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The reflectance spectroscopic characteristics of cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mats in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDVs) were measured using a hyperspectral point spectrometer aboard an unmanned aerial system (remotely piloted aircraft system, unmanned aerial vehicle or drone) to determine whether mat presence, type and activity could be mapped at a spatial scale sufficient to characterize inter-annual change. Mats near Howard Glacier and Canada Glacier (ASPA 131) were mapped and mat samples were collected for DNA-based microbiome analysis. Although a broadband spectral parameter (a partial normalized difference vegetation index) identified mats, it missed mats in comparatively deep (> 10 cm) water or on bouldery surfaces where mats occupied fringing moats. A hyperspectral parameter (B6) did not have these shortcomings and recorded a larger dynamic range at both sites. When linked with colour orthomosaic data, B6 band strength is shown to be capable of characterizing the presence, type and activity of cyanobacteria-dominated mats in and around MDV streams. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction amplicon sequencing analysis of the mat samples revealed that dominant cyanobacterial taxa differed between spectrally distinguishable mats, indicating that spectral differences reflect underlying biological distinctiveness. Combined rapid-repeat hyperspectral measurements can be applied in order to monitor the distribution and activity of sentinel microbial ecosystems across the terrestrial Antarctic.
Aposematism and crypticity are visual defensive strategies against predation; however, the relative effectiveness of these two strategies to reduce the risk of predation is not yet fully understood. We evaluated the risk of predation for caterpillars with cryptic and aposematic colouration as well as the probability of predation relative to the natural variation of contrast with the substrate. We expected that the two models would experience similar predation attempts and that the contrast with the substrate would be negatively related to the predation on aposematic mimic models and positively to the predation of cryptic models. Overall, 224 models were laid out along a transect and exposed to predation for five consecutive days during winter and autumn. Daily predation was 11.0% (winter) and 4.8% (autumn). Significant differences were not observed between predation rates on the two model types (50.6% aposematic). Most of the predated models had arthropod marks (86.4%) and only 13.6% had bird marks. The chance of predation was higher the greater the contrast between the aposematic mimic model and the substrate, although no relationship was observed for the cryptic model. Our results suggest that the two colour patterns do not differ in their defensive effectiveness and that micro-habitat selection might define the predation risk on aposematic mimic caterpillars in environments dominated by arthropod predators.
La suicidalité à l’adolescence est une question importante de santé publique, en termes de mortalité, de morbidité. Celle-ci est peu évaluée et quantifiée dans les en Martinique au sujet des adolescents. Notre objectif à travers de notre étude prospective exploratoire est de déterminer de la prévalence des tentatives de suicide chez les adolescents en Martinique consultant au CHUM.
Nous avons inclus tous les adolescents âgés de 11 à 18 ans ayant réalisé une tentative de suicide en Martinique, admis sur les différents services d’urgences et de réanimations du CHUM, sur une période continue de 4 mois.
Quarante-trois tentatives de suicide ont été enregistrées au cours de cette période : 88,4 % des cas impliquaient des filles (avec une récidive sur la période d’inclusion), 58,1 % des jeunes ont utilisé comme méthode l’intoxication médicamenteuse volontaire, la majorité concernait des primosuicidants (60,5 %), près de la moitié des cas avait identifié un événement traumatisant, 34,9 % ont déclaré consommer de façon régulière une substance psychoactive enfin 72,5 % des situations ont fait intervenir le SAMU et 65,2 % de ces adolescents ont bénéficié d’une prise en charge hospitalière.
Cette étude pilote permet de contribuer à la description de la tentative de suicide chez les adolescents, qui s’estimerait à 1 tentative de suicide tous les 3 jours, et confirme bien une problématique suicidaire touchant cette population spécifique dans ce département. Elle suggère par ailleurs la nécessité de renforcer l’offre de soins qui semble insuffisante à ce jour. Au vu des résultats de cette étude, l’implication forte du SAMU dans ce travail pourrait être un partenaire idéal dans le repérage de ces conduites suicidaires dans cette région.
La dépression maternelle en période périnatale est fréquente et peut avoir des répercussions négatives sur le développement des enfants. La prévention de la dépression chez les femmes qui ont des enfants en bas âge est donc un objectif de santé publique prioritaire. Ceci exige une bonne connaissance des facteurs associés à la dépression maternelle, des conséquences sur le développement des enfants, et des mesures préventives pouvant être efficaces. Cette session thématique abordera chacun de ces trois axes à partir de résultats récents d’études épidémiologiques et d’intervention menées en France (ELFE, EDEN, CAPEDP). Les facteurs associés à la dépression maternelle au cours de la grossesse et en post-partum, ainsi que l’accès à des interventions de prévention qui visent à prévenir les difficultés psychologiques des mères, telles que l’entretien prénatal précoce et les cours de préparation à la parentalité, ont pu être étudiés à partir des données de la cohorte ELFE, une étude représentative au niveau national. Les résultats montrent notamment que les femmes qui ont une situation sociale défavorisée ont des niveaux élevés de difficultés psychologiques, alors que ce sont celles qui bénéficient le moins des interventions de prévention. L’impact en termes de difficultés comportementales ou développementales chez les enfants a pu être étudié à partir des données de la cohorte EDEN montrant l’importance de différentes trajectoires longitudinales de dépression maternelle vis-à-vis du développement émotionnel, comportemental et cognitif des enfants jusqu’à 6 ans. Enfin, la faisabilité et l’efficacité d’interventions de prévention de la dépression maternelle seront discutées à partir des résultats de l’étude CAPEDP, un programme de visites à domicile chez des familles en situation difficile.
Reconstructions of prehistoric vegetation composition help establish natural baselines, variability, and trajectories of forest dynamics before and during the emergence of intensive anthropogenic land use. Pollen–vegetation models (PVMs) enable such reconstructions from fossil pollen assemblages using process-based representations of taxon-specific pollen production and dispersal. However, several PVMs and variants now exist, and the sensitivity of vegetation inferences to PVM selection, variant, and calibration domain is poorly understood. Here, we compare the reconstructions, parameter estimates, and structure of a Bayesian hierarchical PVM, STEPPS, both to observations and to REVEALS, a widely used PVM, for the pre–Euro-American settlement-era vegetation in the northeastern United States (NEUS). We also compare NEUS-based STEPPS parameter estimates to those for the upper midwestern United States (UMW). Both PVMs predict the observed macroscale patterns of vegetation composition in the NEUS; however, reconstructions of minor taxa are less accurate and predictions for some taxa differ between PVMs. These differences can be attributed to intermodel differences in structure and parameter estimates. Estimates of pollen productivity from STEPPS broadly agree with estimates produced for use in REVEALS, while comparison between pollen dispersal parameter estimates shows no significant relationship. STEPPS parameter estimates are similar between the UMW and NEUS, suggesting that STEPPS parameter estimates are transferable between floristically similar regions and scales.
We conduct the first broad-based international study on bank-level failures covering 92 countries over 2000–2014, investigating national cultural variables as failure determinants. We find individualism and masculinity are positively associated with bank failure, but they operate through different channels. Managers in individualist countries assume more portfolio risk, while governments in masculine countries allow banks to operate with less liquidity and less often bail out troubled institutions. Findings are robust to accounting for endogeneity, different techniques and measures, and additional controls. Results have implications for prudential policies, including regulation, supervision, and bailout strategies, that may partially mitigate some negative effects of culture.
This is a cross-sectional study aiming to understand the early characteristics and background of bone health impairment in clinically well children with Fontan circulation.
We enrolled 10 clinically well children with Fontan palliation (operated >5 years before study entrance, Tanner stage ≤3, age 12.1 ± 1.77 years, 7 males) and 11 healthy controls (age 12.0 ± 1.45 years, 9 males) at two children’s hospitals. All patients underwent peripheral quantitative CT. For the Fontan group, we obtained clinical characteristics, NYHA class, cardiac index by MRI, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and biochemical studies. Linear regression was used to compare radius and tibia peripheral quantitative CT measures between Fontan patients and controls.
All Fontan patients were clinically well (NYHA class 1 or 2, cardiac index 4.85 ± 1.51 L/min/m2) and without significant comorbidities. Adjusted trabecular bone mineral density, cortical thickness, and bone strength index at the radius were significantly decreased in Fontan patients compared to controls with mean differences −30.13 mg/cm3 (p = 0.041), −0.31 mm (p = 0.043), and −6.65 mg2/mm4 (p = 0.036), respectively. No differences were found for tibial measures. In Fontan patients, the mean height-adjusted lumbar bone mineral density and total body less head z scores were −0.46 ± 1.1 and −0.63 ± 1.1, respectively, which are below the average, but within normal range for age and sex.
In a clinically well Fontan cohort, we found significant bone deficits by peripheral quantitative CT in the radius but not the tibia, suggesting non-weight-bearing bones may be more vulnerable to the unique haemodynamics of the Fontan circulation.
Cover crops provide a number of agronomic benefits, including weed suppression, which is important as cases of herbicide resistance continue to rise. To effectively suppress weeds, high cover crop biomass is needed, which necessitates later termination timing. Cover crop termination is important to mitigate potential planting issues and prevent surviving cover crop competition with cash crops. Field studies were conducted in Virginia to determine the most effective herbicide options alone or combined with glyphosate or paraquat to terminate a range of cover crop species. Results revealed that grass cover crop species were controlled (94% to 98%) by glyphosate alone 4 wk after application (WAA). Overall, legume species varied in response to the single active-ingredient treatments, and control increased with the addition of glyphosate or paraquat. Mixes with glyphosate provided better control of crimson clover and hairy vetch by 7% to 8% compared with mixes containing paraquat 4 WAA. Mix partner did not influence control of Austrian winter pea. No treatment adequately controlled rapeseed in this study, with a maximum of 58% control observed with single active-ingredient treatments and 62% control with mixes. Height reduction for all cover crop species supports visible rating data. Rapeseed should be terminated when smaller, which could negate weed suppressive benefits from this cover crop species. Growers should consider herbicide selection and termination timing in their cover crop plan to ensure effective termination.
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor of childhood with >95% survival rates in the US. Traditional therapy for retinoblastoma often included enucleation (removal of the eye). While much is known about the visual, physical, and cognitive ramifications of enucleation, data are lacking about survivors' perception of how this treatment impacts overall quality of life.
Qualitative analysis of an open-ended response describing how much the removal of an eye had affected retinoblastoma survivors' lives and in what ways in free text, narrative form.
Four hundred and four retinoblastoma survivors who had undergone enucleation (bilateral disease = 214; 52% female; mean age = 44, SD = 11) completed the survey. Survivors reported physical problems (n = 205, 50.7%), intrapersonal problems (n = 77, 19.1%), social and relational problems (n = 98, 24.3%), and affective problems (n = 34, 8.4%) at a mean of 42 years after diagnosis. Three key themes emerged from survivors' responses; specifically, they (1) continue to report physical and intrapersonal struggles with appearance and related self-consciousness due to appearance; (2) have multiple social and relational problems, with teasing and bullying being prominent problems; and (3) reported utilization of active coping strategies, including developing more acceptance and learning compensatory skills around activities of daily living.
Significance of results
This study suggests that adult retinoblastoma survivors treated with enucleation continue to struggle with a unique set of psychosocial problems. Future interventions can be designed to teach survivors more active coping skills (e.g., for appearance-related issues, vision-related issues, and teasing/bullying) to optimize survivors' long-term quality of life.
Psychoactive substance use is lower among married compared to divorced or unmarried men; yet, the nature of this effect remains unclear because becoming and staying married is potentially confounded with substance-related background familial and individual factors, like parental divorce and personality. The authors investigated the associations between marital status and substance use; how substance use changed across the transition to marriage; and whether marriage effects were likely to be causal.
The sample included 1790 adults from male–male twin pairs from a population-based registry. Measures of marital status and alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use came from Life History Calendars. Data were analyzed using regression, co-twin comparison, and within-person models. The latter models are tools for quasi-causal inference that control for familial and individual-level confounders.
Married men used less alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis than men who were divorced/separated or single. In analyses of substance use across the transition to marriage, men reduced their alcohol and cannabis use both before and after marriage, but their tobacco use only after marriage. These effects were largely robust in co-twin and within-person analyses.
Marriage was associated with substantial reductions in substance use compared to being divorced/separated or single, and these reductions began prior to marriage. The co-twin comparison and within-person models ruled out the alternative explanation that marriage effects were due to confounding background familial and individual factors. These results provide strong evidence that the social role expectations associated with marriage reduce psychoactive substance use.
Recent advances in nucleic acid extraction and sequencing have changed and expanded our understanding of the diversity of life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface. This chapter highlights recent developments in sequencing genetic material from the deep biosphere (spurred in part by the Census of Deep Life) and new bioinformatics approaches to present a synthesis of our current understanding of the biogeography of life in the deep biosphere. Building from this data framework, this chapter also explores emerging trends in understanding the ecology and evolution of subsurface life.
Autonomous exploration requires the use of movable platforms that carry a payload of instruments with a certain level of autonomy and communication with the operators. This is particularly challenging in subsurface environments, which may be more dangerous for human access and where communication with the surface is limited. Subsurface robotic exploration, which has been to date very limited, is interesting not only for science but also for cost-effective industrial exploitation of resources and safety assessments in mines. Furthermore, it has a direct application to exploration of extra-terrestrial subsurface environments of astrobiological and geological significance such as caves, lava tubes, impact or volcanic craters and subglacial conduits, for deriving in-situ mineralogical resources and establishing preliminary settlements. However, the technological solutions are generally tailor-made and are therefore considered as costly, fragile and environment-specific, further hindering their extensive and effective applications. To demonstrate the advantages of rover exploration for a broad-community, we have developed KORE (KOmpact Rover for Exploration); a low-cost, re-usable, rover multi-purpose platform. The rover platform has been developed as a technological demonstration for extra-terrestrial subsurface exploration and terrestrial mining operations pertaining to geomorphological mapping, environmental monitoring, gas leak detections and search and rescue operations in case of an accident. The present paper, the first part of a series of two, focuses on describing the development of a robust rover platform to perform dedicated geomorphological, astrobiological and mining tasks. KORE was further tested in the Mine Analogue Research 6 (MINAR6) campaign during September 2018 in the Boulby mine (UK), the second deepest potash mine in Europe at a subsurface depth of 1.1 km, the results of which will be presented in the second paper of this series. KORE is a large, semi-autonomous rover weighing 160 kg with L × W × H dimensions 1.2 m × 0.8 m × 1 m and a payload carrying capacity of 100 kg using 800 W traction power that can power to a maximum speed of 8.4 km h−1. The rover can be easily dismantled in three parts facilitating its transportation to any chosen site of exploration. Presently, the main scientific payloads on KORE are: (1) a three-dimensional mapping camera, (2) a methane detection system, (3) an environmental station capable of monitoring temperature, relative humidity, pressure and gases such as NO2, SO2, H2S, formaldehyde, CO, CO2, O3, O2, volatile organic compounds and particulates and (4) a robotic arm. Moreover, the design of the rover allows for integration of more sensors as per the scientific requirements in future expeditions. At the MINAR6 campaign, the technical readiness of KORE was demonstrated during 6 days of scientific research in the mine, with a total of 22 h of operation.
The resection of a subaortic membrane remains far from a curative operation. We sought to examine factors associated with reoperation and the degree of aortic valve regurgitation as a potential long-term source for reoperation.
All patients who underwent resection of an isolated subaortic membrane between 1995 and 2018 were included. Patients who underwent other procedures were excluded. Paired categorical data were compared using McNemar’s test. Univariate time-to-event analyses were performed using Kaplan–Meier methods with log-rank tests for categorical variables and univariate Cox models for continuous variables.
A total of 84 patients (median age 6.6, 31% females) underwent resection of isolated subaortic membrane. At a median follow-up of 9.3 years (interquartile range 0.6–22.5), 12 (14%) patients required one reoperation and 1 patient required two reoperations. Median time to first reoperation was 4.6 years. The degree of aortic valve regurgitation improved post-operatively from pre-operatively (p = 0.0007); however, the degree of aortic valve regurgitation worsened over the course of follow-up (p = 0.010) to equivalence with pre-operative aortic valve regurgitation (p = 0.18). Performance of a septal myectomy was associated with longer freedom from reoperation (p = 0.004).
In patients with isolated subaortic membranes, performance of a septal myectomy can minimise risk for reoperation. Patients should be serially monitored for degradation of the aortic valve, even if aortic regurgitation is not present post-operatively.
Residual herbicides applied to summer cash crops have the potential to injure subsequent winter annual cover crops, yet little information is available to guide growers’ choices. Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Blacksburg and Suffolk, Virginia, to determine carryover of 30 herbicides commonly used in corn, soybean, or cotton on wheat, barley, cereal rye, oats, annual ryegrass, forage radish, Austrian winter pea, crimson clover, hairy vetch, and rapeseed cover crops. Herbicides were applied to bare ground either 14 wk before cover crop planting for a PRE timing or 10 wk for a POST timing. Visible injury was recorded 3 and 6 wk after planting (WAP), and cover crop biomass was collected 6 WAP. There were no differences observed in cover crop biomass among herbicide treatments, despite visible injury that suggested some residual herbicides have the potential to effect cover crop establishment. Visible injury on grass cover crop species did not exceed 20% from any herbicide. Fomesafen resulted in the greatest injury recorded on forage radish, with greater than 50% injury in 1 site-year. Trifloxysulfuron and atrazine resulted in greater than 20% visible injury on forage radish. Trifloxysulfuron resulted in the greatest injury (30%) observed on crimson clover in 1 site-year. Prosulfuron and isoxaflutole significantly injured rapeseed (17% to 21%). Results indicate that commonly used residual herbicides applied in the previous cash crop growing season result in little injury on grass cover crop species, and only a few residual herbicides could potentially affect the establishment of a forage radish, crimson clover, or rapeseed cover crop.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.