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Over the past few years antipsychotic medication are increasingly being used for non psychotic illnesses in young people. These have severe side effects and the long term consequences are unknown.
Identify the non psychotic conditions where an antipsychotic medication had been prescribed.
A survey was carried out in a community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service to find the non psychotic conditions where an antipsychotic medication was prescribed and the reason and choice of the medication.
38 young people were identified from the electronic system that did not meet the criteria for a psychotic illness but had at least one DSM IV TR diagnosis of a non psychotic illness where an antipsychotic medication had been prescribed over the previous 6 months. the case notes of these patients were referred to identify;
▪ The reason for prescribing an antipsychotic.
▪ The antipsychotic that has been prescribed.
• Most common non psychotic condition where an antipsychotic was used was Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (25). Other conditions were Autism Spectrum disorder (2), Tourette's Disorder (2), Anxiety Disorder (1) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (1).
• It was mostly used to manage behavioural problems (22).
• Most common medication used was Risperidone (20) followed by Aripiprazole (7) and Haloperidol (3).
Antipsychotic medications are primarily being used to treat behaviour problems in young people who do not have psychotic illness. Further studies required to see if any other non pharmacological intervention may limit its use.
In today's aggressive global market, innovation is key for success and design solutions require not only to achieve competitive edge, but also to address the growing environmental, social, and economic needs of the community at large. Consideration of these three pillars of sustainability makes a design inclusive, and life cycle thinking is found to be a promising approach across the literature. However, most supports for design address certain facets or aid singular tasks, and the use of design methods and tools, which have the potential to significantly improve the design process, is low due to inappropriate use and selection of these methods. InDeaTe (Innovation Design database and Template) is a holistic, knowledge-driven, computer-based tool for design of sustainable systems, such as products, manufacturing systems andservice systems and has been developed to address and integrate the aspects of sustainability on a singular design platform. It comprises of the generic design process Template that imbibes life cycle thinking into the process by incorporating consideration of every life cycle phase in each design stage, where design activities are performed iteratively. It further supports the design process by aiding the use and selection of appropriate design methods and tools in concurrence with the primary motivation of improving sustainability of the system with the aid of the InDeaTe Design Database. This paper discusses the ontological underpinnings behind the conceptualization of the InDeaTe methodology and the development of the supporting tool. The paper further reports empirical findings from six different case studies conducted for evaluating the effectiveness of InDeaTe tool in supporting design for sustainability (DfS). The results show that InDeaTe tool has potential in supporting DfS.
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, suppurative and progressive inflammatory disease that usually involves the subcutaneous tissue and bones after traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In India, actinomycotic mycetoma is prevalent in south India, south-east Rajasthan and Chandigarh, while eumycetoma, which constitutes one third of the total cases, is mainly reported from north India and central Rajasthan. The objective was to determine the epidemiological profile and spectrum of eumycetoma from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, North India. Thirty cases of eumycetoma were diagnosed by conventional methods of direct microscopy, culture and species-specific sequencing as per standard protocol. The spectrum of fungal pathogens included Exophiala jeanselmei, Madurella mycetomatis, Fusarium solani, Sarocladium kiliense, Acremonium blochii, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium incarnatum, Scedosporium apiospermum complex, Curvularia lunata and Medicopsis romeroi. Eumycetoma can be treated with antifungal therapy and needs to be combined with surgery. It has good prognosis if it is timely diagnosed and the correct species identified by culture for targeted therapy of these patients. Black moulds required prolonged therapy. Its low reporting and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and consequently delayed treatment. Hence health education and awareness campaign on the national and international level in the mycetoma belt is crucial.
The National Iodine and Salt Intake Survey (NISI) 2014–2015 was undertaken to estimate household iodised salt coverage at national and sub-national levels in India.
Cross-sectional survey with multistage stratified random sampling.
India was divided into six geographic zones (South, West, Central, North, East and North-East) and each zone was further stratified into rural and urban areas to yield twelve distinct survey strata.
The target respondent from each household was selected as per predefined priority; wife of the household head, followed by women of reproductive age, followed by any adult available during the visit.
Households (n 5717) were surveyed and salt samples (n 5682) were analysed. Household coverage of iodised salt (iodine≥5 ppm) was 91·7 (95 % CI 91·0, 92·7) %. Adequately iodised salt (iodine≥15 ppm) was consumed in 77·5 (95 % CI 76·4, 78·6) % of households. Significant differences in coverage were seen across six geographic regions, with North and North-East zones on the verge of achieving the universal salt iodisation target of >90 % coverage. Coverage of households with adequately iodised salt (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) was significantly less in rural households (0·55; 0·47, 0·64), lower/backward castes (0·84; 0·72, 0·98), deprived households (0·72; 0·61, 0·85) as assessed by multidimensional poverty index, households with non-diverse diet (0·73; 0·62, 0·86) and households using non-packaged salt (0·48; 0·39, 0·59) and non-refined salt (0·17; 0·15, 0·20).
India is within striking reach of achieving universal salt iodisation. However, significant differentials by rural/urban, zonal and socio-economic indicators exist, warranting accelerated efforts and targeted interventions for high-risk groups.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
The importance of ZnxMg1-xO is increasing day by day because of its wider bandgap than ZnO. This ternary semiconductor finds its application in the fields of optoelectronics, spintronics, superlattices due to its unique blueshifted UV-luminescent property. n- to p-type conduction which is the motive of the project can be achieved with increasing Mg content in ZnMgO. The optical characteristics of the nitrogen doped ZnxMg1-xO (x=0.85) grown on 2 inch Si <100>wafer by RF sputtering are studied and analyzed thoroughly using low temperature (15K) photoluminescence measurements. Nitrogen implantation was carried out by Plasma immersion Ion Implantation technique on the sample. Rapid Thermal Process was employed to remove defects resulting from implantation. The samples were annealed at 700°C, 800°C, 900°C, and 1000o C for 10 seconds in an oxygen ambient. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed at low temperature (15K) which exhibited acceptor-bound-exciton peak (A°X) and donor-bound-acceptor pair (DAP) at 3.336 eV and 3.236 eV respectively. At 3.364 eV, S peak was found for the sample annealed at 800°C after implantation. This peak was attributed to the existence of ZnO-like composition. Localized and de-localized exciton peaks were found around 3.42 and 3.45 eV respectively. This result is very important because though dominant acceptor peak was not found but proper optimization of the parameters can lead to p-type ZnMgO which is the main motive of this project.
Many boundary value problems occur in a natural way while studying fluid flow problems in a channel. The solutions of two such boundary value problems are obtained and analysed in the context of flow problems involving three layers of fluids of different constant densities in a channel, associated with an impermeable bottom that has a small undulation. The top surface of the channel is either bounded by a rigid lid or free to the atmosphere. The fluid in each layer is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the flow is irrotational and two-dimensional. Only waves that are stationary with respect to the bottom profile are considered in this paper. The effect of surface tension is neglected. In the process of obtaining solutions for both the problems, regular perturbation analysis along with a Fourier transform technique is employed to derive the first-order corrections of some important physical quantities. Two types of bottom topography, such as concave and convex, are considered to derive the profiles of the interfaces. We observe that the profiles are oscillatory in nature, representing waves of variable amplitude with distinct wave numbers propagating downstream and with no wave upstream. The observations are presented in tabular and graphical forms.
Under controlled irradiation of low energy carbon ions, photoluminescence (PL) study of InAs quantum dots prepared with different capping structures (GaAs and InAlGaAs) was carried out. Samples were investigated by varying implantation energy from 15 keV to 50 keV with fluence ranging between 3 × 1011ions/cm2 and 8 × 1011 ions/cm2. For fixed fluence of 4 × 1011ions/cm2, low temperature PL showed enhancement in a certain range of energy, along with a blue shift in the PL peak wavelength. In contrast, with varying fluence at fixed implantation energy of 50 keV, PL enhancement was not significant, rather a drop in PL intensity was noted at higher fluence from 5 × 1011 to 8 × 1011 ions/cm2. Moreover, carbon ion implantation caused a blue shift in the PL emission peak for both energy and fluence variations. PL intensity suppression was possibly caused by the formation of non-radiative recombination centers (NRCs) near the capping layer, while the corresponding blue shift might be attributed to stress generation in the capping layer due to implantation. As-grown and implanted InAlGaAs capped samples did not exhibit much variation in full width at half maxima of PL spectra; however, significant variation was observed for the GaAs capped sample. These results validate that InAlGaAs-capped QDs are more immune to ion implantation.
NASA's NuSTAR observatory is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope. Launched in June 2012, NuSTAR is sensitive in the 3–79 keV range with unprecedented ~17″ FWHM angular resolution above 12 keV, a result of its multilayer-coated optics and 10-m focal length. With its large effective area (900 cm2 at 10 keV), NuSTAR has point-source sensitivity ~100 times better than previous hard X-ray telescopes. Here we describe NuSTAR and its planned work on rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars during its nominal 2-yr baseline mission that has just commenced.
We report a theoretical study of dissociative recombination (DR) of BeH+ by
low energy electron impact, using previously computed molecular data as input for a
Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) approach. Three electronic symmetries of BeH,
2Π, 2Σ+, and 2Δ have been included in the
calculations. We present cross sections and thermal rate coefficients ready to be used in
the modelling of the BeH+ abundance in the interstellar medium and stellar
The electronic structure of CeAg2Ge2 single crystal has been investigated by using resonant valence band photoemission and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy at different photon energies. Resonant photoemission has been observed near the 4d threshold of Ce at 121 eV. The constant initial state spectra show two photoemission features having 4f character near the Fermi level that exhibits Fano-like sharp resonance profile. Experimental energy bands have been mapped from the normal-emission photoelectron spectra of CeAg2Ge2 (001) surface along the Γ–Z direction. Four photoemission features are observed to show the dispersion related to the Ce 4f states and the hybridized Ag 4d with Ge 4p states. The experimental spectra have been interpreted with the help of calculations based on full potential linear augmented plane wave method using density functional theory.
We have demonstrated that gas phase explosive combustion can lead to nanoparticle aerosols with sufficiently large volume fraction to cause a volume spanning gel to form on the order of ten’s of seconds. The term “aerosol gel” was coined to name these materials. So far we have made aerosol gels of carbon and silica. These aerosol gels are similar to well-known, liquid-phase, sol-gel synthesized aerogels.
Precise and accurate estimation of natural radioactivity is essential in order to
appraise the radiation dose to the member of public due to various intakes. In the present
study, an attempt has been made to estimate the uranium content in packaged drinking water
by laser induced fluorimetry and then to calculate the committed effective dose. Sixty
packaged drinking water samples of different brands were analysed for uranium content. The
total uranium content in these samples was found to be in the range of 0.04–3.88
µg l-1. The concentration of uranium is comparable with other reported
worldwide values except a few high values such as 0.5–6000 µg l-1 in Finland,
0.1–28 µg l-1 in China, 0.1–40 µg l-1 in Switzerland and 0.04–1400
µg l-1 in Jordan and much lower than the drinking water limit of 15
µg l-1 (WHO, 2004) and 30 µg l-1 (USEPA, 2000a). The radiation
dose due to uranium ingestion through packaged drinking water was found to vary from
0.08–3.19 µSv y-1, with an average dose of 1.21 µSv y-1.
We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at different temperature on two InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dots samples with different spacer thicknesses (7.5nm and 8.5nm). It is found that when RTA temperature gradually increases, there is usual blue shift of ground state emission peak wavelength for the sample having thinner spacer but for the other sample the emission peak sustains at same peak wavelength position upto a higher annealing temperature. The dots inside the sample with less spacer thickness dissolute much earlier (beyond 700°C annealing temperature) in comparison to the other sample. The structural and optical characterization has been done by cross sectional transmission electron microscope (XTEM) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments respectively.
Scaling the performance of metamaterials to obtain negative refractive index at optical frequencies has been of great interest. One of the great barriers to the scaling is that real currents cannot be driven at very high frequencies and one is more dependent on displacement currents to generate negative magnetic permeability. Moreover to keep the dimensions of the metamaterials physically accessible, the structural lengthscales of the metamaterials begin approach the wavelength of the radiation in free space and homogenisation is often questionable. Here we will show that metamaterials such as Split ring resonators in these high frequency limits exhibit complex behaviour. Magnetic activity and Negative refractive index behaviour can, indeed, be obtained at optical frequencies but will need to be interpreted very carefully. The plasmonic nature of the metallic system and excitation needs to be considered in detail.
The origins and genomic affinities of various tribal populations of India are of considerable contemporary interest. In this study, we have investigated relationships among five tribal groups inhabiting the north-eastern, eastern and sub-Himalayan regions of India. DNA samples have been analysed in respect of 25 polymorphic loci, based on which genetic affinities have been estimated. The interesting findings of this study are (i) the Tibeto-Burman speaking, morphologically Mongoloid, tribal groups of India are not genetically very homogeneous, and (ii) the Tharu, a group inhabiting the sub-Himalayan region, may indeed have undergone considerable admixture as has been postulated by some anthropologists.
Cortical granules are specialized Golgi-derived membrane-bound secretory granules that are located beneath the plasma membrane in unfertilized sea urchin eggs. Upon fertilization cortical granules discharge in a reaction induced by calcium and release their contents between the plasma membrane and a thin vitelline layer that lines the plasma membrane. Microvilli at the plasma membrane elongate incorporting cortical granule membranes during elongation. The vitelline layer elevates and becomes the egg's fertilization coat that hardens and serves as physical block to polyspermy. While we do not understand the precise mechanisms that participate in cortical granule discharge it is believed that actin plays a role in this process. Because actin and calcium metabolism is affected in aging cells we investigated if cortical granule secretion is affected in aging sea urchin eggs.
Lytechinus pictus eggs were obtained by intracoelomic injection of 0.5M KCI to release the eggs into sea water at 23°C.