it can
germinate well in both alkaline (pH 10–83%) and acidic (pH 4–80%)
conditions. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding
of the germination and emergence of green galenia, and this will assist in
developing tools and strategies for the long term management of this noxious
weed in Victoria and other parts of Australia.
We describe a study of the E–W-trending South Wagad Fault (SWF) complex at the eastern part of the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) in Western India. This basin was filled during Late Cretaceous time, and is presently undergoing tectonic inversion. During the late stage of the inversion cycle, all the principal rift faults were reactivated as transpressional strike-slip faults. The SWF complex shows wrench geometry of an anastomosing en échelon fault, where contractional and extensional segments and offsets alternate along the Principal Deformation Zone (PDZ). Geometric analysis of different segments of the SWF shows that several conjugate faults, which are a combination of R synthetic and R’ antithetic, propagate at a short distance along the PDZ and interact, generating significant fault slip partitioning. Surface morphology of the fault zone revealed three deformation zones: a 500 m to 1 km wide single fault zone; a 5–6 km wide double fault zone; and a c. 500 m wide diffuse fault zone. The single fault zone is represented by a higher stress accumulation which is located close to the epicentre of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7. The double fault zone represents moderate stress at releasing bends bounded by two fault branches. The diffuse fault zone represents a low-stress zone where several fault branches join together. Our findings are well corroborated with the available geological and seismological data.
The north-western Himalaya is one of the rich repositories of wheat genetic resources because of the preponderance of locally developed traditional crop varieties owing to high agro-climatic heterogeneity and local socio-cultural diversity. In the present study, 100 wheat landraces of this diversity rich region were evaluated for variability in physical parameters of seed to understand the basis of resistance against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. The evaluation was based on the parameter of growth index (GI) of S. oryzae in different landraces. GI was correlated with different quantitative physical seed parameters, viz. hardness, length, width, length × width, test weight and qualitative parameter seed colour were studied to work out if these were related to resistance/susceptibility. Based on the parameter of GI, the six landraces viz. IC266831, IC266872, IC393109, IC392578, IC444217 and IC589276 were identified as resistant. Correlation coefficients between GI of S. oryzae and physical parameters of wheat landraces indicated that GI had significant positive relation with length × width (r = +0.573) and test weight (r = +0.549) indicated that small seeds confer resistance to S. oryzae. Also significant negative relation (r = −0.457) with GI of S. oryzae and seed hardness, indicated that hard seeds were relatively more resistant to S. oryzae.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder characterized by appearance of immature, abnormal myeloid cells in bone marrow and other organs. AML accounts for around 15–20% of childhood leukemias. AML is a very heterogeneous disease with various subtypes classified based on the morphology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetics. In spite of advances in recent years, the 5-year survival rates for AML are ~68% for children younger than 15 years and ~57% for children between 15 and 19 years. The utilization of multiple clinical, cytogenetic, and other molecular features that are associated with response has helped in the identification of a patient being more or less likely to respond. Additionally, minimal residual disease (MRD after induction 1) has been identified as a powerful predictor of poor outcome. The nucleoside analog cytarabine (ara-C) has been the mainstay of AML chemotherapy for more than 40 years. However, extensive inter-patient variation in treatment response, development of resistance, and inadequate response to first-line therapy remain the major hurdles to effective chemotherapy. Patients within standard and high-risk categories often experience induction failure and have early relapse, warranting the need for better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. One of the critical components contributing to the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents is variability in the expression and/or activity of genes involved in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This chapter summarizes the recent advances in pediatric AML pharmacogenomics.
Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia
Leukemia is the most common cancer among children, with acute lymphocytic leukemia being the most common and AML being the second most common leukemia in children. Approximately 800 new cases of childhood AML are diagnosed in the US annually (Meshinchi and Arceci, 2007; Pui et al., 2011). AML is a clonal disorder originating from a hematopoietic stem cell or lineage-specific progenitor cells (Jordan, 2007; Lane et al., 2009). The malignant transformation of the stem or progenitor cells results in the accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow and other organs. Prognostic factors help in strategizing the treatment regimens for patients with less or more likelihood of response. As indicated before, AML is a very heterogeneous disease with several subtypes that differ from one another in morphology, immunophenotye, and cytogenetics.
Weeds are a significant problem in crop production and their management in
modern agriculture is crucial to avoid yield losses and ensure food
security. Intensive agricultural practices, changing climate, and natural
disasters affect weed dynamics and that requires a change in weed management
protocols. The existing manual control options are no longer viable because
of labor shortages; chemical control options are limited by ecodegradation,
health hazards, and development of herbicide resistance in weeds. We are
therefore reviewing some potential nonconventional weed management
strategies for modern agriculture that are viable, feasible, and efficient.
Improvement in tillage regimes has long been identified as an impressive
weed-control measure. Harvest weed seed control and seed predation have been
shown as potential tools for reducing weed emergence and seed bank reserves.
Development in the field of allelopathy for weed management has led to new
techniques for weed control. The remarkable role of biotechnological
advancements in developing herbicide-resistant crops, bioherbicides, and
harnessing the allelopathic potential of crops is also worth mentioning in a
modern weed management program. Thermal weed management has also been
observed as a useful technique, especially under conservation agriculture
systems. Last, precision weed management has been elaborated with sufficient
details. The role of remote sensing, modeling, and robotics as an integral
part of precision weed management has been highlighted in a realistic
manner. All these strategies are viable for today's agriculture; however,
site-specific selection and the use of right combinations will be the key to
success. No single strategy is perfect, and therefore an integrated approach
may provide better results. Future research is needed to explore the
potential of these strategies and to optimize them on technological and
cultural bases. The adoption of such methods may improve the efficiency of
cropping systems under sustainable and conservation practices.
Background: The Canadian Neurological Society commissioned a manpower survey in 2012 to assess Canadian neurological manpower and resources.Methods: Surveys were sent electronically to all Canadian neurologists with available email addresses. Responses were analysed for effects of physician gender, age, geographic location (eastern or western Canada) or type of practice (academic, community). Questions focused on work patterns, neurologic conditions treated, access to or performance of procedures, and service and manpower issues.Results: A total of 694 of 854 neurologists in Canada were surveyed and 219 (32%) responded. Respondents were 70% male with mean age of 50 years. Neurologists worked an average of 57 hours/week and saw a mean of 40 patients per week. There were significant differences in number of patients seen, types of practice, and areas of neurological specialization between community and academic neurologists. Fifty percent of neurologists report shortages of neurologists in their community, particularly of general adult neurologists. Wait times for neurological services exceeded international standards for consultations and also were longer than Canadian averages for other specialists. More community (18%) than academic (5%) neurologists planned to retire within the next 5 years.Conclusions: The demand for neurological services continues to outstrip resources despite the increased number of neurologists. Impending retirement of community neurologists will exacerbate manpower issues unless adequate numbers of trainees choose general neurologic practice in the community as a career.