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Skunk-vine (Paederia foetida L.) is an invasive vine native to eastern and southern Asia and is widely distributed in Florida, Hawaii, and other southeastern U.S. states; however, little research has focused on herbicide control. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to determine efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, fluroxypyr, glyphosate, imazapic, triclopyr amine, and triclopyr ester at low and high labeled rates when foliar applied to P. foetida at various growth stages in greenhouse experiments. Longer-term control was evaluated in field experiments in central Florida using the same herbicides. PRE herbicides labeled for use in landscape plantings, including dimethenamid-P, flumioxazin, indaziflam, isoxaben, and prodiamine, were also evaluated in greenhouse trials by seeding containers with P. foetida seed. In greenhouse experiments, POST herbicides, including aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, glyphosate, both triclopyr formulations, and the high rate of fluroxypyr (0.24 kg ae ha−1), provided >90% control across all growth stages at 4 mo after treatment with no regrowth observed. Imazapic provided 49% to 89% control, with efficacy decreasing with P. foetida size, and generally provided less control than other treatments. Field experiments confirmed results from greenhouse studies. In PRE trials, flumioxazin and prodiamine provided better control than all other PRE herbicides evaluated, reducing shoot weights by 99% and 84%, respectively, compared with nontreated controls. Our data suggest all herbicides evaluated POST could potentially be used to manage P. foetida, although less control was achieved with imazapic compared with other herbicides. Further research is needed to determine herbicide efficacy on more mature plants and to develop application methods that would be less injurious to non-target vegetation. In landscapes, flumioxazin or prodiamine could be used for PRE control, but POST options that are labeled for landscape use should be identified in future research.
Artilleryweed is an annual or short-lived perennial weed that is becoming increasingly problematic in nurseries and landscapes in tropical and subtropical environments. Currently, no herbicide recommendations exist for management of artilleryweed. Objectives of this trial were to evaluate PRE and POST herbicides for efficacy on artilleryweed. All studies were conducted in Apopka, FL in a shaded greenhouse. Herbicides evaluated for POST control included diquat, dimethenamid-P, flumioxazin, glufosinate, glyphosate, indaziflam, oxadiazon, pelargonic acid, sulfentrazone and sulfosulfuron applied at their highest labelled rates to mature (10 to 12 cm height) artilleryweed. For PRE experiments, pots were overseeded with artilleryweed seed and treated with dimethenamid-P, indaziflam, isoxaben, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen+prodiamine, oxyfluorfen+pendimethalin, pendimethalin, pendimethalin+dimethenamid-P, prodiamine, prodiamine+isoxaben, S-metolachlor, or trifluralin+isoxaben. When assessing both initial fresh weight and regrowth, flumioxazin and glufosinate provided the most consistent POST control when applied at the highest labelled rate, although regrowth did occur following application with glufosinate. All PRE herbicides evaluated provided over 90% control of artilleryweed with the exception of isoxaben and trifluralin+isoxaben. Results indicate that several effective options exist for artilleryweed management, but more effective control will likely be achieved when herbicides are applied PRE.
Although primarily used as an effective PRE herbicide, indaziflam has been shown to provide early POST control of some weeds commonly found in nursery production. Previous investigation on the early POST efficacy of indaziflam focused on the liquid formulation, and the ability of the granular formulation to provide early POST weed control is unknown. Nursery trials were conducted to evaluate early POST control of oxalis using two formulations of indaziflam. Oxalis seeds were surface sown to nursery containers at two separate dates and grown until they reached the two- to four-leaf stage (2-4L) and six- to eight-leaf stage. Both growth stages were treated with indaziflam at 12.6, 25.1, 50.2, and 100.4 g ai ha−1 using either a granular (G) or liquid (SC) formulation. A chemical control treatment (glyphosate) and a nontreated control were also included for comparison. The SC formulation provided > 90% control of both oxalis growth stages at all four rates and was similar to glyphosate. The G formulation at 12.6 and 25.1 g ha−1 only provided marginal control, but overall performed similarly to the SC formulation at the 50.2 and 100.4 g ha−1 rate in most experiments. In contrast to the SC formulation, the G formulation is labeled for use over the top of container-grown nursery crops. Results of this research indicate that in areas where oxalis is the primary weed of concern, the G formulation of indaziflam could be applied to control small oxalis up to the 2-4L stage at the currently labeled rate (50.2 g ha−1).
We describe our complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources with fluxes >0.5 Jy selected from the Parkes 2700 MHz catalogue. The sample covers all right ascensions and declinations from +10° to −45°, but excluding the galactic plane (b < 10°), and contains some 400 sources.
Texas Bio-Nuclear is a proprietary establishment engaged in offering C14 dating by the liquid-scintillation method as a service to those institutions and individuals who have a need for such a service. The Laboratory began actual dating operations in December 1961. The first few months were devoted to processing check samples in order to establish the reliability of the system. The dates listed below are not inclusive of all our dating, since the dates we furnish our clients are their property and the publishing of this information is their decision.
Alligatorweed is a perennial, invasive weed in southern United States rice production, but knowledge on effective management of this weed is limited, especially in conventional (non-imidazolinone-resistant) rice fields. Field studies were conducted in multiple environments in southeastern Texas to evaluate different herbicide options involving penoxsulam, propanil, triclopyr, halosulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, bensulfuron, and quinclorac for alligatorweed control in conventional drill-seeded rice when applied at early POST (EPOST), late POST (LPOST), or both. Among the herbicide options evaluated, penoxsulam alone (up to 83%), penoxsulam plus triclopyr (up to 87%), or bispyribac-sodium plus triclopyr (92%) provided superior alligatorweed control. Plots treated with penoxsulam plus triclopyr EPOST produced the highest yields (9,550 kg ha−1), which were comparable to plots receiving penoxsulam plus triclopyr LPOST (9,320 kg ha−1), penoxsulam alone EPOST (9,280 kg ha−1), and penoxsulam plus halosulfuron LPOST (9,180 kg ha−1). Considering both weed control and rice grain yields, penoxsulam plus triclopyr applied EPOST was found to be the best option among the treatments tested. The treatments bensulfuron alone, bensulfuron plus propanil, penoxsulam plus propanil, triclopyr plus propanil, and bispyribac-sodium plus propanil provided poor (≤ 65%) alligatorweed control. Results also suggest the likelihood for antagonistic interactions when tank-mix combinations tested in this study included propanil.
This paper provides an overview of interpolation of Banach and Hilbert spaces, with a focus on establishing when equivalence of norms is in fact equality of norms in the key results of the theory. (In brief, our conclusion for the Hilbert space case is that, with the right normalizations, all the key results hold with equality of norms.) In the final section we apply the Hilbert space results to the Sobolev spaces
and an open
. We exhibit examples in one and two dimensions of sets
for which these scales of Sobolev spaces are not interpolation scales. In the cases where they are interpolation scales (in particular, if
is Lipschitz) we exhibit examples that show that, in general, the interpolation norm does not coincide with the intrinsic Sobolev norm and, in fact, the ratio of these two norms can be arbitrarily large.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
The genus Saltisedes Kubota, 1944 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae: Tmesiphorini) is redefined and three new species are described and illustrated: S. hainanensis Yin and Nomura, new species (China), S. kojimai Nomura and Yin, new species (Japan), and S. yahiroi Nomura and Yin, new species (Malaysia). Saltisedes brunneus Kubota, 1944 (Japan), the only previously known species is redescribed. Stethotaphrus Newton and Chandler is placed as a junior synonym of Saltisedes, the placement results in the following new combinations: Saltisedes clavatus (Raffray, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes hamotoides (Schaufuss, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes javanicus (Raffray, 1882), new combination, Saltisedes longispina (Raffray, 1903), new combination, and Saltisedes weiri (Chandler, 2001), new combination. A list of known Saltisedes species is included and a key to the species from continental Asia and Japan is presented.
Children's assignment of novel words to nameless objects, over objects whose names they know (mutual exclusivity; ME) has been described as a driving force for vocabulary acquisition. Despite their ability to use ME to fast-map words (Preissler & Carey, 2005), children with autism show impaired language acquisition. We aimed to address this puzzle by building on studies showing that correct referent selection using ME does not lead to word learning unless ostensive feedback is provided on the child's object choice (Horst & Samuelson, 2008). We found that although toddlers aged 2;0 at risk for autism can use ME to choose the correct referent of a word, they do not benefit from feedback for long-term retention of the word–object mapping. Further, their difficulty using feedback is associated with their smaller receptive vocabularies. We propose that difficulties learning from social feedback, not lexical principles, limits vocabulary building during development in children at risk for autism.
In the treatment of children and adolescents with leukemia, nursing care complements and extends the efforts of other members of the healthcare team. The focus of nursing care is on the long-term as well as immediate needs of patients and their families and, therefore, includes strategies to prevent or manage complications and sequelae of the disease and its treatment. Another integral aspect of nursing care is assisting individual patients and families in achieving their developmental goals during treatment and follow-up.
This chapter, in addition to describing some of the challenges of nursing care of the child or adolescent with leukemia and providing practice recommendations specific to selected aspects of their care, offers a framework within which these aspects can be addressed and applies this framework to several practice examples. The supportive care framework includes six categories of needs and nine possible treatment phases in the spectrum of the cancer experience, as well as influencing factors that should be taken into consideration for each individual patient and family. The relationships between nursing strategies and both the identified supportive care needs and the phase of care are illustrated in examples of several major concerns that can arise in the treatment of childhood leukemia. For convenience, the examples are based primarily on the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the same principles apply to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other leukemias in children. Whenever possible, the focus is on evidence-based practice.
We consider scattering of a time harmonic incident plane wave by a convex polygon with piecewise constant impedance boundary conditions. Standard finite or boundary element methods require the number of degrees of freedom to grow at least linearly with respect to the frequency of the incident wave in order to maintain accuracy. Extending earlier work by Chandler-Wilde and Langdon for the sound soft problem, we propose a novel Galerkin boundary element method, with the approximation space consisting of the products of plane waves with piecewise polynomials supported on a graded mesh with smaller elements closer to the corners of the polygon. Theoretical analysis and numerical results suggest that the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a prescribed level of accuracy grows only logarithmically with respect to the frequency of the incident wave.
The crystalline quality of bonded Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers were examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques detect slight structural defects in the SOI layer. If a pure crystalline silicon dielectric function is assumed for the SOI layer, the spectroscopic ellipsometry data fitting yields an unacceptably large discrepancy between the experimental and modeled data. The best fits for all the samples result in a dielectric function of the SOI layer that consists of a physical mixture of crystalline silicon and about 4 % to 7 % of amorphous silicon. Using such a mixture indicates that there are still some defects in the SOI layer when compared with the high-quality bulk crystalline silicon. This observation is further supported by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra of all SOI samples exhibit a feature at about 495 cm−1 that is not observed in the crystalline silicon spectrum. Features similar to the 495 cm−1 feature have been reported in the literature and attributed to dislocations or faults in the silicon lattice.
The hydrolysis chemistry of the tetravalent actinides is discussed based on recent studies with thorium. The coupling of high energy x-ray scattering and single crystal diffraction has provided insight into the structures of the polynuclear complexes formed by hydrolytic reactions of the tetravalent actinides. The success of these experiments with thorium presents many opportunities for the elucidation of the structures and thermodynamic quantities describing the dissolved polynuclear complexes of the heavier actinides.
Fano Effect measurements are the key to direct observation of the Kondo or spin shielding intrinsic to models of electron correlation. The Fano Effect is the observation of spin polarized photoelectron emission from NONMAGNETIC materials, under chirally selective excitation, such as circularly polarized photons. Below are described three spectrometers, with which Fano Effects measurements have been made.
Samples of SIMOX have been prepared by implantation in a high-current implanter (density ≍ 1 mA/cm2) and by annealing at 1300°C for 6 hours. Transmission electron microscopy reveals unusual structure in these samples. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to analyze these structures. Ellipsometric measurements were collected at an angle of incidence of 75. deg, with photon energies from 1.5 to 5.0 eV, and using a rotating polarizer configuration. The measurements were analyzed with three models: a three-layer model, a four-layer model, and a five-layer model. The five-layer model provided the best fit of the three. This model identified a layer of crystalline Si inclusions (“islands”) within the SiO2 layer. A method is presented that provides initial estimates for the thicknesses of the top three layers to help start the regression analysis.
The electronic structure of single crystal UO2 and polycrystalline δ-Pu is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. These two actinide materials exhibit properties consistent with the 5f electrons at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. The results for δ-Pu may be viewed as the 5f electrons exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons. For UO2 where angle-resolved photoemission is available, one observes dispersion in the 5f features indicative of the 5f electrons being influenced by the periodic potential of the lattice rather than purely influenced by the site to which the 5f electrons are generally localized.
We describe here the use of calixarenes, methylene (-CH2-) linked phenolic macrocyclic molecules, to stabilize the formation of quantum-confined (Q-) CdS clusters. Specifically, we focus on the use of an amino-derivatized calixarene, para-[(dimethylamino)- methyl]calixarene, to stabilize Q-CdS clusters which have been characterized by High Resolution TEM (HREM), as well as absorption and emission spectroscopies. Under typical preparative conditions, an average particle diameter of 36 Å is obtained. HREM, in combination with Selected Area Diffraction (SAD), confirms the structure of the clusters as zinc blende CdS. Spectroscopic studies using absorption and emission methods indicate that both particle size and cluster photophysics are sensitive to the ratio of CdS to calixarene.