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Populations of Critically Endangered White-rumped Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed G. tenuirostris Vultures in Nepal declined rapidly during the 2000s, almost certainly because of the effects of the use in livestock of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, which is nephrotoxic to Gyps vultures. In 2006, veterinary use of diclofenac was banned in Nepal and this was followed by the gradual implementation, over most of the geographical range of the two vulture species in Nepal, of a Vulture Safe Zone (VSZ) programme to advocate vulture conservation, raise awareness about diclofenac, provide vultures with NSAID-free food and encourage the veterinary use in livestock of a vulture-safe alternative NSAID (meloxicam). We report the results of long-term monitoring of vulture populations in Nepal before and after this programme was implemented, by means of road transects. Piecewise regression analysis of the count data indicated that a rapid decline of the White-rumped Vulture population from 2002 up to about 2013 gave way to a partial recovery between about 2013 and 2018. More limited data for the Slender-billed Vulture indicated that a rapid decline also gave way to partial recovery from about 2012 onwards. The rates at which populations were increasing in the 2010s exceeded the upper end of the range of increase rates expected in a closed population under optimal conditions. The possibility that immigration from India is contributing to the changes cannot be excluded. We present evidence from open and undercover pharmacy surveys that the VSZ programme had apparently become effective in reducing the availability of diclofenac in a large part of the range of these species in Nepal by about 2011. Hence, community-based advocacy and awareness-raising actions, and possibly also provisioning of safe food, may have made an important contribution to vulture conservation by augmenting the effects of changes in the regulation of toxic veterinary drugs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To examine the rate of medical and social service referral utilization among community members who are enrolled in HealthStreet - a community engagement initiative at University of Florida. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: HealthStreet utilizes the CHW model to conduct health needs assessment, provide referrals to medical and social services and link them to health research at UF. Across two follow-up schedules, these participants are contacted to assess their rate of referral utilization. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: From October 2011-October 2018, HealthStreet completed 10,829 health needs assessments and provided a total of 15,723 medical and/or social service referrals with an average of 1.48 referrals per person. About a third of people completed first and second follow-up respectively (n=3,461; 32.0% and n=3,477; 32.1%), and another third (n=3,891; 35.9%) completed neither. The total number of follow up attempts was 40,863, with an average of 3.85 attempts per person. The overall service utilization rate was 17.02%. The top barriers to utilization included, could not schedule an appointment (26.3%), busy on the date of appointment (21.9%), transportation (9.4%), and already received the service from elsewhere (4.7%). Others (28.3%) did not identify a specific barrier for non-utilization. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings show that those who need services are still hampered by barriers to care that CHWs and other service providers could help them overcome. Facilitating the appointment and providing transportation would assist over a third of those needing services.
Delusional parasitosis, or Ekbom syndrome, is a fixed false belief of being infested by parasites [Bellanger 2009]. With easy accessibility of the internet, serving as a vital tool in acquiring myriad information, these delusions typically arise and can be fueled by external sources as self-research [Bell2005]. For instance, garlic (allium sativum) has been reported to exhibit anthelmintic activity against cestodes (tapeworms), proving to be a natural treatmentoption [Abdel-Ghaffar 2010]. Without proper instructions, guidelines, or control of such information, psychopathological manifestations may be derived.
A young adult male presented with severe psychosis. He reports responding to an internal stimuli, non-command auditory hallucinations, and paranoid ideations specifically in regards to his body and health for several weeks. Prior to presentation, he experienced abdominal pain and constipation for five days, but attributed it to the belief of having tapeworms. He stated that he researched cures for several days using the internet and found garlic as a treatment option. He attempted to alleviate his symptoms by ingested 197 pills of 1,000 milligram (mg) garlic supplements, two 100mg bisacodyl laxatives, and five 100mg docusate stool softeners in one day. He denies any suicidal/homicidal ideations, illicit substance abuse, deja-vu, and jamais-vu.
Psychiatric examination is as follows: Mental Status Examination: awake, alert, and oriented x3. General Appearance: disheveled. Speech: soft, mumbling, and minimally non-responsive. Psychomotor Activity: moderately sedated. Eye Contact: poor. Mood: dysphoric. Affect: flat. Thought Process: flight of ideas. Thought Content: preoccupied. Judgement/Insight: poor. Immediate/Recent Recall: poor. Remote Memory: poor.
Delusional parasitosis and somatic parasitic infestation has dire consequences in which one's health can become compromised. For those suffering from parasitosis, addition of garlic in food as well as garlic supplements of 50mg/kg body weight has been reported as a possible naturopathic treatment option in Cryptosporidiosis and Schistosoma mansoni [Gaafar 2012; Nahed 2009]. In addition, it was found that a dose of 1.2mg for three days was efficient, safe, and shortens the duration of treatment for parasites [Soffar 1991]. However, this patient ingested 197,000mg of garlic supplements without experiencing symptoms of overdose. This may include burning sensation of the mouth or stomach, flatulence, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, and anaphylaxis [Bayan 2014]. The efficacy of garlic for treatment of true parasitosis is unknown, but can be found in common practice especially those who practice naturopathic medicine. In this case, it is unlikely to have a positive effect, especially when delusional in nature. The use of homeopathic medication in those with true parasitosis and delusional parasitosis should be queried.
Funding Acknowledgements: Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation
Changes in seroprevalence of cysticercosis diagnosed in Chandigarh, India between 1998 and 2014 were investigated by extraction and analysis of data from records held at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh. Among the total number of samples for which cysticercosis had been suspected during this period (N = 9650), 1716 (17·8%) were seropositive. Adults were more likely to be seropositive than children, and women were more likely to be seropositive than men. In addition to there being fewer patients with suspicion of cysticercosis over the data analysis period, the proportion of patients seropositive also reduced significantly. Despite these reductions, which are probably associated with improved infrastructure and sanitation within Chandigarh, and despite meat consumption being relatively rare in this area, the extent of cysticercosis in this population remains problematic. Further efforts should be made to reduce transmission of this infection, with particular emphasis on women. Such efforts should follow the One Health concept, and involve medical efforts (including diagnosis and treatment of T. solium tapeworm carriers), veterinary efforts directed towards meat inspection and prevention of infection of pigs, and environmental health and sanitation engineers (to minimize environmental contamination with human waste).
The Upper Mustang region of Nepal holds important breeding populations of Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis. Despite this species being considered ‘Least Concern’ on the IUCN Red List, the population in Upper Mustang had declined substantially in the early to mid-2000s. During that period, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac was commonly used to treat illness and injury in domesticated ungulates throughout Nepal. The timing and magnitude of declines in Himalayan Griffon in Upper Mustang resemble the declines in resident populations of the ‘Critically Endangered’ White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis and Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris in Nepal, both of which are also known to be highly sensitive to diclofenac. Since 2006, the veterinary use of diclofenac has been banned in Nepal to prevent further vulture declines. In this paper, we analyse the population trend in Himalayan Griffon in Upper Mustang between 2002 and 2014 and show a partial recovery. We conclude that the decline is now occurring at a slower rate than previously observed and immigration from areas where diclofenac was either not or rarely used the probable explanation for the recovery observed.
A novel approach for synthesis of few layer graphene films on SiC has been developed which uses halogen based inductively coupled-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in atmospheric pressure argon. These films have been characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Surface characterization by XPS reveals the presence of defects similar to those observed for graphene oxide (GO) but at a much lower levels that those observed for GO. As in the case for GO, the defect density could be further reduced by chemical methods which improved carbon to defect ratio based on XPS analyses. Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of D, G and 2D peaks at 1330 cm-1, 1599 cm-1 and 2671 cm-1, respectively, which is comparable with similar graphene films formed by thermal annealing of SiC. The full widths at half max (FWHM) for these peaks was, however, comparable to those observed for GO. Electrical characterization of these graphene films using collinear four point probe measurements showed the electrical resistivity of these films is consistent with the observed values for few layer exfoliated graphene. Gas sensor structures were fabricated using lithography free methods, and initial gas response studies were performed for H2.
The goal of this study was to determine the potential use of starch Pickering emulsion as a vehicle to deliver a natural phenolic compound, curcumin in the oral cavity. To this end, an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion was prepared using starch molecules as the stabilizer/emulsifier. The physical stability, oxygen permeability and release of curcumin from the starch Pickering emulsion in simulated saliva fluid (SSF) were determined. The results of this study showed that the starch stabilized o/w emulsions were stable for up to 2 weeks. The starch Pickering emulsion also provided better protection against oxidation than a surfactant-stabilized emulsion, and the digestion of the starch Pickering emulsion using amylase led to the complete disruption and phase separation of the emulsion.
A ‘pulsar timing array’ (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of ‘global’ phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 ms pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50 cm (~700 MHz), 20 cm (~1400 MHz), and 10 cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of two to three weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters, and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For 10 of the 20 pulsars, rms timing residuals are less than 1 μs for the best band after fitting for pulse frequency and its first time derivative. Significant ‘red’ timing noise is detected in about half of the sample. We discuss the implications of these results on future projects including the International Pulsar Timing Array and a PTA based on the Square Kilometre Array. We also present an ‘extended PPTA’ data set that combines PPTA data with earlier Parkes timing data for these pulsars.
There is currently no standardised management protocol following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. This study assessed frequent endoscopic cleaning versus minimal intervention in the early post-operative period following such surgery.
The primary outcome measure was ethmoid cavity healing, based on endoscopic appearance, graded using a modified Lund–MacKay endoscopic score.
Secondary outcome measure:
Lund–MacKay symptom score before and after surgery.
There was no overall statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.37). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant effect of regular suction clearance on adhesions at three months (p = 0.048), but not on oedema, polyps, granulation, discharge or crusting.
There is no evidence from this study to support frequent endoscopic cleaning in the early post-operative period after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Less intensive post-operative management is recommended, resulting in decreased patient morbidity and fewer post-operative follow-up appointments.
Bradycardia and even asystole may occur suddenly during posterior fossa surgery and requires immediate evaluation and treatment in order to prevent potential ischemia and major neurologic complications. Trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) commonly manifests as bradycardia and hypotension in response to mechanical stimulation of any of the branches of the trigeminal nerve. This chapter presents a case study of a 53-year-old female with a history of progressive headaches and a syncopal episode was found to have a right-sided tentorial mass consistent with a falcine meningioma. The tentorial nerves arise from the intracranial portions of ophthalmic branch (V1) and course into the dura of the parieto-occipital region and the posterior third of the falx, where there is a converging and bilaterally overlapping innervation at its midpoint. When stimulation of the falx results in the TCR, cessation of the surgical manipulation in that area is the first step in correcting the hemodynamic instability.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a complex disease with high morbidity and mortality. Management of patients with SAH requires a multisystem approach. This chapter presents a case study of a 45-year-old female who had presented to an outside hospital with a 1-month history of progressive right-sided facial and body numbness that had worsened acutely over the week prior to her admission. The patient underwent definitive correction of the aneurysm the following day. Aneurysmal SAH is a neurologic emergency, resulting from blood extravasation into the subarachnoid space normally filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that requires complex treatment and monitoring. Patients present for elective clipping of an unruptured aneurysm or emergent surgery following SAH. Thorough assessment of the patient, effective organ support and correction of pathophysiology are vital prior to leaving the intensive care unit (ICU) for what may be a challenging case in the operating room.
The influence of subclinical nematodosis on the kinetic disposition of albendazole was evaluated in goats following oral and intraruminal administration. The disposition curves of its metabolites indicated increased uptake of the drug in parasitized goats following intraruminal compared to oral dosing (P < 0.05). The midpoint for the pharmacologically active metabolite, albendazole sulphoxide, in the circulatory compartment was around 0.6 μg ml− 1 both in parasitized and naïve goats. The period of exposure to this concentration was around 14 h (oral route), 18 h (intraruminal route) and 16 h (oral route), 17 h (intraruminal route) in parasitized and naïve goats, respectively. As the duration of exposure of parasites to the toxic concentration of the anthelmintically active metabolite was prolonged, it could be assumed that intraruminal delivery of the drug would improve the efficacy of albendazole in parasitized goats.
A new amphiphile: octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside along with a single-source precursor, barium titanium methoxyethoxide, were used to develop a facile route for synthesis of BaTiO3, via either a hydrolytic or a nonhydrolytic method. The average particle size for the samples was on the order of 20 to 30 nm, while that for the control samples (without the amphiphile) ranged from 100 nm to several microns. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and selected-area electron- diffraction patterns revealed that these nanoparticles were single crystalline; the Raman active longitudinal optical modes observed in calcined (650 °C) samples at 718 and 304 cm−1 directly indicated the presence of tetragonal domains in an overall cubic lattice structure. Moreover, the one-step nonhydrolytic approach developed for the synthesis of BaTiO3 is fast, and it eliminates tedious steps such as prolonged refluxing and aging. Thermogravimetric and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were performed to investigate the role of octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside in the evolution of the perovskite phase, grain size, and morphology. These techniques suggested that van der Waals type of interactions were present between the amphiphile and barium titanium methoxyethoxide oligomers, and in turn they led to the controlled growth of nanoparticles.
The landraces of rice (Oryza sativa L.) possess wide diversity, which needs to be properly characterized for their use in genetic improvement. Replicated field studies were conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at two sites in Nepal to determine diversity in 183 landraces of rice adapted to the lowlands and the hills in Nepal. Fourteen improved genotypes were also used for comparison. Thirteen agronomic traits were investigated. Shannon–Weaver diversity index (H) and Simpson's index of diversity (D) were estimated to determine the level of genetic richness among the landraces. The landraces differed significantly for all traits. Except for plant height and maturity, at least one of the landraces compared well with the performance of improved cultivars. A principal component analysis separated the lowland- and hill-adapted landraces into two broad groups.
The members of Anemone L. sect. Himalayicae (Ulbr.) Juz. (Ranunculaceae) are mainly distributed in the Himalaya of North India, Nepal and Bhutan and the neighbouring mountains of SW China at elevations between 1850 and 4800 m. Their taxonomy is re-evaluated on the basis of a critical morphological analysis of extensive herbarium material. The section is placed in Anemone subgen. Omalocarpus and differentiated into three new series: ser. Obtusilobae, ser. Trullifoliae and ser. Rupestres. A conspectus, keys to species, subspecies and varieties, descriptions of taxa, illustrations and distribution maps are presented. Eleven species with several infraspecific taxa are recognized and their synonymy, variability and relationships are discussed. In addition to the generally accepted species Anemone obtusiloba, A. trullifolia and A. rupestris, we recognize the following: A. polycarpa, A. rockii, A. geum and A. coelestina and four Chinese endemics, A. yulongshanica, A. patula, A. subpinnata and A. subindivisa. Anemone imbricata and A. fuscopurpurea are described but excluded from the section. The origins, morphological differentiations and eco-geographical radiations of Anemone sect. Himalayicae are discussed.
The effect of thermal annealing on the structural properties of electron
beam evaporated polycrystalline Si/Ge multilayer structures has been studied
using Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), reflectivity (GIXRR) and
Raman spectroscopy techniques. The chemical nature of layers at surface and
interfaces has been obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
technique, which revealed the presence of impurities only at the top surface
in the form of carbides and oxides in the Si layer and in elemental form in
the Ge layer. Reflectivity measurements show that the Si/Ge MLS is stable
upto 200 °C and roughness of Si on Ge interface is higher as compared to
that of Ge on Si interface. Similarly, GIXRD results show that upto 200 °C, MLS is of microcrystalline nature and further annealing at 300 °C and
400 °C, well-defined crystalline peaks of pure Si and Ge are observed,
which is in contrast to earlier reported experimental findings. Observed
results are interpreted in terms of diffusion induced crystallization and
corresponding increase in grain size.