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Temporary excavations during the construction of the Glendoe Hydro Scheme above Loch Ness in the Highlands of Scotland exposed a clay-rich fault gouge in Dalradian Supergroup psammite. The gouge coincides with the mapped trace of the subvertical Sronlairig Fault, a feature related in part to the Great Glen and Ericht–Laidon faults, which had been interpreted to result from brittle deformation during the Caledonian orogeny (c. 420–390 Ma). Exposure of this mica-rich gouge represented an exceptional opportunity to constrain the timing of the gouge-producing movement on the Sronlairig Fault using isotopic analysis to date the growth of authigenic (essentially synkinematic) clay mineralization. A series of fine-size separates was isolated prior to K–Ar analysis. Novel, capillary-encapsulated X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to ensure nearly perfect, random orientation and to facilitate the identification and quantification of mica polytypes. Coarser size fractions are composed of greater proportions of the 2M1 illite polytype. Finer size fractions show increasing proportions of the 1M illite polytype, with no evidence of 2M1 illite in the finest fractions. A series of Illite Age Analysis plots produced excellent R2 values with calculated mean ages of 296 ± 7 Ma (Late Carboniferous–Early Permian) for the oldest (2M1) illite and 145 ± 7 Ma (Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous) for the youngest (1M) illite. The Late Carboniferous–Early Permian (Faulting event 1) age may represent resetting of earlier-formed micas or authigenesis during dextral displacement of the Great Glen Fault Zone (GGFZ). Contemporaneous WNW(NW)–ESE(SE) extension was important for basin development and hydrocarbon migration in the Pentland Firth and Moray Firth regions. The Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous (Faulting event 2) age corresponds with Moray Firth Basin development and indicates that the GGFZ and related structures may have acted to partition the active extension in the Moray Firth region from relative inactivity in the Pentland Firth area at this time. These new age dates demonstrate the long-lived geological activity on the GGFZ, particularly so in post-Caledonian times where other isotopic evidence for younger tectonic overprints is lacking.
Oats can be processed in a variety of ways ranging from minimally processed such as steel-cut oats (SCO), to mildly processed such as large-flake oats (old fashioned oats, OFO), moderately processed such as instant oats (IO) or highly processed in ready-to-eat oat cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios (HNC). Although processing is believed to increase glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, the effect of oat processing in these respects is unclear. Thus, we compared the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses elicited by 628 kJ portions of SCO, OFO, IO and HNC and a portion of Cream of Rice cereal (CR) containing the same amount of available-carbohydrate (23 g) as the oatmeals. Healthy males (n 18) and females (n 12) completed this randomised, cross-over trial. Blood was taken fasting and at intervals for 3 h following test-meal consumption. Glucose and insulin peak-rises and incremental AUC (iAUC) were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA using Tukey’s test (two-sided P<0·05) to compare individual means. Glucose peak-rise (primary endpoint, mean (sem) mmol/l) after OFO, 2·19 (sem 0·11), was significantly less than after CR, 2·61 (sem 0·13); and glucose peak-rise after SCO, 1·93 (sem 0·13), was significantly less than after CR, HNC, 2·49 (sem 0·13) and IO 2·47 (sem 0·13). Glucose iAUC was significantly lower after SCO than CR and HNC. Insulin peak rise was similar among the test meals, but insulin iAUC was significantly less after SCO than IO. Thus, the results show that oat processing affects glycaemic and insulinaemic responses with lower responses associated with less processing.
Introduction: Patients with advanced or end-stage illness frequently present to emergency departments (EDs), many of whom are in need of palliative care (PC). Emergency physicians have struggled in providing high quality care to these patients and there is a need to identify cost-effective PC interventions delivered in the ED to improve patient outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of ED-based PC interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search of nine electronic databases and grey literature sources was conducted to identify any comparative studies assessing the effectiveness of ED-based PC interventions to improve health outcomes of patients with advanced or end-stage illness. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Differences were mediated via third-party adjudication. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model and heterogeneity (I2) was reported. Results: From 5882 potentially eligible citations, 12 studies were included. Two studies are currently on-going clinical trials, and as such, 10 studies were included in this analysis. The studies consisted of before-after studies (n = 5), RCTs (n = 4), and an observational cohort (n = 1). Interventions assessed among the included studies consisted primarily of ED-directed PC consultations (n = 6), while other studies assessed screening of patients with advanced or end-stage illness and PC needs (n = 2), education on PC for ED-staff (n = 1), and an ED-based critical care unit (n = 1). Infrequent reporting of important outcomes (e.g., Mortality, ED relapse) limited the ability of this review to conduct meaningful meta-analysis. There was no difference in patient mortality between two studies assessing ED-directed PC consultations (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.13; I2 = 0%). One before-after study (RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.13) and two RCTs (RR = 2.19; 95% CI: 0.40, 11.92; I2 = 96%) did not identify significant differences in PC consultations intervention (implementation of ED-directed PC consultations) and control (usual care) patients. Conclusion: This review found limited evidence to support the recommendation of any particular ED-based intervention for patients presenting to the ED with advanced or end-stage illness. High quality studies and standardized outcome reporting are needed to better understand the impact of PC interventions in the ED setting.
Introduction: Pain is a significant driver of demand in emergency care and 65% of adult patients with trauma also report moderate to severe pain. Inhaled low dose methoxyflurane (MEOF) a rapid-acting patient administered inhalational analgesic was recently approved in Canada for the short-term relief of moderate to severe acute pain associated with trauma or interventional medical procedures in conscious adult patients. This study will generate real-world evidence to complement the global clinical development program through evaluation of the effectiveness of MEOF in Canadian emergency departments. Methods: This is a phase IV, prospective open label, multi-centre study. Approximately 100 adult (≥18 yrs) patients with moderate to severe acute pain (NRS0-10≥4) associated with single system trauma will be enrolled at 5-10 EDs across Canada. Patients will receive a single treatment of up to 2 x 3 mL MEOF (2nd 3 mL to be provided only upon request), self-administered by the patient under medical supervision. Rescue medication will be permitted at any time, if required. Results: Planned Assessments and Outcome Measures: Pain will be assessed using the NRS0-10 at 4 time points: screening/triage, 5 minutes and 20 minutes post-start of administration (STA) of MEOF, and when ready for discharge. Secondary assessments will include the speed of action of analgesia (from STA of MEOF); patient and physician satisfaction with treatment (as assessed through Global Medical Performance (GMP) at 20 minutes post-STA and when ready for discharge); patient and physician fulfilment of pain relief expectations (assessed when ready for discharge); use of rescue medication and treatment-emergent adverse events. Exploratory outcomes will include the time to disposition, time to readiness for discharge and responder analysis. The primary outcome measure will be the change in pain intensity over 20 minutes from the start of administration of MEOF as measured on the NRS0-10. Conclusion: We report on the methodology of a phase IV, prospective open label, multi-centre study, evaluating the use of MEOF for the management of acute traumatic pain in Canadian Emergency Departments.
Introduction: Acute migraine headaches are common causes of presentation to the emergency department (ED). There is great variability in the efficacy of the available parenteral agents to manage pain, though triptans are among the recommended treatments. The objective of this systematic review was to update a previous review examining the effectiveness of parenteral agents for the treatment of acute migraine in the ED or equivalent acute care setting; our review examined pain management in emergency settings and assessed the effectiveness of triptan agents. Methods: A comprehensive search of 10 electronic databases and grey literature was conducted to supplement the previous systematic review. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Any discrepancies were resolved by third party adjudication. Pain scale scores were analyzed using standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated using a random effects model; heterogeneity (I2) was reported. Results: Titles and abstracts of 5039 unique studies were reviewed, of which, 51 studies were included. Sixty-four studies from the original review were included, resulting in a total of 115 included studies. Pain was measured within the ED or equivalent acute care setting using a variety of pain scales, most commonly the 0-10 cm or 100 mm visual analog scale. Four studies compared pain scores between patients receiving sumatriptan vs. other agents, of which, patients receiving sumatriptan reported higher pain scale scores (SMD = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.02; I2 = 80%). In particular, patients receiving sumatriptan reported higher pain scale scores than patients receiving metoclopramide (SMD = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.31, 1.04; n = 1) or ketorolac (SMD = 1.39; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.21; n = 1). Overall, studies comparing anti-inflammatory agents (i.e., ketorolac or dexketoprofen) to other agents reported improved pain scale scores among patients receiving anti-inflammatory agents (SMD = -0.38; 95% CI: -0.73, -0.03; I2 = 66%; n = 5). Conclusion: Limited evidence suggests that patients treated with metoclopramide or anti-inflammatory agents experience greater pain reduction compared to patients treated with sumatriptan. This review will conduct a network analysis of parenteral agents to examine the comparative effectiveness of parenteral agents to manage pain among patients with acute migraine. Further analysis will also consider the balance between efficacy and adverse events.
Introduction: Although a variety of parenteral agents exist for the treatment of acute migraine, relapse after an emergency department (ED) visit is still a common occurrence. The objective of this systematic review was to update a previous review examining the effectiveness of parenteral agents for the treatment of acute migraine in the ED or equivalent acute care setting; our review focused on those studies aiming a reduction in relapse after an ED visit. Methods: A comprehensive search of 10 electronic databases and grey literature was conducted to identify comparative studies to supplement the previous systematic review. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Any discrepancies were resolved by third party adjudication. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model and heterogeneity (I2) was reported. Results: Titles and abstracts of 5039 unique studies were reviewed, of which, 51 studies were included. Sixty-four studies from the original review were included, resulting in a total of 115 included studies. Relapse was reported in 44 (38%) included studies and occurred commonly in patients receiving placebo or no interventions (median = 39%; IQR: 14%, 47%). Overall, no differences in headache relapse were found between patients receiving sumatriptan or placebo (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.17; I2 = 93%; n = 8). Conversely, patients receiving neuroleptic agents experienced fewer relapses compared to placebo (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.58; I2 = 0%; n = 3); however, patients receiving neuroleptics reported an increase in adverse events (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.00; I2 = 0%; n = 3). Compared to placebo, patients receiving dexamethasone were less likely to experience a headache recurrence (RR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.95; I2 = 60%, n = 9); however, no differences were found in reported adverse events (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.47; I2 = 0%; n = 3). Conclusion: Relapse is a common occurrence for patients with migraine headaches. This review found patients receiving neuroleptics or dexamethasone experienced fewer headache recurrences. Conversely, triptan agents appear to have minimal effect on reducing the risk for headache recurrence following discharge from an acute care setting. Limited available data on adverse events is an important limitation to inform decision-making. Guidelines should be revised to reflect these results.
Introduction: With an increasing proportion of patients in need of end-of-life (EOL) care presenting to the emergency department (ED), many of these patients may benefit from early palliative care (PC) referral. In fact, early PC referral is one of the Choosing Wisely ED recommendations in the USA. As such, there is a potential benefit to identifying patients with advanced or end-stage illness with PC needs. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the available evidence regarding the existence and psychometric properties of screening tools to identify patients with advanced or end-stage illness and PC needs presenting to EDs. Methods: A comprehensive search of eight electronic databases and the grey literature was conducted. Studies assessing the ability of a screening instrument to identify ED patients with advanced or end-stage illness in need of PC were eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Disagreements were resolved through third-party adjudication. Due to the significant heterogeneity, as well as inconsistent outcome reporting, a descriptive summary of the results was completed. Results: Once duplicates were removed, the title and abstracts of 3516 studies were screened, of which, 15 studies were included. Overall, 10 unique screening instruments were assessed across the studies. The most commonly assessed screening tool was the use of the modified surprise question (SQ), in which physicians were asked if they would be surprised if the patient died within a specified period of time. Only four of the included studies assessed the diagnostic or psychometric properties of the screening tools. One study reported that the modified SQ predicted PC consultation with 35% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and a negative predictive value of 97%. The proportion of patients identified with PC needs ranged from 12% to 73%, with studies utilizing the SQ reporting a range of 12% to 33%. Conclusion: A variety of screening tools are available to identify ED patients with advanced or end-stage illness who would benefit from a referral for PC. While the modified SQ was the most common instrument assessed and appears to be simple to implement, it is unclear if the diagnostic and psychometric properties of this tool are sufficiently robust to warrant widespread implementation.
Introduction: While boarding of patients in the emergency department (ED) has been well documented and is carefully monitored, the time spent in emergency beds by patients waiting for Adult Protection (AP) placement is often relatively unnoticed, as they are not flagged as ‘admitted’. These patients have no emergency needs, yet consume considerable ED resources, often in excess of patients requiring emergency care. Staff familiarity with this issue may also bias them to premature diagnostic closure of patients as ‘placement problems’, risking misdiagnosis of active medical conditions. An observational study to retrospectively quantify the time spent in the ED by patients referred to AP services for urgent placement from the ED. Methods: A three-year audit of ED social work records of patients referred for AP. Results: For the period of October 1 2015-September 30, 2018, the ED social work service kept records of patients referred for AP from the ED. During this period, a total of 142 patients were referred to AP (40, 50, and 52 in each year respectively). There was an increase of 10 patients between 2015/16 and 2016/17 and two patients from 2016/17 to 2017/18. The overall length of stay for this subset of ED patients during this three-year period was alarmingly high, with an average length of stay of four days per patient (range 2.7 hours-18.5 days) compared to an average of all patients of 4.9 hours and admitted patients of 13.6 hours. Conclusion: Patients in the ED who are referred to AP services consume considerable ED resources, often requiring complete medical work-up, capacity assessments and close monitoring by multiple emergency personnel. This has been reported to cause considerable stress and friction between staff and consulting services. Furthermore, these patients are poorly served in a hectic, brightly lit, and noisy environment. The impact is often not fully appreciated due to ineffective capture by patient tracking systems.
Background: Older adults in the emergency department (ED) take an increasingly larger portion of resources, have increased length of stay and a higher likelihood of adverse outcomes. In many cases bad planning, multiple vague handovers, and lack of coordinated care exacerbate this problem. With the impending onset of our aging population this is a situation that can be expected to compound in complexity in the years to come. Aim Statement: We describe daily interdisciplinary review of ED patients over the age of 75 years (or otherwise identified as a challenging discharge) to discuss barriers and facilitators to discharge/disposition. We will use data to identify the impact of this particular population to ED flow. Measures & Design: This initiative developed from our participation in the Acute Care of the Elderly (ACE) Collaborative and applies Plan/Do/Study/Act (PDSA) cycles and run reports to compare: length of stay; Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) screening tool; ED census, admission/discharge rates, bounce back rates, consulting services, and interdisciplinary participation. Evaluation/Results: The average daily census of our ED between the months of July-October of 2018 was over 211 patients/day, of which over 12% were patients 75 years and older. We conducted over 70 huddles, reviewing an average of 11 patients per day. The average length of stay for patients at the time of the huddle was 19 hours, significantly higher than the general emergency population. Next day admission and discharge rates were comparable, 44.8% and 43.1% respectively with the additional patients remaining in the ED with no disposition. Internal medicine was consulted on 30% of all huddle patients and 38.4% subsequently admitted. Thirty day bounce back rates for huddle patients discharged home was 29.3%. Around 60% of patients 75 and older were screened with the ISAR and 55.7% of these were positive (2 or more questions). Discussion/Impact: Older patients consume a disproportionate amount of ED resources. Daily interdisciplinary ‘geriatric huddles’ improved communication between members of the ED team and with consulting services. The huddles enhanced awareness of the unique demands that older adults place on the flow of the ED, and identified opportunities to enhance patient flow.
Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia treated in the emergency department (ED) and is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Studies have shown that only oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy reduces risk of AF related stroke. Our objective was to measure the prescribing practices for OACs for new onset AF at a tertiary ED and two surrounding community EDs, and identify rates of adverse effects within 90 days. The findings of this study will provide quality assurance information for the management of patients with new onset AF. This information has the potential to promote adherence to prescribing guidelines for AF in the ED and the reduction of common adverse events such as ischemic stroke. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 385 patients with new onset AF who presented to the ED between November 2014 to Mach 2018. We defined new onset as symptoms <48 hours and had AF confirmed with electrocardiogram. We recorded the selected therapy choice of cardioversion and/or rate control, gender, age, and assessed CHADS-65 score. We recorded who was prescribed OAC and those who were referred to cardiology, family medicine, or did not have a documented follow up plan. Patients with a previous history of AF or current anticoagulant therapy were excluded. We recorded if any patients returned to the ED within 90 days with ischemic stroke, AF recurrence, myocardial infarction, other embolic disease or death. Results: 86 of 294 (29.5%) of patients who qualified under CHADS-65 received OACs appropriately. 64 of 66 (97.0%) of patients who did not qualify under CHADS-65 did not receive OACs appropriately. 5 patients overall returned within 90 days with ischemic stroke, 4 of those were not prescribed OACs, however this was not statistically significant (P = 0.999). Conclusion: This data suggests that physicians in the study are under-prescribing OACs relative to published guidelines. A larger study is necessary to elucidate the effect of ED OAC prescribing patterns on long-term patient outcome.
The effect of temperature change on LiF, ADP, and EDDT analyzing crystals was studied by measuring the change In intensity of a selected X-ray spectral line while maintaining a constant 2θ position on the spectrometer. A change in interplanar spacing due to thermal expansion and contraction satisfactorily account for experimentally observed line shifts for LiF and ADP. EDDT showed a large unexplained decrease in reflectivity with increasing ambient temperature.
An equation was developed to express the change in intensity at a constant 2θ position as an exponential function of temperature. In this equation the thermal expansion coefficients of the principal axes of the crystal, the width of the spectral line at half-height, and the Bragg angle appear as factors. Intensity changes due to peak shift were tabulated for LiF, ADP, NaCl, silicon, germanium, quartz, calcite, fiuorite, and topaz.
The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
Indigenous women and children experience some of the most profound health disparities globally. These disparities are grounded in historical and contemporary trauma secondary to colonial atrocities perpetuated by settler society. The health disparities that exist for chronic diseases may have their origins in early-life exposures that Indigenous women and children face. Mechanistically, there is evidence that these adverse exposures epigenetically modify genes associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. Interventions designed to support a resilient pregnancy and first 1000 days of life should abrogate disparities in early-life socioeconomic status. Breastfeeding, prenatal care and early child education are key targets for governments and health care providers to start addressing current health disparities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous youth. Programmes grounded in cultural safety and co-developed with communities have successfully reduced health disparities. More works of this kind are needed to reduce inequities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous women and children worldwide.
Infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD are at high risk for adverse outcomes owing to multiple physiologic and psychosocial factors. Lack of immediate physical postnatal contact because of rapid initiation of medical therapy impairs maternal–infant bonding. On the basis of expected physiology, maternal–infant bonding may be safe for select cardiac diagnoses.
This is a single-centre study to assess safety of maternal–infant bonding in prenatal CHD.
In total, 157 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed CHD were reviewed. On the basis of cardiac diagnosis, 91 fetuses (58%) were prenatally approved for bonding and successfully bonded, 38 fetuses (24%) were prenatally approved but deemed not suitable for bonding at delivery, and 28 (18%) were not prenatally approved to bond. There were no complications attributable to bonding. Those who successfully bonded were larger in weight (3.26 versus 2.6 kg, p<0.001) and at later gestation (39 versus 38 weeks, p<0.001). Those unsuccessful at bonding were more likely to have been delivered via Caesarean section (74 versus 49%, p=0.011) and have additional non-cardiac diagnoses (53 versus 29%, p=0.014). There was no significant difference regarding the need for cardiac intervention before hospital discharge. Infants who bonded had shorter hospital (7 versus 26 days, p=0.02) and ICU lengths of stay (5 versus 23 days, p=0.002) and higher survival (98 versus 76%, p<0.001).
Fetal echocardiography combined with a structured bonding programme can permit mothers and infants with select types of CHD to successfully bond before ICU admission and intervention.
Supportive social relationships can reduce both psychological and physiological responses to stressful experiences. Recently, studies have also assessed the potential for social relationships to buffer the intergenerational transmission of stress. The majority of these studies, however, have focussed on social learning as a mechanism responsible for the intergenerational transmission of stress. Evidence of biological mechanisms is lacking. The objective of the current study was, therefore, to determine whether the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and infant hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function is mediated by maternal HPA axis function during pregnancy and moderated by social support. Data were from 243 mother–infant dyads enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort (the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition Study). Maternal history of ACEs was retrospectively assessed while maternal perceived social support and salivary cortisol were assessed prospectively at 6–22 weeks gestation (Time 1) and 27–37 weeks gestation (Time 2), and infant cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor and maternal perceived social support were assessed at 5–10 months postnatal (Time 3). Results revealed that maternal HPA axis function during pregnancy mediated the effects of maternal ACEs on infant HPA axis reactivity, suggesting that the maternal HPA axis is a mechanism by which maternal early life stress is transmitted to offspring. Furthermore, social support in the prenatal and postnatal periods moderated the cascade from maternal ACEs to infant HPA axis reactivity. Specifically, prenatal social support moderated the association between ACEs and maternal HPA axis function during pregnancy, and postnatal social support moderated the association between maternal HPA axis function and infant cortisol reactivity. These findings highlight the social sensitivity of the HPA axis and suggest the utility of social relationships as an intervention target to reduce the effects of maternal early life stress on infant outcomes.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.