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Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
Despite the significant health disparities experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, few investigators affiliated with the National Institutes of Health-funded Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs are conducting research related to this underserved population. We provide recommendations shared during a half-day workshop aimed at increasing researcher readiness to conduct LGBT research. This workshop was presented as part of a series on conducting research with underserved populations offered by the Recruitment, Retention, and Community Engagement Program of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Six LGBT health research experts provided focused presentations. The workshop presentations included a summary of significant health inequality issues, theoretical models relevant to research on LGBT health, best practices in measuring sexual orientation and gender identity, recommendations for recruitment and retention, a discussion of community engagement, and ethical considerations in conducting LGBT research. We provide a summary of recommendations to guide future research, training, and public policy related to LGBT health. The information can increase capacity among Clinical and Translational Science Award affiliated researchers in conducting research in this special population.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) by ligation of a single umbilical artery. After 4 weeks, preterm lambs were euthanized at delivery or delivered and ventilated for 2 h before euthanasia. Brains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected for analysis of molecular and structural indices of early brain injury. FGRVENT lambs had increased oxidative cell damage and brain injury marker S100B levels compared with all other groups. Mechanical ventilation increased inflammatory marker IL-8 within the brain of FGRVENT and AGVENT lambs. Abnormalities in the neurovascular unit and increased blood–brain barrier permeability were observed in FGRVENT lambs, as well as an altered density of vascular tight junctions markers. FGR and AG preterm lambs have different responses to acute injurious mechanical ventilation, changes which appear to have been developmentally programmed in utero.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications.
To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture.
A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared.
The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014.
Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts.
We present a database of 11 interplanetary shocks associated to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by STEREO and Wind missions between 2006 and 2011 that show evidence of Type II radio burst. For all events, we calculated the principal characteristics of the shock driver, the intensity and geometrical configuration of the in-situ shock and checked for the existence of in-situ type II radio burst. We made a comparative analysis of two CME events (on 18 August 2010 and 4 June 2011), which are apparently associated to two or more magnetic structures which interact in space (i.e. CMEs, SIRs, CIRs). These events show varied shock configurations and intensities. We found evidence of in-situ type II radio bursts in one of the events studied, suggesting that the geometry of the shock (quasi-perpendicularity) is also critical for the generation and/or detection of radio emission in-situ.
Four multidisciplinary oceanographic surveys were conducted in November and December from 2007 to 2010, along the Mauritanian coast (NW Africa). A total of 10,514 brachyuran crabs belonging to 33 species were captured in 316 hauls at depths between 79 and 1867 m. The most specious family was Inachidae represented by nine species; the remaining 24 species belonged to 16 other brachyuran families. Monodaeus cristulatus is reported for the first time since its original description. Seven other species, Ethusa rugulosa, Pseudomyra mbizi, Inachus grallator, Macropodia gilsoni, Macropodia hesperiae, Solenolambrus noordendei and Spinolambrus notialis extend their range of distribution northwards and, together with Goneplax barnardi, are reported here for the first time in Mauritanian waters. New data about depth ranges are reported for Acanthocarpus brevispinis, Ethusa rugulosa, Inachus aguiarii, Inachus grallator, Inachus nanus, Macropodia macrocheles, Solenolambrus noordendei, Spinolambrus notialis, Liocarcinus corrugatus and Monodaeus cristulatus. New data relating to the spawning period for most of the species are also included, as are some biogeographic and bathymetric considerations about brachyurans studied in the area.
Exploring the spatial distribution of the star formation rate (SFR) in nearby galaxies is essential to understand their evolution through cosmic time. With this aim in mind, we use a representative sample that contains a variety of morphological types, the CALIFA Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) sample. Previous to this work, we have verified that our extinction-corrected Hα measurements successfully reproduce the values derived from other SFR tracers such as Hαobs + IR or UVobs + IR (Catalán-Torrecilla et al. 2015).
Now, we go one step further applying 2-dimensional photometric decompositions (Méndez-Abreu et al. (2008), Méndez-Abreu et al. (2014)) over these datacubes. This method allows us to obtain the amount of SFR in the central part (bulge or nuclear source), the bar and the disk, separately. First, we determine the light coming from each component as the ratio between the luminosity in every component (bulge, bar or disk) and the total luminosity of the galaxy. Then, for each galaxy we multiply the IFS datacubes by these previous factors to recover the luminosity in each component. Finally, we derive the spectrum associated to each galaxy component integrating the spatial information in the weighted datacube using an elliptical aperture covering the whole galaxy.
2D photometric decomposition applied over 3D datacubes will give us a more detailed understanding of the role that disks play in more massive galaxies. Knowing if the disks in more massive SF galaxies have on average a lower or higher level of star formation activity and how these results are affected by the presence of nuclear bars are still open questions that we can now solve. We describe the behavior of these components in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram. In particular, we highlight the role of the disks and their contribution to both the integrated SFR for the whole galaxy and the SFR in the disk at different stellar masses in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram together with their relative position to the star forming Main Sequence.
Our aim is to study the Star Formation Rate (SFR) by galaxy components such as bulges, bars and disks in a representative sample of nearby galaxies. A 2-dimensional (2D) photometric decomposition approach (GASP2D) is used to obtain these components. The availability of IFS data for the CALIFA galaxies makes possible to go one step further as we can apply the previous decompositions over 3D datacubes to disentangle the spatial distribution of the SFR over different components free from the limitations associated to narrow-band imaging.
ZnO was grown by Chemical Bath Deposition technique activated by microwaves (CBD-AμW) on corning glass substrates. The ZnO structural and optical properties are studied as a function of the urea concentration in the growth solution. ZnO chemical stoichiometry was determined by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The XRD analysis and Raman scattering reveal that ZnO deposited thin films showed hexagonal polycrystalline phase wurtzite type. The Raman spectra present four main peaks associated to the modes E2high, (E2high-E2low), E2low and an unidentified vibrational band observed at 444, 338, 104 and 78 cm-1. The E2low mode involves mainly Zn atoms motion in the unit cell and the E2high mode is associated to oxygen motion. The observed emission peaks in the room temperature photoluminescence spectra are associated at vacancies of zinc and oxygen in the lattice.
The catalytic activity of disordered binary alloy metal surfaces is investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by generating free energy diagrams and performing calculations on d-band centers of alloys. The disorder was simulated using virtual crystal approximation; then, based on periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT) methods, we calculated adsorption energies of reaction intermediates. Alternative pathway for ORR mechanism, involving proton/electron transfer to adsorbed oxygen and hydroxyl, is considered. The methodology was applied to (111) surface of PdxCu1-x disordered binary alloys, with different values of x concentration. This study found that at the ORR equilibrium potential of 1.23 V, the reactivity of all surfaces is shown to be limited by the rate of OH removal from the surface. Among the surfaces studied, the surface of Pd0.80Cu0.20 shows the highest reactivity and is more active than other non-Pt alloys. These results are in excellent agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work.
We determine several variants of the classical interpolation formula for finite fields which produce polynomials that induce a desirable mapping on the nonspecified elements, and without increasing the number of terms in the formula. As a corollary, we classify those permutation polynomials over a finite field which are their own compositional inverse, extending work of C. Wells.
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in argon (neutral atmosphere) or hydrogen (reducing atmosphere) for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.