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In this work, simple, low profile, compact quarter-mode substrate-integrated waveguide (QMSIW)-based antennas are proposed for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) at 5.2/5.5 GHz and Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) at 5.8 GHz, respectively. By implementing QMSIW technique, the electrical size of the antenna is reduced up to 1/4th of the conventional circular SIW cavities. Thanks to the quarter mode concept, the antenna size is reduced significantly by preserving its dominant mode. The resonant frequency of the dominant mode TM010 is independently tuned at 5.2, 5.5, and 5.8 GHz after loading the QMSIW cavity with metalized via holes, subsequently. The on-body performance of the antenna is verified on pork tissues at 5.8 GHz and it is found to be insensitive with respect to surroundings. The measured gain and simulated efficiency of the proposed antenna at 5.8 GHz in free space are 4.8 dBi and 92%, while in the proximity of pork tissues values are 3.25 dBi and 57%, respectively. Moreover, the measurement results demonstrate a good matching with the simulation results.
Infantile haemangioma is one of the most commonly known benign vascular tumours of infancy and childhood, having an incidence of 3–10%. Most lesions regress spontaneously; however, some may require treatment owing to their clinical and cosmetic effects. Propranolol has become the treatment of choice for infantile haemangioma, but treatment protocols are largely institutional based without any specific consensus guidelines. Our aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of propranolol use as inpatient versus outpatient therapy.
A decision tree model was created depicting alternate strategies for initiating propranolol treatment on an inpatient versus outpatient basis combined with the option of a pretreatment echocardiogram applied to both strategies. Cost analysis was assumed to be based on treatment of haemangioma in patients who were born at term, had no chronic illnesses, a non-life-threatening location of the haemangioma, and those who were not taking any other medications that could potentiate the side effects of propranolol. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the probability of side effects.
The average cost incurred for inpatient treatment of infantile haemangioma was approximately $2603 for a single hospital day and increased to $2843 with the addition of an echocardiogram. The expected cost of treatment in the outpatient setting was $138, which increased to $828 after the addition of an echocardiogram.
Treating infantile haemangioma with propranolol is more cost-effective when initiated on an outpatient basis.
This study aimed to assess the utility of onlay pectoralis major myofascial flap in preventing pharyngocutaneous fistula following salvage total laryngectomy.
A retrospective analysis was performed of 172 patients who underwent salvage laryngectomy for recurrent carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx between 1999 and 2014. One hundred and ten patients underwent primary closure and 62 patients had pectoralis major myofascial flap onlay.
The overall pharyngocutaneous fistula rate was 43 per cent, and was similar in both groups (primary closure group, 43.6 per cent; onlay flap group, 41.9 per cent; p = 0.8). Fistulae in the onlay flap group healed faster: the median and mean fistula duration were 37 and 55 days, respectively, in the primary closure group and 20 and 25 days, respectively, in the onlay flap group (p = 0.008).
Use of an onlay pectoralis major myofascial flap did not decrease the pharyngocutaneous fistula rate, although fistula duration was shortened. A well-designed randomised-controlled trial is needed to establish parameters for its routine use in clinical practice.
The thyroid gland is removed en bloc during laryngectomy. There are no objective criteria for deciding the extent of thyroid gland resection in primary hypopharyngeal cancer cases. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer and identify the various predictors of this involvement.
This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 358 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer, who underwent total laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai between 2004 and 2010.
The mean age of this population was 61 years. The pyriform sinus was the most common hypopharyngeal subsite involved (in 89 per cent of cases). Most patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy as part of their surgery. The thyroid gland was involved in only 13 per cent of cases.
Thyroid gland involvement is not common in hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases that involved the post-cricoid area, subglottic extension, extralaryngeal spread or prior tracheostomy were associated with a higher risk of thyroid gland involvement. Ipsilateral thyroidectomy is sufficient in most patients undergoing surgery (laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy) for hypopharyngeal cancers.
This study investigated the personality traits of patients with allergic rhinitis. It also examined the association between personality type and the type of allergic rhinitis, and compared this with the general population.
A descriptive observational pilot study was carried out on 50 consecutive cases of allergic rhinitis who presented to the allergy clinic between June and October 2010. These patients were compared with a control group comprising 50 individuals from the general population that had no symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Both groups completed the International Personality Disorder Examination questionnaire for the assessment of personality traits.
Persons falling into cluster C personality type showed a positive correlation with the type and severity of allergic rhinitis. The majority of control group individuals fell into cluster A. This indicated a correlation between allergic rhinitis and a dominant anxious trait compared with the control group.
In psycho-allergological research, the potential relevance of personality factors in the maintenance and exacerbation of atopic symptoms is still a matter of debate. More attention should be paid to the psychological status of allergic rhinitis patients, and appropriate treatment should be provided to improve their symptoms and quality of life.
Of the 45 Muslim majority countries in the world, 42 have signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. While this does indeed signal a motive to improve women's rights, there is wide disparity in terms of which countries expand rights and which do not. Social science literature suggests that in addition to economic factors like wealth and oil resources, or political factors like the quality of democracy in the country, Islamic culture may be at odds with the Western conception of women's rights. We posit that Muslim countries are unique in this regard due to religious pressures that often conflict with conventional measures of human rights. Using data from the Cingranelli-Richards Human Rights Dataset and the Religion and State Project, we find that Muslim countries that restrict the influence of fundamentalist religion in the government and population improve women's economic and social rights.
Food legumes are the main source of dietary protein for a large part of the world's population, and also play an important role in maintaining soil fertility through nitrogen fixation. However, legume yields and production are often limited by large genotype×environment (G×E) interactions that influence the expression of agronomically important, complex quantitative traits. Consequently, genetic improvement has been slower than expected. Molecular marker technology enables genetic dissection of such complex traits, allowing breeders to identify genomic regions on the chromosome that have main effects or interactive effects. A number of genomic resources have been developed in several legume species during the last two decades, and provide a platform for exploiting marker technology. The present paper reviews the available genomic resources in food legumes: linkage maps, high-throughput sequencing technologies, expression sequence tag (EST) databases, genome sequences, DNA chips, targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING), bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries and others. It also describes how these resources are being used to tag and map genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domesticated and other agronomically important traits. This information is important to genetic improvement efforts aiming at improving food and nutrition security worldwide.
X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to characterize the structural and electronic properties of a series of cobalt- and nickel-molybdate catalysts (AMoO4.nH20, α-AMoO4, β-AMoO4; A= Co or Ni). The results of XANES indicate that the Co and Ni atoms are in octahedral sites in all these compounds, while the coordination of Mo varies from octahedral in the a-phases to tetrahedral in the β-phases and hydrate. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction shows a direct transformation of the hydrates into the β-AMoO4 compounds (following a kinetics of first order) at temperatures between 200 and 350 °C. This is facilitated by the similarities that the AMoO4.nH20 and β-AMoO4 compounds have in their structural and electronic properties. The molybdates react with H 2 at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C, forming gaseous water and oxides in which the oxidation state of Co and Ni remains +2 while that of Mo is reduced to +5 or +4. After exposing α-NiMoO4 and P-NiMoO4 to H2S, both metals get sulfided and a NiMoSx phase is formed. For the β phase of NiMoO4 the sulfidation of Mo is more extensive than for the a phase, making the former a better precursor for catalysts of hydrodesulfurization reactions.
It has been experimentally demonstrated that a single layer of silver functions as a “superlens” [Fang et al, Science 308, 534 (2005)], providing image resolution much better than the diffraction limit. Resolution as high as 60 nanometer (λ/6) half-pitch was achieved. In this paper, we explore the possibility of further refining the image resolution using a “multilayer superlens” design. With optimized design of silver-alumina multilayer superlens, our numerical simulations show a feasibility of resolving 15nm features, about 1/26th of the illumination wavelength. We present preliminary experimental results targeted towards achieving the molecular scale imaging resolution. The development of potential low-loss and high resolution superlens opens the door to exciting applications in nanoscale optical metrology and nanomanufacturing.
Chickpea is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Changes in cropping system that necessitate late planting, scope for expansion in rice fallows and the global warming are pushing chickpeas to relatively warmer growing environment. Such changes demand identification of varieties resilient to warmer temperature. Therefore, the reference collection of chickpea germplasm, defined based on molecular characterization of global composite collection, was screened for high temperature tolerance at two locations in India (Patancheru and Kanpur) by delayed sowing and synchronizing the reproductive phase of the crop with the occurrence of higher temperatures ( ≥ 35°C). A heat tolerance index (HTI) was calculated using a multiple regression approach where grain yield under heat stress is considered as a function of yield potential and time to 50% flowering. There were large and significant variations for HTI, phenology, yield and yield components at both the locations. There were highly significant genotypic effects and equally significant G × E interactions for all the traits studied. A cluster analysis of the HTI of the two locations yielded five cluster groups as stable tolerant (n = 18), tolerant only at Patancheru (n = 34), tolerant only at Kanpur (n = 23), moderately tolerant (n = 120) and stable sensitive (n = 82). The pod number per plant and the harvest index explained ≥ 60% of the variation in seed yield and ≥ 49% of HTI at Kanpur and ≥ 80% of the seed yield and ≥ 35% of HTI at Patancheru, indicating that partitioning as a consequence of poor pod set is the most affected trait under heat stress. A large number of heat-tolerant genotypes also happened to be drought tolerant.
A house to house survey was done from October 1972 to March 1974, covering 52952 individuals of urban population at Lucknow and 50156 individuals of rural population of Unnao district, to find out the incidence of polio-like paralysis in our population. Among 12874 urban children up to 8 years old 8·2/1000 had polio-like paralysis while 4·6/1000 children of the rural population of 13554 children were affected. The incidence was significantly higher in the urban population. In the preschool age group almost 1 out of every 100 children was affected. A higher number of children were affected during 1968–9 and 1971–2, though it did not reach epidemic proportion. The findings show that paralytic polio is a serious problem in our country where poliomyelitis is endemic: this is contrary to the views generally held so far.
A study to compare two feeding systems, stall feeding (SF) and grazing plus supplementation (GR) was carried out, based on intake, performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of lambs. While SF animals received ad libitum complete feed blocks (CFB), GR animals were allowed grazing for 8 h on a pasture and supplemented with concentrate mixture at 250 g per head per day. Intake in grazing animals was determined using chromium III oxide as internal marker. Intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and organic matter (OM) were higher ( P < 0.01) in SF than in GR animals. Similarly, digestibility of OM, CP and energy were higher ( P < 0.01) in SF animals. Average daily gain in SF animals (101 g) was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher than in GR animals (78 g) but total wool yield was similar for the two groups (856 g, SF; 782 g, GR). The pH of the rumen content, concentration of total volatile fatty acids and total activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and esterase in the rumen liquor were similar. The concentrations (mg/dl) of total nitrogen (125, SF; 63, GR) and NH3-nitrogen (42, SF; 31, GR) were higher in SF animals than that of GR animals. A significantly higher activity ( P < 0.05) of microcrystalline cellulase (24.5 v. 7.7 units) and lower activity ( P < 0.05) of protease (309 v. 525 units), was observed in the rumen of SF animals than in GR animals. SF animals could therefore harness more energy through degradation of plant cell walls thus reducing breakdown of plant proteins as gluconeogenic source. The SF system of feeding where CFB was offered to sheep appeared superior to GR in terms of intake, nutrient utilisation and animal performance. Therefore the SF feeding system where CFB are offered to animals can be advocated as an alternative to grazing and supplementation feeding strategy for sheep production, especially where the pastures are highly eroded and need resting for regeneration or curing. The CFB feeding can also be adopted under adverse conditions like drought and famine, a common phenomenon in arid and semiarid conditions.
The pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is commonly used for head and neck reconstruction especially in impoverished nations. PMMC is a sturdy pedicled flap with relatively fewer complications, the learning curve is short and no specialized training in microvascular surgery is needed in order to use this flap. In a defect that requires a large skin and mucosal lining the authors routinely use either a bi-paddle PMMC or a combination of PMMC (for the mucosal lining) and a delto-pectoral flap (for the skin defect). It is indisputable that free tissue transfer is a better way of reconstruction for the majority of most such defects. Unfortunately, not all patients can be offered this form of reconstruction due to the cost, time, expertise and infrastructural constraints in high volume centres such as ours. Bi-paddling of PMMC is hazardous in obese males and most female patients. In such patients the skin defect is reconstructed usually by the delto-pectoral (DP) flap but this, for obvious reasons, is less welcomed by the patients. The authors suggest a technique wherein mucosal lining is created by the myofascial lining (inner surface) of the flap and the skin defect is reconstructed by the skin paddle of the single paddle PMMC. It should be considered wherever a DP flap is unacceptable, or bi-paddling or free tissue transfer is not possible.
Etiologic hypotheses for Parkinson’s disease have implicated environmental factors, genetic factors, or a combination of the two.
Data from a survey of elderly Canadians (n = 10,263) with regard to their history of Parkinson’s disease and previous environmental exposures were analyzed. Exposure to various environmental factors was compared between 87 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 2070 elderly controls without Parkinson’s disease.
Exposure to plastic resins (OR (odd ratio) = 8.79), epoxy resins (OR = 6.94), glues (OR = 4.26), paints (OR = 3.84), and petroleum (OR = 2.30) products was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with Parkinson’s disease.
These substances deserve further exploration with respect to the possible development of parkinsonism.