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The risk factors of criminal behavior in patients with schizophrenia are not well explored. This study is to explore the risk factors for criminal behavior in patients with schizophrenia in rural China.
We used data from a 14-year prospective follow-up study (1994-2008) of criminal behavior among a cohort (n=510) of patients with schizophrenia in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
There were 489 patients (95.9%) who were followed up from 1994 to 2008. The rate of criminal behavior was 13.5% among these patients with schizophrenia during the follow-up period. Compared with female subjects (6 cases, 20.0%), male patients had significantly higher rate of violent criminal behavior (e.g., arson, sexual assault, physical assault, and murder) (24 cases, 80.0%) (p< 0.001). Bivariate analyses showed that the risk of criminal behavior was significantly associated with being unmarried, of younger age, previous violent behavior, homelessness, lower family economic status, no family caregivers, and higher scores on measures (PANSS) of positive, negative, and total symptoms of illness. In multiple logistic regression analyses being unmarried and previous violent behavior were identified as independent predictors of increased criminal behavior in persons with schizophrenia.
The risk factors for criminal behavior among patients with schizophrenia should be understood within a particular social context. Criminal behavior may be predicted by specific characteristics of patients with schizophrenia in rural community. The findings of risk factors for criminal behavior should be considered in planning community mental health care and interventions for high-risk patients and their families.
This case-control study aimed to assess the intervention effects of six-session interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) on reducing the severity of anxiety and depression in adolescent victims.
A total of 30 adolescents who had clinical significant level after experiencing bullied experiences were allocated to a six-session course of IPT-A (N = 15) or to treatment as usual (TAU) (N = 15). T test was performed to examine the effect of IPT-A on reducing the severity of anxiety and depression related to the bullied events.
Pre-intervention age, sex, anxiety and depression showed no significant difference between two groups. As the preintervention severity of two groups were no significant different, results showed the IPT-A group to have significantly lower post-intervention severity levels of anxiety and depression (p< .05) than the TAU group. Effective size showed moderate to high level between IPT-A and TAU.
The results of this study support the effectiveness of the IPT-A in improving anxiety symptoms and depression in adolescents experiencing traumatic bullied experiences.
Sufficient amino acid (AA) transport is essential to ensure the normal physiological function and growth of growing animals. The processes of AA sensing and transport in humans and murine animals, but rarely in goats, have been arousing great interest recently. This study was conducted to investigate the messenger RNA expression patterns of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 (LPAR5), guanine nucleotide-binding protein α-transducing 3 (GNAT3) and important partial AA transporters in digestive tracts, metabolic organs and muscles of growing goats. The results showed that these genes were widely expressed in goats, and had different expression patterns. LPAR5, GNAT3, solute carrier (SLC38A2), SLC7A7, SLC7A1 and SLC3A1 were rarely expressed in the rumen, but were highly expressed in the abomasum and intestine which are the main sites of AA absorption. GNAT3, SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC6A19, SLC7A7 and SLC7A1 showed comparatively high expression in the pancreas and the vital digestive glands, and the relatively high expression of these nine genes were noted in the tibialis posterior, the active muscle in energy metabolism. The correlation analysis showed that there were certain positive correlation among most genes. The current results indicate that the AA sensing and transport occur extensively in the abomasum and small intestine, metabolic organs and muscle tissues of ruminants, and that related genes have tissue specificity.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals is capable of sensing various kinds of nutrients via G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling transduction pathways, and the process is known as ‘gut nutrient chemosensing’. GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 are chemoreceptors for free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid derivatives, but they are not well studied in small ruminants. The objective of this study is to determine the expression of GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 along the GIT of kid goats under supplemental feeding (S) v. grazing (G) during early development. In total, 44 kid goats (initial weight 1.35±0.12 kg) were slaughtered for sampling (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) between days 0 and 70. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 were measured at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GPR40 and GPR119 were assayed at protein level only. The effects of age and feeding system on their expression were variable depending upon GIT segments, chemoreceptors and expression level (mRNA or protein), and sometimes feeding system × age interactions (P<0.05) were observed. Supplemental feeding enhanced expression of GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 in most segments of the GIT of goats, whereas G enhanced expression of GPR119. GPR41 and GPR43 were mainly expressed in rumen, abomasum and cecum, with different responses to age and feeding system. GPR41 and GPR43 expression in abomasum at mRNA level was greatly (P<0.01) affected by both age and feeding system; whereas their expression in rumen and abomasum at protein level were different, feeding system greatly (P<0.05) affected GPR41 expression, but had no effect (P>0.05) on GPR43 expression; and there were no feeding system×age interactions (P>0.05) on GPR41 and GPR43 protein expression. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 in rumen and abomasum linearly (P<0.01) increased with increasing age (from days 0 to 70). Meanwhile, age was the main factor affecting GPR40 expression throughout the GIT. These outcomes indicate that age and feeding system are the two factors affecting chemoreceptors for FFAs and lipid derivatives expression in the GIT of kids goats, and S enhanced the expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs, whereas G gave rise to greater expression of chemoreceptors for lipid derivatives. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs might be one of the benefits of early supplemental feeding offered to young ruminants during early development.
Introduction: Accurate identification of children with a concussion by emergency department (ED) physicians is important to initiate appropriate anticipatory guidance and management. In children meeting international criteria for concussion, we aimed to determine the proportion who were provided this diagnosis by the ED physician and which variables were associated with a physician-diagnosed concussion. We also compared persistent symptoms in concussion cases versus those with alternative diagnoses. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Participants were children aged 5 through 17 years and met Zurich/Berlin International Consensus Statement criteria for concussion. The primary outcome was the proportion of study participants who were assigned a diagnosis of concussion by the treating ED physician. Based on available evidence, between 50% and 90% of children meeting international concussion criteria are also diagnosed by an ED physician as having a concussion. Assuming a worst case scenario that 50% of physicians would diagnose concussion, our anticipated study sample size of 2946 would be accompanied by a +2% margin of error at the 95% confidence level for the primary outcome. Results: Among the 2946 eligible children, 2340 [79.4% (95% CI 78.0, 80.8)] were diagnosed with a concussion by an ED physician. Twelve variables were associated with this ED diagnosis, five of which had an odds ratio (OR) > 1.5: older age (13-17 vs 5-7 years, OR=2.9), longer time to presentation (>16 vs. <16 hours, OR=2.1), nausea (OR=1.7), sport mechanism (OR=1.7), and amnesia (OR=1.6). In those with physician-diagnosed concussion versus no concussion, the frequency of persistent symptoms was 62.5% vs. 38.8% (p<0.0001) at one week, 46.3% vs. 25.8% (p<0.0001) at two weeks and 33.0% vs. 23.0% (p<0.0001) at four weeks. Conclusion: Most children meeting international criteria for concussion were provided this diagnosis by the ED physician. There were five variables which increased the odds of this diagnosis by at least 1.5-fold. Relative to international criteria, the more selective assignment of concussion by ED physicians was associated with a greater frequency of persistent concussion symptoms. Nevertheless, many patients with alternative diagnoses exhibited persistent concussive symptoms at all time points. Clinicians should therefore weigh the benefits and risks of strictly applying the Zurich/Berlin international criteria versus individual discretion.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) represents a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries, however, it suffers from limitations associated with poor intrinsic electron conductivity as well as moderate ionic conductivity. Hence, to achieve the goal of creating LTO anodes with improved high-rate performance, we have put forth a number of targeted fundamental strategies. Herein we discuss the roles of controllably tuning (i) morphology, (ii) attachment modalities of carbon, and (iii) ion doping of the LTO material. In addition, we also demonstrated in situ studies of lithiation-driven structural transformations in LTO via a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations, which have been proven to be powerful tools to probe the negligible volume change and extraordinary stability of LTO upon repeated charge/discharge cycles.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses in many mammal cells. Here, we suggest that the mTOR pathway is involved in the intestinal inflammatory responses evoked by LPS treatment in chicken embryos. The intestinal tissue from Specific pathogen free chick embryos was cultured in the presence of LPS for 2 h. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentrations, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cytokines, and protein levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mTOR and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) were determined. The results showed that LPS treatment increased sIgA concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels of interleukine (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 were upregulated by LPS treatment (P<0.05). Lipopolysaccharide increased the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK and NF-κB (P<0.05) while decreasing the phosphorylation level of mTOR (P<0.05). Supplementation of leucine at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mM dose-dependently decreased sIgA production. Leucine supplementation at 40 mM restored the phosphorylation level of mTOR and p70S6K while suppressing the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB (P<0.05) and partially down-regulating the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK. The transcription of IL-6 was significantly decreased by leucine supplementation. These results suggested that leucine could alleviate LPS-induced inflammatory responses by down-regulating NF-κB signaling pathway and evoking mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway, which may involve in the regulation of the intestinal immune system in chicken embryos.
Honeybee foraging can transfer exogenous genes from genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to closely related plants, which not only induces potential ecological risks but also contaminates non-GM seeds or honey products with GM ingredients. These events may lead to international trade disputes. Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and a herbicide (glufosinate)-resistant GM strain of B. napus (Z7B10) were studied to examine the effects of honeybee short-range foraging on oilseed rape gene flow and honey ingredients. Results showed variable frequencies of gene flow between GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars, with the highest frequency under nylon net isolation with artificially stocked honeybees, the lowest frequency under nylon net isolation alone, and an intermediate frequency under natural pollination, suggesting the important role of honeybee foraging in gene flow frequency. Additionally, GM pollen grains were found in honey collected from honeybees foraging on both GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars. The phosphinothricin acetyltransferase protein was also detected in both unbroken pollen-containing and pollen-free honey by protein testing strips, suggesting that honeybee foraging on GM oilseed rape could lead to contamination with GM ingredients. Overall, the results provide a direct scientific basis for the ecological risk assessment and safety management of GM oilseed rape.
Soluble starch synthase II (SSII) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch and in rice it consists of three isoforms encoded by SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3. However, the genetic effects of various SSII alleles on grain quality have not been systematically characterized. In the present study, the japonica alleles on SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3 (SSIIa) loci from a japonica cultivar, Suyunuo, were respectively introgressed by molecular marker-assisted selection into a typical indica cultivar, Guichao2, through successive backcrossing, generating three sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Grain quality and starch property analysis showed that NIL-SSII-3j exhibited significant decreases in the following parameters: amylose content, average granule size, and setback viscosity and consistency; but increases in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, gelatinization temperature and relative crystallinity. Moreover, the proportion of short amylopectin chains and branching degree also increased when compared with those of NIL-SSII-3i (Guochao2). Similar effects were observed in NIL-SSII-1j, and certain alterations in the fine structure of starch (granule size) were revealed. However, NIL-SSII-2j did not exert significant effect on grain quality and starch properties. In brief, among the SSII gene family, the functional diversity occurred on SSII-1 and SSII-3, and not on SSII-2. Therefore, it appears that more attention should be directed to SSII-1 and SSII-3 loci for improving the eating and cooking quality of rice.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Studies from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) indicate that the use of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) is associated with more accurate reporting of sensitive behaviors (e.g. substance use and sexual risk behaviors) compared with interviewer-administered questionnaires. There is a lack of published information on the process of designing, developing, and implementing ACASI in LMIC. In this paper we describe our experience implementing an ACASI system for use with a population of orphans and vulnerable children in Zambia.
A questionnaire of mental health, substance use, and HIV risk behaviors was converted into an ACASI system, tested in pilot and validity studies, and implemented for use in a randomized controlled trial. Successes, barriers, and challenges associated with each stage in the development and implementation of ACASI are described.
We were able to convert a lengthy and complex survey into an ACASI system that was feasible for use in Zambia. Lessons learned include the importance of: (1) piloting the written and electronic versions; (2) proper and extensive training for study assessors to use ACASI and for those doing voice recordings; and (3) attention to logistics such as appropriate space, internet, and power.
We found that ACASI was feasible and acceptable in Zambia with proper planning, training, and supervision. Given mounting evidence indicating that ACASI provides more accurate self-report data and immediate data download compared with interview-administered measures, it may be an effective and economical alternative for behavioral health research studies in LMIC.
We undertook a cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial stewardship clinicians in North America and Australasia regarding practices, goals, and barriers to implementation of stewardship for pediatric oncology patients. Goals and barriers were similar regardless of clinician or institutional characteristics and geographic location. Strategies addressing these factors could help optimize antimicrobial use.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):343–347
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction on hormonal and metabolic status of pregnant goats during late gestation and their postnatal male kids. Forty-five pregnant goats were fed a control (CON), 40% protein-restricted (PR) or 40% energy-restricted (ER) diet from 90 days of gestation until parturition. Plasma of mothers (90, 125 and 145 days of gestation) and kids (6 weeks of age) were sampled to determine metabolites and hormones. Glucose concentration for pregnant goats subjected to PR or ER was less (P<0.001) than that of CON goats at 125 and 145 days of gestation. However, plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was greater (P<0.01) at 125 and 145 days for PR and ER than CON. Protein restriction increased (P<0.01) maternal cortisol concentration by 145 days of gestation, and ER decreased (P<0.01) maternal insulin concentration at 125 days of gestation. Moreover, maternal amino acid (AA) concentrations were affected by nutritional restriction, with greater (P<0.05) total AA (TAA) and nonessential AA (NEAA) for PR goats but less (P<0.05) TAA and NEAA for ER goats at 125 days of gestation. After 6 weeks of nutritional recovery, plasma concentrations of most metabolic and hormonal parameters in restricted kids were similar to CON kids, except for reduced (P<0.05) insulin concentration in ER, and reduced (P<0.05) Asp concentration in PR and ER kids. These results provide information on potential metabolic mechanisms responsible for fetal programming.
Glasses are recognized as the ideal hosts to incorporate plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs), semiconductor NPs, and luminescent rare-earth (RE3+) ions. This is due to their unique optical properties, stability, absence of high energy bond vibrations and inertness towards the incorporated NPs. However, conventional methods of metal-glass nanocomposite fabrication involve ion-implantation or sputtering and subsequent heat-treatment under H2, UV-light/X-ray/γ- or laser irradiation. They are (i) multi-step, (ii) require expensive set-up, (iii) bear risk of sample damage and (iv) the formation of NPs occurs only in surface layers. Here we develop two novel glass-systems K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 and K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3-ZnO. Using the selective reducing property of the main component Sb2O3 in these hosts, here we demonstrate for the first time the strategy for single-step in-situ fabrication of metal (M0) NPs and RE3+ ions co-embedded within bulk glasses. This new series of novel composites co-embedding metal NPs (elliptical Au, elongated Ag NPs and Aucore-AuAgshell NPs) and RE3+ ions exhibit enhanced upconversion for solar panels, advanced displays and other nanophotonic applications. Metal NPs exhibit surface plasmons resonance results in concentration and enhancement of the local electromagnetic field (LFE) around them. The luminescent RE3+ ion in the vicinity experiences the local field effect. We observe that the LFE effect is stronger on electric dipole transitions of the RE3+ than the magnetic dipole ones. LFE induced by nano Au enhance the (i) 4G7/2 → 4I9/2 540 nm green and 4G7/2 → 4I15/2 650 nm red upconversion emissions of Nd3+ by 9 and 11 fold, (ii) electric dipole 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 636 nm red upconversion of Sm3+ by about 7 fold and (ii) 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 536 nm green and 4F9/2 →4I15/2 645 nm red emissions of Er3+ by 2 and 5 fold respectively. LFE induced by nano Ag enhance both the green and red upconversion emission of Er3+ by 8 fold. The Aucore-AuAgshell NPs enhance the red upconversion of Sm3+ only by 2 fold due to smaller LFE effect of bimetallic NPs. All the Au-doped antimony glasses are dichroic. They transmit the blue light and reflect the brown light, which make them very interesting material comparable to the historic Lycurgus Cup.
We have demonstrated the color conversion of blue micro-LEDs by means of QDs. In this paper, we will present characterizations that highlight this phenomenon. We already obtained conversion with a complete disappearance of the blue incident signal and a strong color saturation from deep blue (x=0,1626; y=0,0144) to deep red (x=0,6743; y=0,3244).
We propose and numerically investigate a tunable metasurface made of an array of graphene ribbons to dynamically control terahertz (THz) wavefront. The metasurface consists of graphene micro ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO2 gap layer. The graphene ribbons are designed to exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO2 layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering up to 2π range for full control of the THz wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle reflected THz beam steering from -53° to +53° with a high reflection efficiency as high as 60% is achieved at 5 THz while the propagation direction of THz beam could be switched within 0.6 ps.
Metamaterial structures composed of ordered arrays of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocavities are able to support strong plasmon and Fano resonances in the optical frequencies, where the appeared Fano dips can be utilized in bio/chemical sensing and spectroscopic purposes with a significant sensitivity. Herein, we utilize two concentric compositional Aluminum (Al) nanoshells (Al/Al2O3) to design nanomatryushka (NM) structures in periodic arrays, where each one of Al NPs is covered by a certain thickness of the oxide layer. Depositing studied Al NM arrays on metasurfaces, we determined the optical response of the metamaterial. It is shown that the proposed structure is able to support multiple strong Fano resonances in the visible spectrum. Evaluating the plasmon response of the metamaterial configuration for the presence of various semiconductor metasurfaces (Silicon and GaP), the quality of Fano dips is analyzed for different regimes. In this method, we measured the accuracy and sensitivity of the metamaterial structure by plotting the linear figure of merit (FoM) and quantifying this parameter.