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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer placement on the growth of eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.] and evaluate its interference with container-grown ornamental plants, including Japanese boxwood (Buxus microphylla Siebold & Zucc.) and ligustrum (Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton). Results indicated that subdressing reduced E. prostrata shoot weight by 28%, 42%, and 46% at depths of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, respectively, in comparison with a topdressed fertilizer treatment (a standard industry practice). Presence of E. prostrata reduced the growth of both ornamental species. Ligustrum shoot weight decreased as subdressing depth increased, while boxwood growth was most notably reduced at the 7.5-cm depth in comparison with topdressed containers. Overall, results indicated that subdressing may be an effective weed management strategy, but subdressing depth needs to be based on initial liner size to prevent possibly delays in production time.
Weed management in container crops is primarily accomplished through frequent PRE herbicide applications and supplemental hand weeding. However, many ornamental species are sensitive to herbicides, and a significant number of tropical plants, ornamental grasses, and foliage crops have not been screened for herbicide tolerance. As nursery crops are produced in inert substrates that are largely composed of bark or peat, strategic fertilizer placement has the potential to significantly reduce weed growth in container-grown ornamentals. Growth and reproduction of three common container nursery weed species, eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.], large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], and spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata L.), were evaluated following fertilization via alternative methods, including subdressing or dibbling in comparison with industry standard practices of topdressing or incorporating a controlled-release fertilizer (17-5-11 [8 to 9 mo.]) to each 3.8-L container at 36.5 g per container. Fertilizer placement had little to no effect on germination of Eclipta prostrata or D. sanguinalis, but incorporation increased E. maculata germination by 77% to 183% compared with other placements or a nonfertilized control. Subdressing reduced seed production by 94%, 63%, and 92% for Eclipta prostrata, D. sanguinalis, and E. maculata, respectively, compared with the average number of seeds produced in the conventional placement methods (average of incorporation and topdressing). Dibbling fertilizer resulted in similar decreases in the case of D. sanguinalis and E. maculata, while Eclipta prostrata produced no seeds when fertilizer was dibbled. Similar to reductions observed in reproduction, subdressing fertilizer resulted in biomass decreases of 90%, 81%, and 85% compared with the average biomass of the incorporation and topdressed placements. Results suggest alternative fertilizer placements could be implemented as part of an integrated weed management program in container production to reduce weed growth.
Skunk-vine (Paederia foetida L.) is an invasive vine native to eastern and southern Asia and is widely distributed in Florida, Hawaii, and other southeastern U.S. states; however, little research has focused on herbicide control. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to determine efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, fluroxypyr, glyphosate, imazapic, triclopyr amine, and triclopyr ester at low and high labeled rates when foliar applied to P. foetida at various growth stages in greenhouse experiments. Longer-term control was evaluated in field experiments in central Florida using the same herbicides. PRE herbicides labeled for use in landscape plantings, including dimethenamid-P, flumioxazin, indaziflam, isoxaben, and prodiamine, were also evaluated in greenhouse trials by seeding containers with P. foetida seed. In greenhouse experiments, POST herbicides, including aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, glyphosate, both triclopyr formulations, and the high rate of fluroxypyr (0.24 kg ae ha−1), provided >90% control across all growth stages at 4 mo after treatment with no regrowth observed. Imazapic provided 49% to 89% control, with efficacy decreasing with P. foetida size, and generally provided less control than other treatments. Field experiments confirmed results from greenhouse studies. In PRE trials, flumioxazin and prodiamine provided better control than all other PRE herbicides evaluated, reducing shoot weights by 99% and 84%, respectively, compared with nontreated controls. Our data suggest all herbicides evaluated POST could potentially be used to manage P. foetida, although less control was achieved with imazapic compared with other herbicides. Further research is needed to determine herbicide efficacy on more mature plants and to develop application methods that would be less injurious to non-target vegetation. In landscapes, flumioxazin or prodiamine could be used for PRE control, but POST options that are labeled for landscape use should be identified in future research.
Artilleryweed is an annual or short-lived perennial weed that is becoming increasingly problematic in nurseries and landscapes in tropical and subtropical environments. Currently, no herbicide recommendations exist for management of artilleryweed. Objectives of this trial were to evaluate PRE and POST herbicides for efficacy on artilleryweed. All studies were conducted in Apopka, FL in a shaded greenhouse. Herbicides evaluated for POST control included diquat, dimethenamid-P, flumioxazin, glufosinate, glyphosate, indaziflam, oxadiazon, pelargonic acid, sulfentrazone and sulfosulfuron applied at their highest labelled rates to mature (10 to 12 cm height) artilleryweed. For PRE experiments, pots were overseeded with artilleryweed seed and treated with dimethenamid-P, indaziflam, isoxaben, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen+prodiamine, oxyfluorfen+pendimethalin, pendimethalin, pendimethalin+dimethenamid-P, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, S-metolachlor, or trifluralin+isoxaben. When assessing both initial fresh weight and regrowth, flumioxazin and glufosinate provided the most consistent POST control when applied at the highest labelled rate, although regrowth did occur following application with glufosinate. All PRE herbicides evaluated provided over 90% control of artilleryweed with the exception of isoxaben and trifluralin+isoxaben. Results indicate that several effective options exist for artilleryweed management, but more effective control will likely be achieved when herbicides are applied PRE.
Although primarily used as an effective PRE herbicide, indaziflam has been shown to provide early POST control of some weeds commonly found in nursery production. Previous investigation on the early POST efficacy of indaziflam focused on the liquid formulation, and the ability of the granular formulation to provide early POST weed control is unknown. Nursery trials were conducted to evaluate early POST control of oxalis using two formulations of indaziflam. Oxalis seeds were surface sown to nursery containers at two separate dates and grown until they reached the two- to four-leaf stage (2-4L) and six- to eight-leaf stage. Both growth stages were treated with indaziflam at 12.6, 25.1, 50.2, and 100.4 g ai ha−1 using either a granular (G) or liquid (SC) formulation. A chemical control treatment (glyphosate) and a nontreated control were also included for comparison. The SC formulation provided > 90% control of both oxalis growth stages at all four rates and was similar to glyphosate. The G formulation at 12.6 and 25.1 g ha−1 only provided marginal control, but overall performed similarly to the SC formulation at the 50.2 and 100.4 g ha−1 rate in most experiments. In contrast to the SC formulation, the G formulation is labeled for use over the top of container-grown nursery crops. Results of this research indicate that in areas where oxalis is the primary weed of concern, the G formulation of indaziflam could be applied to control small oxalis up to the 2-4L stage at the currently labeled rate (50.2 g ha−1).
Alligatorweed is a perennial, invasive weed in southern United States rice production, but knowledge on effective management of this weed is limited, especially in conventional (non-imidazolinone-resistant) rice fields. Field studies were conducted in multiple environments in southeastern Texas to evaluate different herbicide options involving penoxsulam, propanil, triclopyr, halosulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, bensulfuron, and quinclorac for alligatorweed control in conventional drill-seeded rice when applied at early POST (EPOST), late POST (LPOST), or both. Among the herbicide options evaluated, penoxsulam alone (up to 83%), penoxsulam plus triclopyr (up to 87%), or bispyribac-sodium plus triclopyr (92%) provided superior alligatorweed control. Plots treated with penoxsulam plus triclopyr EPOST produced the highest yields (9,550 kg ha−1), which were comparable to plots receiving penoxsulam plus triclopyr LPOST (9,320 kg ha−1), penoxsulam alone EPOST (9,280 kg ha−1), and penoxsulam plus halosulfuron LPOST (9,180 kg ha−1). Considering both weed control and rice grain yields, penoxsulam plus triclopyr applied EPOST was found to be the best option among the treatments tested. The treatments bensulfuron alone, bensulfuron plus propanil, penoxsulam plus propanil, triclopyr plus propanil, and bispyribac-sodium plus propanil provided poor (≤ 65%) alligatorweed control. Results also suggest the likelihood for antagonistic interactions when tank-mix combinations tested in this study included propanil.
This paper provides an overview of interpolation of Banach and Hilbert spaces, with a focus on establishing when equivalence of norms is in fact equality of norms in the key results of the theory. (In brief, our conclusion for the Hilbert space case is that, with the right normalizations, all the key results hold with equality of norms.) In the final section we apply the Hilbert space results to the Sobolev spaces
and an open
. We exhibit examples in one and two dimensions of sets
for which these scales of Sobolev spaces are not interpolation scales. In the cases where they are interpolation scales (in particular, if
is Lipschitz) we exhibit examples that show that, in general, the interpolation norm does not coincide with the intrinsic Sobolev norm and, in fact, the ratio of these two norms can be arbitrarily large.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
The genus Saltisedes Kubota, 1944 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae: Tmesiphorini) is redefined and three new species are described and illustrated: S. hainanensis Yin and Nomura, new species (China), S. kojimai Nomura and Yin, new species (Japan), and S. yahiroi Nomura and Yin, new species (Malaysia). Saltisedes brunneus Kubota, 1944 (Japan), the only previously known species is redescribed. Stethotaphrus Newton and Chandler is placed as a junior synonym of Saltisedes, the placement results in the following new combinations: Saltisedes clavatus (Raffray, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes hamotoides (Schaufuss, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes javanicus (Raffray, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes longispina (Raffray, 1903), new combination, and Saltisedes weiri (Chandler, 2001), new combination. A list of known Saltisedes species is included and a key to the species from continental Asia and Japan is presented.
Children's assignment of novel words to nameless objects, over objects whose names they know (mutual exclusivity; ME) has been described as a driving force for vocabulary acquisition. Despite their ability to use ME to fast-map words (Preissler & Carey, 2005), children with autism show impaired language acquisition. We aimed to address this puzzle by building on studies showing that correct referent selection using ME does not lead to word learning unless ostensive feedback is provided on the child's object choice (Horst & Samuelson, 2008). We found that although toddlers aged 2;0 at risk for autism can use ME to choose the correct referent of a word, they do not benefit from feedback for long-term retention of the word–object mapping. Further, their difficulty using feedback is associated with their smaller receptive vocabularies. We propose that difficulties learning from social feedback, not lexical principles, limits vocabulary building during development in children at risk for autism.
In the treatment of children and adolescents with leukemia, nursing care complements and extends the efforts of other members of the healthcare team. The focus of nursing care is on the long-term as well as immediate needs of patients and their families and, therefore, includes strategies to prevent or manage complications and sequelae of the disease and its treatment. Another integral aspect of nursing care is assisting individual patients and families in achieving their developmental goals during treatment and follow-up.
This chapter, in addition to describing some of the challenges of nursing care of the child or adolescent with leukemia and providing practice recommendations specific to selected aspects of their care, offers a framework within which these aspects can be addressed and applies this framework to several practice examples. The supportive care framework includes six categories of needs and nine possible treatment phases in the spectrum of the cancer experience, as well as influencing factors that should be taken into consideration for each individual patient and family. The relationships between nursing strategies and both the identified supportive care needs and the phase of care are illustrated in examples of several major concerns that can arise in the treatment of childhood leukemia. For convenience, the examples are based primarily on the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the same principles apply to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other leukemias in children. Whenever possible, the focus is on evidence-based practice.
We consider scattering of a time harmonic incident plane wave by a convex polygon with piecewise constant impedance boundary conditions. Standard finite or boundary element methods require the number of degrees of freedom to grow at least linearly with respect to the frequency of the incident wave in order to maintain accuracy. Extending earlier work by Chandler-Wilde and Langdon for the sound soft problem, we propose a novel Galerkin boundary element method, with the approximation space consisting of the products of plane waves with piecewise polynomials supported on a graded mesh with smaller elements closer to the corners of the polygon. Theoretical analysis and numerical results suggest that the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a prescribed level of accuracy grows only logarithmically with respect to the frequency of the incident wave.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was once considered to be highly associated with intellectual disability and to show a characteristic IQ profile, with strengths in performance over verbal abilities and a distinctive pattern of ‘peaks’ and ‘troughs’ at the subtest level. However, there are few data from epidemiological studies.
Comprehensive clinical assessments were conducted with 156 children aged 10–14 years [mean (s.d.)=11.7 (0.9)], seen as part of an epidemiological study (81 childhood autism, 75 other ASD). A sample weighting procedure enabled us to estimate characteristics of the total ASD population.
Of the 75 children with ASD, 55% had an intellectual disability (IQ<70) but only 16% had moderate to severe intellectual disability (IQ<50); 28% had average intelligence (115>IQ>85) but only 3% were of above average intelligence (IQ>115). There was some evidence for a clinically significant Performance/Verbal IQ (PIQ/VIQ) discrepancy but discrepant verbal versus performance skills were not associated with a particular pattern of symptoms, as has been reported previously. There was mixed evidence of a characteristic subtest profile: whereas some previously reported patterns were supported (e.g. poor Comprehension), others were not (e.g. no ‘peak’ in Block Design). Adaptive skills were significantly lower than IQ and were associated with severity of early social impairment and also IQ.
In this epidemiological sample, ASD was less strongly associated with intellectual disability than traditionally held and there was only limited evidence of a distinctive IQ profile. Adaptive outcome was significantly impaired even for those children of average intelligence.
Relapse prevention for bipolar disorder increases time to relapse but is not available in routine practice.
To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of training community mental health teams (CMHTs) to deliver enhanced relapse prevention.
In a cluster randomised controlled trial, CMHT workers were allocated to receive 12 h training in enhanced relapse prevention to offer to people with bipolar disorder or to continue giving treatment as usual. The primary outcome was time to relapse and the secondary outcome was functioning.
Twenty-three CMHTs and 96 service users took part. Compared with treatment as usual, enhanced relapse prevention increased median time to the next bipolar episode by 8.5 weeks (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.45–1.38). Social and occupational functioning improved with the intervention (regression coefficient 0.68, 95% CI 0.05–1.32). The clustering effect was negligible but imprecise (intracluster correlation coefficient 0.0001, 95% CI 0.0000–0.5142).
Training care coordinators to offer enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder may be a feasible effective treatment. Large-scale cluster trials are needed.
A collection of 308 clinical isolates of β-haemolytic Lancefield group C streptococci was assembled from laboratories in England. Nigeria and New Zealand. Of these, 276 isolates were Streptococcus equisimilis. 23 S. milleri and nine S. zooepidemicus. Isolates of S. equisimilis in the African collection, though few, gave higher rates of lactose and raffinose fermentation, aesculin hydrolysis and positive α-galactosidase reactions than those from elsewhere. Erythromycin resistance was found in 1·9% of the English isolates of S. equisimilis.Strains from superficial infections accounted for 88 % of the collection and were most commonly isolated from the upper respiratory tract, skin or wounds. Amongst the 36 patients yielding isolates from deep sites S. equisimilis was found in septicaemia, cellulitis, abscess, peritonitis, septic arthritis, pneumonia, mycotic aneurysm and acute epiglottitis. S. milleri was found in abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, pleural empyema and osteomyelitis and S. zooepidemicus was found in septicaemia, pneumonia, meningitis and septic arthritis. Within the collection an unselected general catchment of 214 isolates of group C streptococci from the laboratories in Yorkshire showed the following species: from 199 superficial infections 94% S. equisimilis. 5% S. milleri and 1% S. zooepidemicus and 15 patients with
deeper, more agressive infections 67, 27 and 6·7% of these species respectively.
Visible-light-driven Ag3VO4 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis method. Under various hydrothermal conditions, the structures of silver vanadates were tuned by manipulating the hydrothermal time and the ratio of silver to vanadium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the powders prepared in a stoichiometric ratio consisted of pure α-Ag3VO4 or mixed phases of Ag4V2O7 and α-Ag3VO4. With increasing the Ag-to-V mole ratio to 6:1, the resulting samples were identified as pure monoclinic structure α-Ag3VO4. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that silver vanadate particles had strong visible light absorption with associated band gaps in the range of 2.2-2.5 eV. The sample synthesized in the excess silver exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that synthesized in a stoichiometric ratio. The powder synthesized at silver-rich at 140℃ for 4 h (SHT4) exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all samples. The reactivity of SHT4 (surface area, 3.52 m2 g-1) on the decomposition of gaseous benzene was about 16 times higher than that of P25 (surface area, 49.04 m2 g-1) under visible light irradiation. A well developed crystallinity of Ag3VO4 of SHT 4 was considered to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency.