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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with a relatively high toll on the quality of life of the patient and caregiver. It has a high financial, emotional and psychosocial burden. Surprisingly, optimum academic and educational outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia have been a neglected area of research and service provision.
Development of an interview schedule assessing the helpful and hindering factors affecting the educational attainment in persons with schizophrenia.
Twenty-one participant were recruited (11 patients and 10 caregivers) from August 2014 to 2015 using purposive sampling and interviewed in a semi-structured qualitative fashion. Patients were between 16–25 years of age. Data collection and interpretation continued iteratively till saturation of factors was achieved. The list of factors (hindering/helping) was compiled and sent to a panel of 14 experts. They rated the schedule and the individual factors on a Likert scale. Reliability and validity parameters were tested and the final schedule was formulated.
The final schedule contained 17 hindering and 18 helping factors. Detailed instructions to the interviewer for administration of the schedule are included. The factors have been further subdivided into illness related and illness unrelated. Some of the major hindering factors were symptoms of illness, medication side effects, delay in treatment initiation, perceived conflict in parents, lack of motivation. The major helpful factors were adequate symptom control, withholding inpatient care, spirituality, and peer group acceptance.
Service provisions for ensuring optimal educational achievement can be formulated by assessing the felt needs and hindrances of patients and their caregivers.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Rice has the lowest grain protein content (GPC) among cereals. Efforts have been made to improve GPC through the modified bulk-pedigree method of selection. A total of 1780 F8 recombinant lines were derived in the year 2013 from five different cross combinations involving two high-GPC landraces, namely ARC10075 and ARC10063, three high-yielding parents, namely Swarna, Naveen and IR64, and one parent, namely Sharbati, known for superior grain quality with high micronutrient content. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to facilitate high-throughput selection for GPC. Significant selection differential, response to selection and non-significant differences between the predicted and observed response to selection for GPC and protein yield indicated the effectiveness of this selection process. This resulted in lines with high GPC, protein yield and desirable levels of amylose content. Further, based on high mean and stability for GPC and protein yield over the environments in the wet seasons of 2013, 2014 and the dry season of 2014, 12 elite lines were identified. Higher accumulation of glutelin fraction and non-significant change in prolamin/glutelin ratio in the grain suggested safe guarding of the nutritional value of rice grain protein of most of these identified lines. Since rice is the staple food of millions, the output of breeding for high GPC could have a significant role in alleviating protein malnutrition, especially in the developing world.
In this paper, case wise studies have been made to investigate the possibility of propagation of Rayleigh-type wave in a composite structure comprised of two transversely-isotropic material layers with viscoelastic effect. The common interface between the layers is considered to be rigid whereas the base has been considered as rigid, stress-free and yielding in three different cases (Case-I, II and III). Closed-form of frequency equation and damped velocity equation has been established analytically for propagation of Rayleigh-type wave in a composite structure for all three cases. In special cases, frequency equations and damped velocity equations for the case of composite structure with rigid, stress-free and yielding base have been found in well-agreement to the established standard results pre-existing in the literature. Numerical and graphical computation of phase and damped velocity of Rayleigh-type wave propagating in the composite structure comprised of double transversely-isotropic viscoelastic Taylor sandstone material layers (Model-I) and double isotropic viscoelastic material layers (Model-II) have been carried out. Significant effect of anisotropy and width ratio of layers, dilatational and volume viscoelasticity associated with viscoelasticity of layer medium and yielding parameter associated with yielding base of composite structure on phase and damped velocities of Rayleigh-type wave for the considered models have been traced out. The comparative study has been performed to unravel the effect of viscoelasticity over elasticity and anisotropy over isotropy in the present problem.
Bats are known to be reservoirs of several medically important viruses including lyssaviruses. However, no systematic surveillance for bat rabies has been carried out in India, a canine rabies endemic country with a high burden of human rabies. Surveillance for rabies virus (RABV) infection in bats was therefore carried out in Nagaland, a north-eastern state in India at sites with intense human–bat interfaces during traditional bat harvests. Brain tissues and sera from bats were tested for evidence of infection due to RABV. Brain tissues were subjected to the fluorescent antibody test for detection of viral antigen and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for presence of viral RNA. Bat sera were tested for the presence of rabies neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. None of the bat brains tested (n = 164) were positive for viral antigen or viral RNA. However, rabies neutralizing antibodies were detected in 4/78 (5·1%) bat sera tested, suggesting prior exposure to RABV or related lyssaviruses. The serological evidence of lyssaviral infection in Indian bats may have important implications in disease transmission and rabies control measures, and warrant extensive bat surveillance to better define the prevalence of lyssaviral infection in bats.
In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n ⩽ 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10−4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.
Two solid selective media, xylose deoxycholate citrate agar (XDCA) and bile salts brilliant green agar (BBG) and an enrichment broth–alkaline peptone water, were evaluated for the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Alkaline peptone water and XDCA are useful for recovery of Aeromonas but not Plesiomonas, whereas BBG is satisfactory for both organisms.
Inverse Compton scattering is a promising method to implement a high brightness, ultra-short, energy tunable X-ray source at accelerator facilities. We have developed an inverse Compton backscattering X-ray source driven by the multi-10 TW laser installed at Daresbury. Hard X-rays, with spectral peaks ranging from 15 to 30 keV, depending on the scattering geometry, will be generated through the interaction of laser pulses with electron bunches delivered by the energy recovery linac machine, initially known as energy recovery linac prototype and subsequently renamed accelerators and lasers in combined experiments. X-ray pulses containing 9 × 107 photons per pulse will be created from head-on collisions, with a pulse duration comparable to the incoming electron bunch length. For transverse collisions 8 × 106 photons per pulse will be generated, where the laser pulse transit time defines the X-ray pulse duration. The peak spectral brightness is predicted to be ~1021 photons/(s mm2 mrad2 0.1% Δλ/λ).
In the sheared and foliated granitoids of the Proterozoic Gavilgarh–Tan Shear Zone (GTSZ) in central India, two types of pseudotachylite (Pt-M and Pt-C) are recognized. Pt-M layers are interbanded with mylonite and ultramylonite, show strong internal plastic deformation and buckle folding concurrent with the host rocks, and appear to have formed within the greenschist facies (300–400 °C) in the brittle–plastic transitional (semi-brittle) regime. Pt-C layers show sharp contacts with the host rock, exhibit abundant coeval cataclasis, preserve no evidence of subsequent plastic deformation, and formed at shallower depths, at temperature < 300 °C. Sulphide droplets and embayment of quartz grain margins in the pseudotachylite (Pt-C) matrix indicates a melt origin. Ductile shear sense criteria in the host mylonites are consistently sinistral, while those associated with the deformed pseudotachylite (Pt-M) layers are dextral. It appears therefore that the host mylonite/ultramylonite foliation experienced reactivated slip movement in the ‘semi-brittle’ zone when pseudotachylite was generated and subsequently ductilely deformed. The brittle pseudotachylite (Pt-C) layers were generated later at a shallower level, and at a lower temperature. They are spatially associated with a set of foliation-parallel brittle shears with sinistral-sense displacements. The multiple episodes of frictional melt generation within the Gavilgarh–Tan Shear Zone illustrate that it has a complex history of multiple reactivations. It therefore represents an important new area for the study of seismic behaviour of the upper crust along pre-existing structures and may facilitate a better geological understanding of the present seismic activity in the central Indian Shield.
Chattopadhyay et al. [Biosystems (2003),
68, pp. 5-17] proposed and analyzed an N – P model in the presence
of viral infection on phytoplankton population. They studied the
dynamics under the constant nutrient input. The present paper deals
with the problem with seasonal variability on nutrient input. We use
a general periodic function for nutrient input. We observe the
dynamics of the system by considering (i) the infected phytoplankton
consumes nutrient and (ii) the infected phytoplankton is not in a
state to consume nutrient. Conditions for the persistence and
extinction of populations are worked out. Our numerical experiments
show that if the infected phytoplankton does not take nutrient then
susceptible phytoplankton coexists with the infected ones. But if
the infected phytoplankton consumes nutrient then there is a chance
for extinction of susceptible phytoplankton for high rate of
infection. We also observe that periodic nutrient input enforces the
system to enter into chaotic region.
The electron beam welding technique was used to join Zr41Ti14Cu12Ni10Be23 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to crystalline pure Zr. Compositional, microstructural, and mechanical property variations across the welded interface were evaluated. It is shown that a crystalline layer develops close to the welding interface. Transmission electron microscopy of this layer indicates the crystalline phase to be tetragonal with lattice parameters close to that reported for Zr2Ni. However, the composition of this phase is different as it contains other alloying additions. The interface layer close to the bulk metallic glass side contains nanocrystalline Zr2Cu phase embedded in the glassy matrix. Nanoindentation experiments indicate that the hardness of the crystalline layer, although less than the bulk metallic glass, is more than the Zr itself. Commensurately, tensile tests indicate that the failure of the welded samples occurs at the Zr side rather than at the weld joint.
HfO2 films were grown on SiO2/4H-SiC and SiON/4H-SiC layers by evaporation of metallic Hf in an electron beam deposition system followed by thermal oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of HfO2 films. There is no evidence of formation of hafnium silicide or carbon pile up at the surface as well as at the interfacial layer. Electrical measurements show the presence of fewer slow traps in the HfO2/SiON gate dielectric stack on 4H-SiC and comparable values of interface state density. The HfO2/SiON stack layer improves leakage current characteristics with a higher breakdown field and has better reliability under electrical stress.
Polycrystalline diamond films are deposited on p-type Si (100) and n-type SiC (6H) substrates at the low surface deposition temperatures of 370 °C–530 °C using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system in which the surface temperature during deposition is monitored and controlled. A very high growth rate up to 1.3 μm/h on SiC substrate at 530 °C surface temperature is obtained. The room temperature in-plane thermal conductivity of the low-surface-temperature–deposited thin films is measured by a traveling wave method. The diamond films of grain sizes between 3 and 7 μm and deposited at 370 °C showed a high thermal conductivity value of ∼6.5 W/cm-K, which is much higher than the single crystal SiC thermal conductivity value at room temperature. Diamond films deposited on Si and SiC single crystals at higher temperatures showed even higher thermal conductivities of 11–17 W/cm-K. The structure and microstructure of these films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and are related to measured thermal conductivities.
This article explores issues and challenges in the field of education in nanoscience and technology with special emphasis with respect to India, where an expanding programme of research in nano science and technology is in place. The article does not concentrate on actual curricula that are needed in nano science and technology education course. Rather it focuses on the desirability of nanoscience and technology education at different levels of education and future prospect of students venturing into this within the economic and cultural milieu of India. We argue that care is needed in developing the education programme in India. However, the risk is worth taking as the education on nanoscience and technology can bridge the man power gap not only in this area of technology but also related technologies of hardware and micro electronics for which the country is a promising destination at global level. This will also unlock the demographical advantage that India will enjoy in the next five decades.
Sol-gel derived catalyst systems of cobalt, nickel, and iron were used in the growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires by thermal chemical vapor deposition. A diffusion barrier matrix of titania (TiO2) has been used in which the catalysts were dispersed to have control of the catalyst particle sizes and hence on the size and morphology of the GaN nanowires. This single-step and cost-effective processing of the catalyst bed produced good-quality GaN naowires with comparable structural and optical properties with those previously reported. In a particular case, a stress-induced cubic admixture to the otherwise hexagonal structural symmetry was observed. The samples were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and cathodo-luminescence studies.
Thin films with a nominal composition close to Ti62.5Si37.5 were deposited on NaCl substrate at room temperature by pulsed laser ablation to study the evolution of the intermetallic compound Ti5Si3 using a combination of high-resolution and in situ transmission electron microscopy. The as-deposited amorphous films contain Ti-rich clusters, which influence the phase evolution and the decomposition behavior of the amorphous film. These clusters influence the nucleation of a metastable fcc Ti solid solution (ao = 0.433 nm) with composition richer in Ti than Ti62.5Si37.5 as the first phase to crystallize at 773 K. The Ti5Si3 nanocrystals form later, and even at 1073 K they coexist with fine fcc Ti-rich nanocrystals. Subsequent Ar+ ion-milling of the crystallized film results in a loss of silicon. The composition change leads to the dissolution of the Ti5Si3 nanocrystals and evolution of a new metastable Ti-rich fcc phase (ao= 0.408 nm).
We report the synthesis of thin films of B–C–N and C–N deposited by N+ ion-beam-assisted pulsed laser deposition (IBPLD) technique on glass substrates at different temperatures. We compare these films with the thin films of boron carbide synthesized by pulsed laser deposition without the assistance of ion-beam. Electron diffraction experiments in the transmission electron microscope shows that the vapor quenched regions of all films deposited at room temperature are amorphous. In addition, shown for the first time is the evidence of laser melting and subsequent rapid solidification of B4C melt in the form of micrometer- and submicrometer-size round particulates on the respective films. It is possible to amorphize B4C melt droplets of submicrometer sizes. Solidification morphologies of micrometer-size droplets show dispersion of nanocrystallites of B4C in amorphous matrix within the droplets. We were unable to synthesize cubic carbon nitride using the current technique. However, the formation of nanocrystalline turbostratic carbo- and boron carbo-nitrides were possible by IBPLD on substrate at elevated temperature and not at room temperature. Turbostraticity relaxes the lattice spacings locally in the nanometric hexagonal graphite in C–N film deposited at 600 °C leading to large broadening of diffraction rings.
A contender for future generations of CMOS technology is the strained silicon (S-Si) MOSFET. The mobility enhancement in S-Si can be exploited to maintain the performance enhancements demanded by Moore's law with reduced critical dimensions. S-Si is obtained by growth of a thin Si layer over a thick virtual substrate (VS) of relaxed silicon-germanium (SiGe). The mobility of a surface channel MOSFET is dependent on the quality of the silicon-oxide (Si/SiO2) interface. Ge may out diffuse from the virtual substrate to the oxide interface causing an increase in trapping density. As the Ge content in the virtual substrate increases surface roughness also increases. These phenomena both lead to a reduction in mobility.
The study of a matrix of devices having variable Ge composition and S-Si thickness is crucial in deconvolving the contributions of Ge diffusion and wafer cross-hatching roughness on electrical parameters. Increasing VS Ge composition increases the Ge concentration at the SSi/SiO2 interface and cross-hatching amplitude whereas reducing S-Si channel thickness only increases Ge concentration at the S-Si/SiO2 interface and does not increase cross-hatch amplitude. Interface state density, drive current, gate leakage current, transconductance and carrier mobility data are presented for this two-dimensional space of VS composition and S-Si thickness. The relative importance of Ge diffusion and cross-hatching roughness can be seen in this data. The results of this study indicate a lower limit of 7 nm for the S-Si thickness and an upper limit of approximately 20 % Ge in the virtual substrate for the current processing technology. Understanding the performance-limiting mechanisms in S-Si is crucial in the optimisation of VS Ge composition and S-Si thickness for current and future generations of S-Si CMOS.
Silicon nanotips, grown via electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapour deposition, with apex diameters of ∼2nm and lengths of 1000 nm and densities of 1011/cm2 were used as a new substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Ion beam sputtered gold and silver self assemble on these substrates as nanoparticulates of 4–10 nm diameter and these metallic nanoparticulates assist in the surface enhancement of Raman signals of analytes. Molecules such as Rhodamine 6G and bis-Pyridyl ethylene of varied concentrations, in the range of 10-6-10-10 M, has been studied on these substrates and enhancements in the range of 106-108 were observed.