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Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Agents that block the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) improve glucoregulation in the metabolic syndrome disorder. We evaluated the effects of egg white hydrolysate (EWH), previously shown to modulate the protein abundance of RAS component in vivo, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induce insulin resistance. They were then randomly divided into four groups receiving HFD or HFD supplemented with different concentrations of EWH (1, 2 and 4 %) for another 6 weeks in the first trial. In the second trial, insulin-resistant rats were divided into two groups receiving only HFD or HFD+4 % EWH for 6 weeks. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Insulin signalling and protein abundance of RAS components, gluconeogenesis enzymes and PPARγ were evaluated in muscle, fat and liver. Adipocyte morphology and inflammatory markers were evaluated. In vivo administration of EWH increased insulin sensitivity, improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0·0001) and reduced systemic inflammation (P < 0·05). EWH potentiated insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in muscle (P = 0·0341) and adipose tissue (P = 0·0276), but minimal differences in the protein abundance of tissue RAS components between the EWH and control groups were observed. EWH treatment also reduced adipocyte size (P = 0·0383) and increased PPARγ2 protein abundance (P = 0·0237). EWH treatment yielded positive effects on the inflammatory profile, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in HFD-induced insulin resistance rats. The involvement of local RAS activity requires further investigation.
Introduction: CanadiEM.org is a multi-author open access medical education website which aims to improve emergency care in Canada by building an online community of practice for healthcare practitioners and providing them with high quality, freely available educational resources. It is used by physicians, allied health professionals, and trainees globally. Junior (medical student and/or resident) Editors are key members of the community who are mentored to advance their academic skills and knowledge for their careers and the healthcare field. The program also aims to increase the sustainability of the CanadiEM project by supporting the creation and publishing of online content. We aimed to assess the impact and efficacy of this program while discovering ways to improve it. Methods: The experience of all current and previous Junior Editors were assessed through a survey developed by the authorship team for this purpose. The survey consisted of 48 questions, including 15 multiple choice questions rated using a Likert Scale, 10 open-ended questions, and 23 demographic or binary yes/no questions. The participants' perceptions of their experience, desire for future involvement, and opinions regarding implementation of the program at other medical education websites were assessed using open-ended qualitative questions. These responses were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 28 Junior Editors responded (71.7% of those surveyed). They listed their responsibilities as uploading/copyediting posts, authorship of posts, infographic creation, social media promotion, authorship of podcast summaries, editing of podcasts, and logo design. Results revealed a positive experience across all domains, with participants citing a better experience when compared to previous similar roles. 85.7% (24/28) stated they achieved their expectations from the program, and 82.1% (23/28) would incorporate this program into another medical education website if given the opportunity. Conclusion: Junior Editors reported positive experiences across all responsibilities, with particular value placed on digital and authorship skills development, inspiration for future FOAMed, research engagement, and mentorship/networking. Through collaboration with current team members, we will implement improvement initiatives. Based upon these results, we believe that the Junior Editor model may also be viable within other medical education communities.
Introduction: Today's emergency department sees healthcare system pressures manifest through longer wait times, increased costs, and provider burnout. In the face of questionable sustainability, there is a greater role for training future innovators and entrepreneurs in healthcare. However, there is currently little formal education or mentorship in these areas. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the current and ideal educational practices to foster innovative and entrepreneurial mindsets, with specific interest amongst emergency medicine trainees. Methods: Using a scoping review methodology, the relationship between healthcare and entrepreneurship was explored. OVID, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords “entrepreneurship”, “health education” and “health personnel”, on March 8th, 2018. Results were screened by title, abstract and full text by a team of three calibrated researchers, based upon pre-defined exclusion and inclusion criteria. The final list of papers was reviewed using an extraction tool to identify demographics, details of the paper, and its attitudes and perceptions towards entrepreneurship and innovation. Results: After screening, 59 papers were identified for qualitative analysis. These papers ranged from 1970-2018, mainly from the USA (n = 36). Most papers were commentaries/opinions (n = 35); 11 papers described specific innovations. Entrepreneurship was viewed positively in 45 papers, negatively in 2 papers, and mixed in 12 papers. Common specialties discussed were surgery (n = 9), internal medicine (n = 3), and not specified (n = 44). Emergency medicine was described in one paper. Major themes were: entrepreneurial environment (n = 29), funding and capital (n = 12), idea generation (n = 9), and teaching entrepreneurship (n = 6). Of the 11 innovation papers, the discussion was focused on educational (n = 6) or system (n = 5) innovations. These innovations related to surgery (n = 1), public health (n = 1) and palliative care (n = 1). None of these innovations were specific to emergency medicine. Conclusion: This review indicates a small number of programs focused on promoting innovation and entrepreneurship amongst trainees, but no programs specific to the emergency department. There may be benefit for educators in emergency medicine to consider how to foster a greater innovative spirit in our speciality, so our next generation of physicians can help tackle problems affecting patient care.
Introduction: In 2016, a team at McMaster began developing GridlockED, an educational (or “serious”) board game designed to teach medical learners about patient flow in the emergency department. As serious board games are a relatively new phenomenon in medical education, there is little data on how marketed games are actually used once received by end-users. In this study our goal was to better understand the demographics and game usage for purchasers of the GridlockED board game, which will inform the further improvement or expansion of the game. Methods: Individuals who expressed interest in purchasing gridlockED via our online storefront were sent an anonymous online survey via Google Form. The survey collected demographic and qualitative data with a focus on the respondent's role in medicine, how they have used GridlockED, who they have played GridlockED with, and what changes or additions to GridlockED they would like to see. We also asked about changes for a potential mass-market version of the game targeted towards non-medical individuals. Individuals who did not purchase the game were asked about their barriers to purchase. We received an exemption for this study from our institutional review board. Results: 42 responses (out of 300 individuals on our mailing list, 14% response rate) were collected. Responding purchasers were from 16 different roles in healthcare and 11 different countries. The top 5 roles were: EM trainee, Community EM MD, Academic EM MD, Physicians from other specialties, and EM program director. The majority of respondents were Canadian (38%), with America (21%), New Zealand (10%), and Turkey (7%) the only other countries to have more than 2 respondents. 50% reported having played the game, with the most common use cases being for fun (76%), for teaching trainees (33%) or training with colleagues (19%). For those who did not purchase, price was the largest barrier (81%). 50% of respondents expressed interest in a disaster scenario expansion pack, with 33% interested in set lesson plans. Conclusion: GridlockED attracted interest from a wide range of medical professionals, both in terms or role and location. Users mainly reported using the game for fun, with fewer users using the game for teaching/training purposes. The main barrier to purchase was the game's price.
Introduction: GridlockED is an educational (or “serious”) game recently developed by a team at McMaster to teach medical learners about patient flow in the emergency department (ED). Beyond patient flow, we were cognizant that the game could provide additional learning opportunities for learners. The goal of this program evaluation project was to investigate workshop attendees’ experiences and identify what areas they found most educational. Methods: A GridlockED board game workshop was developed and delivered in several locations over the fall of 2018. Workshops targeted medical learners and were organized by local emergency medicine interest groups. After a standardized video-based introduction to the game concept and rules, the learners played GridlockED for approximately 90 minutes. After the play session, learners completed an anonymous survey consisting of 7-point Likert scale questions about their experience. They were also asked to identify the learning domains for which GridlockED was developed (Patient Flow, Communication and Teamwork, and ED Basics), and were asked via free-text to identify learning objectives from their experience. We received an exemption for this study from our institutional review board. Results: We had 25 respondents (24 medical students and 1 resident). Trainees rated GridlockED as both enjoyable to play and as a meaningful educational experience, with an average rating of 6.56 (SD 0.94) for enjoyability and 6.44 (0.92) for education. When asked what targeted learning domain was most helpful, 45% of students identified patient flow, 37% teamwork and communication, and only 18% ED basics. When asked to identify their top three areas of learning in open-ended responses, students actually identified resource management most frequently (48%), with improved communication skills (40%) as the second most prominent learning objective. Other interesting self-identified learning points were: a greater appreciation of the role of various providers (24%), the unpredictability of ED care (12%), and how things can go wrong (12%). Conclusion: Medical learners find GridlockED to be both enjoyable and educational. In our targeted areas of learning they found patient flow to be the most educational, but self-identified multiple other areas for learning. Students identified resource management and communication as key areas of learning, suggesting that future workshops might be designed specifically to teach these skills.
To accurately predict the probabilities of impact damage to aircraft from runway debris, it is important to understand and quantify the aerodynamic forces that contribute to runway debris lofting. These lift and drag forces were therefore measured in experiments with various bodies spun over a range of angular velocities and Reynolds numbers. For a smooth sphere, the Magnus effect was observed for ratios of spin speed to flow speed between 0.3 and 0.4, but a negative Magnus force was observed at high Reynolds numbers as a transitional boundary layer region was approached. Similar relationships between lift and spin rate were found for both cube- and cylinder-shaped test objects, particularly with a ratio of spin speed to flow speed above 0.3, which suggested comparable separation patterns between rapidly spinning cubes and cylinders. A tumbling smooth ellipsoid had aerodynamic characteristics similar to that of a smooth sphere at a high spin rate. Surface roughness in the form of attached sandpaper increased the average lift on the cylinder by 24%, and approximately doubled the lift acting on the ellipsoid in both rolling and tumbling configurations.
The aim of this study is to identify the types of community paramedicine programs and the training for each.
A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, grey literature, and bibliographies followed a search strategy using common community paramedicine terms. All studies published in English up to January 22, 2018, were captured. Screening and extraction were completed in duplicate by two independent reviewers. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess studies’ methodological quality (full methodology on PROSPERO: CRD42017051774).
From 3,004 papers, there were 64 papers identified (58 unique community paramedicine programs). Of the papers with an appraisable study design (40.6%), the median MMAT score was 3 of 4 criteria met, suggesting moderate quality. Programs most often served frequent 911 callers (48.3%) and individuals at risk for emergency department admission, readmission, or hospitalization (41.4%); and 70.7% of programs were preventive home visits. Common services provided were home assessment (29.5%), medication management (39.7%), and referral and/or transport to community services (37.9%); and 77.6% of programs involved interprofessional collaboration. Community paramedicine training was described by 57% of programs and expanded upon traditional paramedicine training and emphasized technical skills. Study heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis.
Community paramedicine programs and training were diverse and allowed community paramedics to address a spectrum of population health and social needs. Training was poorly described. Enabling more programs to assess and report on program and training outcomes would support community paramedicine growth and the development of formalized training or education frameworks.
There is increasing evidence of an association between depressive symptoms and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in cross-sectional studies, but the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and risk of MCI onset is less clear. The authors investigated whether baseline symptom severity of depression was predictive of time to onset of symptoms of MCI.
These analyses included 300 participants from the BIOCARD study, a cohort of individuals who were cognitively normal at baseline (mean age = 57.4 years) and followed for up to 20 years (mean follow-up = 2.5 years). Depression symptom severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). The authors assessed the association between dichotomous and continuous HAM-D and time to onset of MCI within 7 years versus after 7 years from baseline (reflecting the mean time from baseline to onset of clinical symptoms in the cohort) using Cox regression models adjusted for gender, age, and education.
At baseline, subjects had a mean HAM-D score of 2.2 (SD = 2.8). Higher baseline HAM-D scores were associated with an increased risk of progression from normal cognition to clinical symptom onset ≤ 7 years from baseline (p = 0.043), but not with progression > 7 years from baseline (p = 0.194). These findings remained significant after adjustment for baseline cognition.
These results suggest that low levels of depressive symptoms may be predictive of clinical symptom onset within approximately 7 years among cognitively normal individuals and may be useful in identifying persons at risk for MCI due to Alzheimer’s disease.
We present Phantom, a fast, parallel, modular, and low-memory smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code developed over the last decade for astrophysical applications in three dimensions. The code has been developed with a focus on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics, and has already been used widely for studies of accretion discs and turbulence, from the birth of planets to how black holes accrete. Here we describe and test the core algorithms as well as modules for magnetohydrodynamics, self-gravity, sink particles, dust–gas mixtures, H2 chemistry, physical viscosity, external forces including numerous galactic potentials, Lense–Thirring precession, Poynting–Robertson drag, and stochastic turbulent driving. Phantom is hereby made publicly available.
TiO2 nanomaterials with platelet or nanosheet morphologies can offer improved properties for photocatalytic applications, but established methods to produce them typically require structure-directing agents since anatase-phase TiO2 does not have a layered structure. In the present work, the preparation of TiO2 nanosheets by the chemical oxidation of TiS2 nanosheets is demonstrated. Electrochemical exfoliation of bulk TiS2 into TiS2 nanosheets, followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 14 h is performed. The results show that polycrystalline TiO2 nanosheets with the anatase structure are formed, and that the nanosheet morphology can still be maintained after the hydrothermal treatment. The TiO2 nanosheets show good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue, but the performance is negatively affected by the residual carbon black that was needed in the TiS2 electrode to enable electrochemical exfoliation. These results show that conversion of TiS2 nanosheets to TiO2 nanosheets is a promising synthetic strategy but highlights how the interfacial properties of the obtained materials could be affected by ancillary components in the preparation method.
This study provides an overview of the origin, importance and strength of the non-leading cadre system and argues that the system plays a key role in building resilience in China's bureaucracy. The non-leading cadre system is administratively and politically important because it makes the party-state bureaucracy more adaptable and fosters cohesion among the elite cadre workforce. Although the system may appear to have institutionalized redundancy, this study argues that this redundancy has the benefit of making movement between leading and non-leading cadre status possible. In other words, the non-leading cadre system provides the various levels of the party-state bureaucracy with the leverage to develop their own measures for resolving their own problems. Putting aside the deficiencies in implementation, the non-leading cadre system is likely to remain durable and will help to develop an agile and resilient personnel management system, at least in the short to medium term.
CIC, or Capicua, encodes a transcriptional repressor that is itself repressed by RAS/MAPK signalling. CIC is a recurrent target of somatic mutation in type 1 low grade gliomas (LGG), with at least half of the alterations predicted to be deleterious. Type 1 LGGs are a cohort of tumours that are molecularly defined by the loss of heterozygosity of chromosome arms 1p and 19q and the presence of neomorphic IDH1/2 mutations. Despite the high frequency of mutations in CIC within this tumour type, CIC’s putative tumour suppressive role remains to be elucidated. It is also unclear how CIC may cooperate with neomorphic IDH1/2 to promote gliomagenesis. To comprehensively characterize the molecular consequences of CIC loss, we performed RNA-seq, Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing, and ChIP-seq on 6 different histone modifications on isogenic CIC-wildtype (WT) and CIC-knockout (KO) normal human astrocytes. To also investigate the collective effects of CIC deficiency and neomorphic IDH1 on the transcriptome and epigenome, we generated the same dataset in isogenic CIC-WT and CIC-KO astrocytes possessing the IDH1 R132H mutation. Analysis of differentially expressed genes illustrates the enrichment of oncogenic pathways in specifically the CIC-KO, IDH1-R132H cells, supporting a synergistic relationship between CIC loss and IDH1-R132H in driving tumour progression. Integrative analyses are ongoing to unveil the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning the regulatory changes in these isogenic cell line models.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Introduction: Medical education includes a diverse range of topics and disciplines. For junior clinician educators, it may be difficult to get a grasp of pertinent literature. Our study aims to retrospectively identify whether senior clinician educators (SCEs) and junior clinician educators (JCEs) differ in their selection of what they perceive as key medical education articles. Methods: As a part of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator program, we developed a series of primer articles for JCEs over the preceding year, designed to enhance their educational growth by identifying and discussing key articles within specific medical education arenas. Each set of articles within the primer series were selected based on data collected from JCEs and SCEs, who ranked the specific articles with respect to their perceived relevancy to the JCEs. ANOVA analysis was performed for each of the nine primer series to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between senior and junior CEs ratings of articles. Results: 216 total articles were evaluated within the nine different primer topics. Through a multilevel regression analysis of the data, no statistically significant difference was found between the rankings of papers by SCEs and JCEs (95%CI: -0.27, 0.40). However, a subgroup analysis of the data found that 3 of the 9 primers showed statistically significant divergence based on seniority (p<0.05). Conclusion: Based on this data, involvement of JCEs in the consensus-building process was important in identifying divergence in views between JCEs and SCEs in one-third of cases. To our knowledge, no other group have compared whether junior and senior clinical educators may have divergent opinions about the relevance of medical education literature. Our findings suggest that it may be important to involve JCEs in selecting articles that are worthwhile for their learning, since SCEs may not fully understand their needs.
Introduction: Emergency medicine clinicians (physicians, nurses, paramedics, physician assistants) utilize podcasts for learning. However, their versatility produces variability in the ways they are used (e.g. their speed can be increased or decreased, unrelated activities can be performed simultaneously, or they can be accompanied by active learning methods). This study investigated how and why podcasts are used by an international cohort of clinicians. Methods: An international sample of medical students, residents, physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and paramedics was recruited to complete a survey hosted on FluidSurveys software using social media (Twitter and Facebook), direct contact from our international authorship group, infographics, and a study website (https://METRIQstudy.org/). Participants who indicated interest in the study were sent an email containing the study survey. Reminder emails were sent every 5-10 days a maximum of three times. Results: 462 clinicians expressed interest and 397 completed the survey (86.0% completion rate). Participants hailed from 34 countries (38.8% Canada, 30% United States, 31.2% outside of North America) and a majority (61.9%) were physicians. Approximately half (45.8%) of the participants listened to podcasts weekly. Podcasts were used to learn core material (75.1%), refresh memory (72.3%), or review new literature (75.8%). Most listened on iPhones (61%) and the native Apple App (66.1%). The preferred Android apps were Pocket Casts (22.8%) and Google Play (18.5%). Many listened to podcasts while driving (72.3%). Active learning techniques such as pausing, repeating segments, taking notes, or listening to a podcast more than once were rarely used (1/4 of the time or less) by the majority of participants. Conclusion: This study describes how and why medical education podcasts are used by emergency medicine clinicians and should inform both podcast producers and future research investigating the impact of various listening habits on retention. Further analysis of the data will elucidate differences in listening habits