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Trait-specific characterization of rice landraces has significant potential for germplasm management, varietal identification and mining of novel gene/allele for various traits. In the current study, we have characterized 98 unique rice landraces collected from coastal regions of India, affected by submergence and salinity, based on Sub1 and Saltol quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked microsatellite markers. Among these genotypes, four genotypes (IC536558, IC536559, IC536604 and IC536604-1) collected from Kerala and two genotypes (AC34902 and IC324589) collected from West Bengal were identified with tolerance to submergence and salinity stress. A high level of genetic diversity of He = 0.349 and 0.529 at Sub1 and Saltol QTL region was detected by QTL-linked microsatellite markers, respectively. At Sub1 region one genotype, AC34902, was detected with maximum allelic similarity with FR13A, a known submergence tolerant variety. Besides, five genotypes (IC211188-1, IC536604-1, IC536604, IC536558 and IC536559) showed comparatively close genetic relationship with the salt tolerant variety FL478 for Saltol QTL and were clustered together in the neighbour joining dendrogram. Considering the haplotype structure, five genotypes (IC203801, IC203778, IC324584, IC413608 and IC413638) were identified which did not contain any common allele similar to FR13A but were still tolerant to submergence. These individuals need further characterization for identification of new alleles responsible for their tolerance.
In the present paper, we analyzed the effects of magnetic field on the three dimensional flow of a nanofluid having the suspension of ferrous nano-particles within the framework of a non-uniformly thicked sheet in a slip flow regime. The sheet of variable thickness is assumed to be stretched in horizontal and transverse directions. The effects of thermophoretic forces and Brownian motion have also been incorporated into the governing equations. The RK-Fehlberg-integration scheme with shooting technique is employed to resolve the altered governing non-linear differential equations. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented and discussed for two cases namely uniform thickness stretching sheet UTSS (n = 1) and variable thickness stretching sheet VTSS (n ≠ 1), and skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number and Sherwood number are computed and analyzed through tables. The results reveal that heat and mass transfer processes over slendering sheet matches with those over a flat sheet in the presence of slip flow regime.
Orexin, also called hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that acts on central nervous system receptors to promote arousal. Suvorexant, its receptor antagonist, generates interest as a medication to treat insomnia. Suvorexant helps in decreasing wakefulness by counteracting orexin activity. Its low side effect potential may offer considerable benefit. Compared with other sleep aids, diminished drowsiness and less cognitive dysfunction is an advantage. Now approved for clinical use, an apparent lack of rebound insomnia or drug dependence potential might make suvorexant a good choice pharmacotherapy for patients with insomnia.
Long-term tillage and fertilizer experiments were conducted in rice in kharif followed by lentil in dry subhumid Inceptisols at Varanasi and Faizabad; horse gram at Phulbani and linseed at Ranchi in moist subhumid Alfisols in rabi during 2001 to 2010. The study was conducted to assess the effect of conventional tillage (CT), low tillage + interculture (LT1) and low tillage + herbicide (LT2) together with 100% N (organic) (F1), 50% N (organic) + 50% N (inorganic) (F2) and 100% N (inorganic) (F3) on productivity, profitability, rainwater and energy use efficiencies. The results at Varanasi revealed that CT was superior with mean yield of 2389 kg ha−1, while F1 was superior with 2378 kg ha−1 in rice. At Faizabad, CT was superior with mean rice yield of 1851 kg ha−1 and lentil yield of 977 kg ha−1, while F1 was superior with 1704 and 993 kg ha−1 of rice and lentil, respectively. At Phulbani, F2 was superior with rice yield of 1170 kg ha−1. At Ranchi, F2 with rice yield of 986 kg ha−1 and F3 with linseed yield of 224 kg ha−1 were superior. The regression model of crop seasonal rainfall and yield deviations indicated an increasing trend in rice yield over mean (positive deviation) with increase in rainfall at all locations; while a decreasing trend (negative deviation) was found for lentil at Faizabad, horse gram at Phulbani and linseed at Ranchi. Based on economic analysis, CTF1 at Varanasi and Faizabad, CTF2 at Phulbani and LT2F2 at Ranchi were superior.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
Crop wild relatives are important components of agro-ecosystems as potential gene contributors for crop improvement programmes. Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thou., a pigeonpea wild relative is crossable with cultivated pigeonpea and possesses several beneficial traits. Hundred accessions conserved at the ICRISAT genebank were characterized for 13 quantitative and ten qualitative traits to assess the diversity in the collection. Highly significant genotypic variance for leaflet length, days to 5% maturity, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, seed protein content and trichome density and length was observed. All C. scarabaeoides accessions used in the present study are the best sources for extra early ( < 80 d to 50% flowering) and early maturity (80–100 d to 50% flowering). Eight accessions (ICP 15692, ICP 15696, ICP 15698, ICP 15699, ICP 15712, ICP 15719, ICP 15732 and ICP 15758) and the control ICP 15695 have produced more than 92% healthy pods per plant and higher number of seed per pod (4–6 seeds). Accessions in cluster 2, 3 and 4 with low mean values for days to 50% flowering were found as the best sources for early flowering and maturity. Accessions in cluster 2 and 3 for seeds per pod and cluster 2 for healthy pods per plant were found as promising sources for use in crop improvement. Mean diversity over all clusters was highest (H= 0.57 ± 0.01) for seeds per pod and lowest for days to 50% flowering (0.48 ± 0.02). Significant negative correlation between pods per raceme and healthy pods per plant ( − 0.213) indicated high pod damage in racemes having more pods. Trichome length had highly significant negative association with healthy pods per plant ( − 0.293). The probability map generated using FloraMap, a GIS tool, revealed the occurrence of C. scarabaeoides quite close to the origin and dispersal of pigeonpea. The probability (>75%) map identified a total of 118 provinces covering 790 districts in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam as geographical gaps in the collection. Complete passport data including location coordinates should be collected while collecting the germplasm to analyze the spatial aspects of species distribution.
We describe the operation of lasers having active regions composed of InP self-assembled quantum dots embedded in In0.5Al0.3Ga0.2P grown on GaAs (100) substrates by MOCVD. InP quantum dots grown on In0.5Al0.3Ga0.2P have a high density on the order of about 1-2x10 cm-2 with a dominant size of about 10-15 nm for 7.5 ML growth. These In0.5Al0.3Ga0.2P/InP quantum dots have previously been characterized by atomic-force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. We report here the 300K operation of optically pumped red-emitting quantum dots using both double quantum-dot active regions and quantum-dot coupled with InGaP quantum-well active regions. Optically and electrically pumped 300K lasers have been obtained using this active region design; these lasers show improved operation compared to the lasers having QD-based active regions with threshold current densities as low as Jth ∼ 0.5 KA/cm2.
Adhesion of metals to ceramics is an area of extreme importance for packaging of electronic devices. In one of the several adhesion schemes that can be employed to promote adhesion between metals and ceramics, the metal is preferentially oxidized at the interface and there is solid solution mixing between the substrate and the oxidized metal at the interface. An example is the Ni/MgO system. Estimation of the extent of mixing at the interface is often difficult and time consuming. This work describes a simple non-destructive method to estimate the extent of interdiffusion between the oxides using a standard x-ray diffraction measurement. This technique relies on the changes in the peak shapes and positions as a function of the nature and extent of interdiffusion. The technique is precise enough to allow one to estimate interdiffasion coefficients in some oxide/oxide systems. The diffusion and intermixing phenomena in the NiO/MgO system will be examined as an illustrative example.
Currently, systems for the detection of nucleic acid sequences, known as DNA-chips, are getting lots of attention. Such systems usually involve either an enzymatic or chemical labelling reaction as part of the detection process. The next generation of DNA-chips aims at a labelfree, fully electronic readout system. Several new approaches to signal generation that avoid a labelling step have been developed in recent years. Besides other surface sensitive measurements the possibility of electrochemical impedance and field-effect measurements for the detection of biomolecules have been discussed. The fully electronic detection of charged biomolecules based on the field-effect principle offers a labelfree method, which combines the unique sensitivity and selectivity of biomolecular recognition reactions with an electronic chip-based readout. In this approach one type of molecules is fixed at a surface and the biomolecular reaction with complementary molecules is detected by change in the drain-source current of the transistor. This change can occur by a change of the interface capacitance of the transistor gate or by change of the surface potential during adsorption of the molecules. At the moment a complete theoretical description of the detection principle is still under discussion. However, the fully electronic readout of biomolecular reactions offers a unique principle for the construction of many different sensors for bioassays. We are working on an approach to detect the hybridization of DNA sequences using electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (EOSFET) arrays. This method allows direct and in situ detection of specific DNA sequences without any labelling.
In this paper the impact of processed-induced stress and transistor layout on device performance in state-of-the-art 65nm CMOS technology has been studied. We have focused this analysis on different nitride liners above devices (Contact Etch-Stop Layers – CESL) which have been fabricated on two differently oriented (100) substrates: <110> and <100>. This overview permits to have a good understanding of CESL, and to choose the right strategy in terms of process induced stress in future microelectronic technologies.
The Rank Forum on Vitamin D was held on 2nd and 3rd July 2009 at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The workshop consisted of a series of scene-setting presentations to address the current issues and challenges concerning vitamin D and health, and included an open discussion focusing on the identification of the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a marker of vitamin D status) that may be regarded as optimal, and the implications this process may have in the setting of future dietary reference values for vitamin D in the UK. The Forum was in agreement with the fact that it is desirable for all of the population to have a serum 25(OH)D concentration above 25 nmol/l, but it discussed some uncertainty about the strength of evidence for the need to aim for substantially higher concentrations (25(OH)D concentrations>75 nmol/l). Any discussion of ‘optimal’ concentration of serum 25(OH)D needs to define ‘optimal’ with care since it is important to consider the normal distribution of requirements and the vitamin D needs for a wide range of outcomes. Current UK reference values concentrate on the requirements of particular subgroups of the population; this differs from the approaches used in other European countries where a wider range of age groups tend to be covered. With the re-emergence of rickets and the public health burden of low vitamin D status being already apparent, there is a need for urgent action from policy makers and risk managers. The Forum highlighted concerns regarding the failure of implementation of existing strategies in the UK for achieving current vitamin D recommendations.
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of monazite requires a comparison of empirically collected electron backscatter patterns (EBSPs) with theoretical diffraction data, or ‘match units’, derived from known crystallographic parameters. Published crystallographic data derived from compositionally varying natural and synthetic monazite are used to calculate ten different match units for monazite. These match units are used to systematically index EBSPs obtained from four natural monazite samples with different compositions. Analyses of EBSD data, derived from the indexing of five and six diffraction bands using each of the ten match units for 10,000 EBSPs from each of the four samples, indicate a large variation in the ability of the different match units to correctly index the different natural samples. However, the use of match units derived from either synthetic Gd or Eu monazite crystallographic data yield good results for three of the four analysed monazites. Comparison of sample composition with published monazite compositions indicates that these match units are likely to yield good results for the EBSD analysis of metamorphic monazite. The results provide a clear strategy for optimizing the acquisition and analysis of EBSD data from monazite but also indicate the need for the collection of new crystallographic structure data and the subsequent generation of more appropriate match units for natural monazite.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is one of the ten small millets and is cultivated in 23 countries. The foxtail millet is valued as a crop of short duration, which is good as food, feed and fodder. In general, grain yield levels of foxtail millet are low in comparison with other staple cereals. The greater use of diverse germplasm in breeding is suggested as a means to improve the productivity of this crop. The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics genebank is presently holding 1474 cultivated germplasm accessions from 23 countries. To utilize this diversity in research, a core collection (10% of the entire collection) was established using the taxonomic and qualitative traits data. The germplasm accessions were stratified into three taxonomic races (Indica, Maxima and Moharia). Principal coordinate analysis was performed on 12 qualitative traits for each of the biological races, separately that resulted in the formation of 29 clusters. From each cluster, 10% of the accessions were selected to constitute a core collection of 155 accessions. The composition and diversity of the core collection was validated by the χ2-tests of the frequencies of origin, races, subraces and data on qualitative traits. The analysis of the quantitative traits for mean, range, variance, Shannon–Weaver diversity index and phenotypic associations indicated that the diversity from the entire collection was optimally represented in the core collection. The core subset will be evaluated in replicated trials to make a more precise assessment of diversity and further efforts to identify the sources of agronomic and grain nutritional traits for utilization in breeding programmes.
The sensitivity pattern of the Drosophila testis to TEM was analysed by means of a dual-purpose strain that allows the scoring of induced crossovers and sex-linked lethals in the progeny of the same flies. It was found that TEM produces the highest frequency of mutations in spermatocytes or late spermatogonia, while early spermatogonia are even less sensitive than mature spermatozoa. The discrepancy between this conclusion and that obtained by Fahmy & Fahmy (1955) is attributed to a difference in the method of analysis. The sensitivity pattern of the Drosophila testis to TEM resembles that to mustard gas and differs from that to X-rays. The sensitivity pattern of the mouse testis to TEM differs from that of the Drosophila testis.
A 40-year old female presented to the emergency room at London Health Sciences Centre with a one week history of gradually progressive right leg weakness which had caused several falls. She also described numbness of the right arm and leg. In the two weeks leading up to admission she experienced gradually worsening shortness of breath, fatigue, anorexia, confusion, night sweats and somnolence. She also developed a herpetic rash of the right upper thigh which was treated with acyclovir and gabapentin.
Her past medical history was significant for a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) for seven years, treated at the time of admission with azathioprine 50 mg TID (several years duration), prednisone 5 mg BID, and hydroxyquine 400 mg daily. She also had a history of asthma and occasionally required Ventolin treatment. She had a 25 pack-year smoking history.
Spray carrier pH affects the solubility of sulfonylurea herbicides and, therefore, could affect absorption and subsequent translocation of these compounds in weeds. Trifloxysulfuron is a sulfonylurea herbicide developed for POST weed control in cotton, sugarcane, and turfgrass with a pKa of 4.81. The objective of this study was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of foliar-applied 14C-trifloxysulfuron in Palmer amaranth and Texasweed at pH 5, 7, and 9 over a period of 4 to 72 h after treatment (HAT). For absorption, effects of time, species, and pH were significant. Absorption averaged over species and pH increased logarithmically from 4 to 72 HAT. Absorption was greater for Palmer amaranth (88%) than for Texasweed (29%) when averaged over time and pH. Absorption averaged over species and time increased in the order of pH 5 (52%) < pH 9 (60%) = pH 7 (61%). Consequently, this translated into greater translocation of 14C-trifloxysulfuron in Texasweed when sprayed with the higher pH spray solutions. These data indicate that absorption and translocation of trifloxysulfuron in some weed species may be enhanced by increasing the pH of the spray solution by 2 pH units above the pKa.
Persistent neuropsychological impairments have been reported in the
euthymic phase of bipolar affective disorder. However, the findings have
been confounded by multiple episodes, chronic illness and residual mood
To assess sustained attention and executive functioning in euthymic young
people with bipolar I disorder who had had no more than two affective
Thirty euthymic patients (with illness duration of less than 5 years and
no more than two affective episodes) and 30 matched healthy individuals
were assessed for sustained attention and executive functioning.
The bipolar group (mean age 22.4 years, s.d.=2.52; duration of illness
20.87 months, s.d.=14.72), showed impairment on tasks of attention and
executive functioning. Multivariate logistic regression analysis
demonstrated that deficits in executive functioning differentiated cases
from controls. There was no correlation between residual depressive
symptoms and neuropsychological performance.
Deficits in attention and executive functioning were present in young
people who had experienced only a few episodes of bipolar disorder,
suggesting that the deficits are possibly trait abnormalities. Whether
these deficits worsen with progression of illness needs to be examined in