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It is known that the level of dietary protein modulates the enzymatic activity of the digestive tract of fish; however, its effect at the molecular level on these enzymes and the hormones regulating appetite has not been well characterised. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP on the activity of proteases and the expression of genes related to the ingestion and protein digestion of juveniles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), as well as the effects on performance, protein retention and body composition of tilapia. A total of 240 juveniles (29.32 ± 5.19 g) were used, distributed across 20 tanks of 100 l in a closed recirculation system. The fish were fed to apparent satiety for 42 days using four isoenergetic diets with different CP levels (24%, 30%, 36% and 42%). The results indicate that fish fed the 30% CP diet exhibited a higher growth performance compared to those on the 42% CP diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake in fish fed 24% and 30% CP diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed 36% and 42% CP diets (P < 0.05). A significant elevation of protein retention was observed in fish fed with 24% and 30% CP diets. Fish fed with 24% CP exhibited a significant increase in lipid deposition in the whole body. The diet with 42% CP was associated with the highest expression of pepsinogen and the lowest activity of acid protease (P < 0.05). The expression of hepatopancreatic trypsinogen increased as CP levels in the diet increased (P < 0.05) up to 36%, whereas trypsin activity showed a significant reduction with 42% CP (P < 0.05). The diet with 42% CP was associated with the lowest intestinal chymotrypsinogen expression and the lowest chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.05). α-amylase expression decreased with increasing (P < 0.05) CP levels up to 36%. No significant differences were observed in the expression of procarboxypeptidase, lipase or leptin among all the groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the diet with 42% CP resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in the expression of ghrelin and insulin and an increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of cholecystokinin and peptide yy. It is concluded that variation in dietary protein promoted changes in the metabolism of the red tilapia, which was reflected in proteolytic activity and expression of digestion and appetite-regulating genes.
The Pediatric Heart Network Normal Echocardiogram Database Study had unanticipated challenges. We sought to describe these challenges and lessons learned to improve the design of future studies.
Challenges were divided into three categories: enrolment, echocardiographic imaging, and protocol violations. Memoranda, Core Lab reports, and adjudication logs were reviewed. A centre-level questionnaire provided information regarding local processes for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used, and chi-square tests determined differences in imaging quality.
For the 19 participating centres, challenges with enrolment included variations in Institutional Review Board definitions of “retrospective” eligibility, overestimation of non-White participants, centre categorisation of Hispanic participants that differed from National Institutes of Health definitions, and exclusion of potential participants due to missing demographic data. Institutional Review Board amendments resolved many of these challenges. There was an unanticipated burden imposed on centres due to high numbers of echocardiograms that were reviewed but failed to meet submission criteria. Additionally, image transfer software malfunctions delayed Core Lab image review and feedback. Between the early and late study periods, the proportion of unacceptable echocardiograms submitted to the Core Lab decreased (14 versus 7%, p < 0.01). Most protocol violations were from eligibility violations and inadvertent protected health information disclosure (overall 2.5%). Adjudication committee reviews led to protocol changes.
Numerous challenges encountered during the Normal Echocardiogram Database Study prolonged study enrolment. The retrospective design and flaws in image transfer software were key impediments to study completion and should be considered when designing future studies collecting echocardiographic images as a primary outcome.
Disturbed sleep and activity are prominent features of bipolar disorder type I (BP-I). However, the relationship of sleep and activity characteristics to brain structure and behavior in euthymic BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives is unknown. Additionally, underlying genetic relationships between these traits have not been investigated.
Relationships between sleep and activity phenotypes, assessed using actigraphy, with structural neuroimaging (brain) and cognitive and temperament (behavior) phenotypes were investigated in 558 euthymic individuals from multi-generational pedigrees including at least one member with BP-I. Genetic correlations between actigraphy-brain and actigraphy-behavior associations were assessed, and bivariate linkage analysis was conducted for trait pairs with evidence of shared genetic influences.
More physical activity and longer awake time were significantly associated with increased brain volumes and cortical thickness, better performance on neurocognitive measures of long-term memory and executive function, and less extreme scores on measures of temperament (impulsivity, cyclothymia). These associations did not differ between BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. For nine activity-brain or activity-behavior pairs there was evidence for shared genetic influence (genetic correlations); of these pairs, a suggestive bivariate quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 for wake duration and verbal working memory was identified.
Our findings indicate that increased physical activity and more adequate sleep are associated with increased brain size, better cognitive function and more stable temperament in BP-I patients and their non-BP-I relatives. Additionally, we found evidence for pleiotropy of several actigraphy-behavior and actigraphy-brain phenotypes, suggesting a shared genetic basis for these traits.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The aim of the present study is to use the syndemic framework to investigate the risk of contracting HIV in the US population. Cross-sectional analyses are from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We extracted and aggregated data on HIV antibody test, socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, drug use, depression, sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases from cycle 2009–2010 to 2015–2016. We carried out weighted regression among young adults (20–39 years) and adults (40–59 years) separately. In total, 5230 men and 5794 women aged 20–59 years were included in the present analyses. In total, 0.8% men and 0.2% women were tested HIV-positive. Each increasing HIV risk behaviour was associated with elevated odds of being tested HIV-positive (1.15, 95% CI 1.15–1.15) among young adults and adults (1.61, 95% CI 1.61–1.61). Multi-faceted, community-based interventions are urgently required to reduce the incidence of HIV in the USA.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) share certain traits: they are parasitic infections, prevailing in tropical environments and affecting marginalized sectors of the population. Six NTDs – ascariasis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm infection, onchocerciasis and trichuriasis – all of them endemic in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), are analysed in this work. This review aims to discuss key information on the function of excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins from these parasites in their infectivity, pathogeny and diagnosis. The modulation of the host immune system to favour the permanence and survival of the parasite is also discussed. An updated knowledge on the function of E/S molecules in endemic parasitoses in LAC may lead to new approaches for the clinical management and diagnosis of these diseases. In turn, this could allow us to optimize their treatment and make it more affordable – a relevant goal given the economic constraints that the region is facing.
Protein is the most costly nutrient in fish feed, and while diets offered in the early stages of development typically have high levels of CP, they do not always correspond to the real requirements of the animals. Thus, research that seeks to learn the true nutritional requirements of fish is fundamental to improving commercial fish culture. The present study evaluated the protein requirements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under larviculture. Fish performance, gene expression for digestive enzymes and their enzymatic activity and stress response to air exposure were analyzed. Four experimental diets differing in CP level were formulated: 30%, 36%, 42% and 48%. Fish larvae were fed the experimental diets during development and sampled 10, 20 and 30 days after the beginning of the experiment for performance, gene expression and enzymatic activity. At sampling time 30, stress resistance was also evaluated by means of an air exposure test. At sampling time 10, CP levels between 36% and 48% could be used for a better performance. During this period, pepsinogen expression was greater for 30% CP, intermediate for 42% and lower for 36% and 48%. After this initial period, diets of between 30% and 42% CP are recommended for better performance. At sampling time 20, gene expression for digestive enzymes and their enzymatic activity were similar for all diets tested. At sampling time 30, the diet of 42% CP induced both greater pepsinogen expression and pepsin activity. Survival after the air exposure test after 30 days of feeding was influenced by CP level in the diet, with the highest survival being for fish fed with 36% CP. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that dietary CP influences digestive enzyme gene expression and activity, and suggest that the best CP levels for Nile tilapia larviculture vary depending on larval stage.
The energy supplied by the high-forage diets used in organic farming may be insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cattle. However, few studies have considered this problem. The present study aimed to analyze the composition of the diets and the nutritional status (focusing on the energy–protein balance of the diets) of dairy cattle reared on organic farms in northern Spain, which are similar to other organic farming systems in temperate regions. Exhaustive information about diets was obtained from organic (ORG) and representative conventional grazing (GRZ) and conventional no-grazing (CNG) farms. Samples of feed from the respective farms were analyzed to determine the composition. Overall, the diets used on the ORG farms were very different from those used on the CNG farms, although the difference was not as evident for GRZ. The CNG farms were characterized by a higher total dry matter intake with a high proportion of concentrate feed, maize silage and forage silage. By contrast, on ORG and GRZ farms, the forage, pasture and fibre intake were the most important variables. The ration used on ORG farms contained a significantly higher percentage of ADF and lower organic matter (OM) content than the rations used in both of the conventional farming systems, indicating that the diets in the former were less digestible. Although the protein concentration in the diets used on the grazing farms (ORG and GRZ) was higher than those used on CNG farms, the protein intake was similar. The results indicated an imbalance between energy and protein due to the low level of energy provided by the ORG diets, suggesting that more microbial protein could be synthesized from the available rumen-degraded dietary nitrogen if rumen-fermentable OM was not limiting. The imbalance between energy and protein led to a reduced amount of total digestible protein reaching the intestine and a lower milk yield per kilogram of CP intake on the ORG farms. In order to improve the protein use efficiency and consequently to reduce the loss of nitrogen to the environment, organic farming should aim to increase the energy content of cattle diets by improving forage quality and formulating rations with more balanced combinations of forage and grain.
AGB stars are important contributors of processed matter to the ISM. However, the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in its ejection are still poorly known. This process is expected to have remarkable effects in the innermost envelope, where the dust grains are formed, the gas is accelerated, the chemistry is active, and the radiative excitation becomes important. A good tracer of this region in C-rich stars is SiS, an abundant refractory molecule that can display maser lines, very sensitive to changes in the physical conditions. We present high angular resolution interferometer observations (HPBW ≳0.″.25) of the v = 0 J = 14 – 13 and 15 – 14 SiS maser lines towards the archetypal AGB star IRC+10216, carried out with CARMA and ALMA to explore the inner 1” region around the central star. We also present an ambitious monitoring of these lines along one single pulsation period carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope.
Globally, the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in males. This study examined the effect of sex and age on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Demographic and exposure data were collected on household contacts of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in Brazil. Contacts with tuberculin skin test induration ⩾10 mm at baseline or 12 weeks were considered Mtb infected. The study enrolled 917 household contacts from 160 households; 508 (55.4%) were female, median age was 21.0 years (range 0.30–87.0) and 609 (66.4%) had Mtb infection. The proportion infected increased with age from 63.3% in girls <5 years to 75.4% in women ⩾40 years and from 44.9% in boys <5 years to 73.6% in men ⩾40 years. Multivariable modelling showed the odds of infection increased between age 5 and 14 years among female contacts (OR 1.5 per 5-year age increase; 95% CI 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02) and between ages 0–4 and 15–39 years among male contacts (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.83–8.9 and 1.1, 95% CI 0.99–1.3 per 5-year age increase; P = 0.10, 0.07, respectively). The study suggests that the age at which Mtb infection increases most is different in females compared with males. Studies are needed to explore whether these findings are due to differences in host susceptibility, exposure outside the household or other factors.
The present study was designed to describe the effects of early feed restriction of Merino lambs on feed efficiency during the fattening period by examining ruminal microbiota and fermentation parameters, gastrointestinal morphology, digestibility or liver proteome. In total, 24 male Merino lambs were randomly assigned to two experimental treatments (n=12 per treatment). Lambs of the first group (ad libitum (ADL)) were kept permanently with the dams, whereas the other 12 lambs (restricted (RES)) were milk restricted. When lambs reached a live BW (LBW) of 15 kg, all the animals were offered the same complete pelleted diet (35 g dry matter/kg LBW per day) until slaughter at a LBW of 27 kg. The RES lambs showed poorer feed efficiency during the fattening period when compared with the ADL group (feed to gain ratio, 3.69 v. 3.05, P<0.001). No differences were observed in ruminal microbiota, fermentation parameters or apparent digestibility. However, the proportion of the small intestine and the length of ileal villi were reduced in the RES lambs. In total, 26 spots/proteins were identified in the liver proteomic profile, with significant differences (P<0.05) between experimental treatments, suggesting a higher catabolism of proteins and a reduction in β-oxidation of fatty acids in RES lambs when compared with the ADL animals. In conclusion, early feed restriction of Merino lambs during the suckling period promotes long-term effects on the small intestine and the proteomic profile of the liver, which may influence the metabolic use of nutrients, thus negatively affecting feed efficiency during the fattening phase.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
The objective of the present study was to determine the pasture intake of European wild boar and domestic pigs throughout their growth period (from 60 to 207 days of age). The proportion of time that each animal type spent grazing was also determined. Twelve 60-day-old pure-bred European wild boar (six castrated males and six females, average live-weight (±s.e.m.) 6·8 ± 0·37 kg) and 12 70-day-old domestic pigs (Large White × Landrace, six castrated males and six females, average live-weight [ ± s.e.m.] 24·1 ± 0·66 kg) were used in the study. Each day during the study, the animals grazed from 08·00 until 16·00 h, after which they had ad-libitum access to a supplemental diet for 1 h. Every 14 days throughout the study (a total of ten determinations), the pasture consumption was determined as the difference between the pasture dry matter (DM) availability pre- and post-grazing. The supplemental diet consumption was also determined. Three times during the study (age of animals 85, 140 and 198 days), the behaviour of each animal was observed over four consecutive days while grazing. When considered on a metabolic bodyweight basis, the pasture consumption of the European wild boar was greater than that in the domestic pigs. Approximately 0·20 of the total DM intake by the wild boar was pasture, whereas only 0·10 of the total DM intake by the domestic pigs was pasture. However, domestic pigs consumed a greater quantity of supplemental diet than the wild boar. The wild boar obtained 0·20 of their total daily dietary apparent energy intake from pasture, compared with 0·07 in the domestic pigs. Wild boar were more active during 8-h grazing periods spending 0·54 of their time grazing or moving around, compared with 0·32 of the time in domestic pigs.
A short-term Jolly–Seber mark-recapture model experiment is described. This experiment was aimed at estimating the rate of catch per unit effort (CPUE) and the catchability coefficient (q) of the Atlantic blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) in the fishing port of Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. To estimate the local population size, 52 traps were deployed along four transects located in a coastal capture area of 3600 m−2. The CPUE and q were compared between the daily mark-recapture Jolly–Seber experiment and the bi-monthly (carried out every 2 months) samplings. The average abundance was estimated at 3475 individuals. All three suggested scenarios, applied to estimate densities, gave similar estimates, i.e. 0.0386, 0.0350, 0.0365 crabs m−2 for the first (Previously Cited Attraction Radius), second (CPUE per transect) and third (Catchability-Density Relationship), respectively. Based on the latter scenario, densities ranged from 27,900 (annual average) to 36,500 (Spring) crabs km−2. The average CPUE of the daily mark-recapture experiment was estimated at 1.96 crabs trap−1, whereas the average bi-monthly CPUE was estimated at 1.13 crabs trap−1. The q (per trap) was estimated at 0.0186 for the daily mark-recapture experiment and at 0.0247 for the bi-monthly sampling. Both catchability and CPUE increased in individuals whose size ranged between 110 and 170 mm CW. However, no significant difference (ANCOVAs) was found between the daily and bi-monthly samplings neither in CPUE nor in catchability. The use of both mark-recapture data and the Jolly–Seber model proved to be a fast and reliable method for estimating the abundance and catchability of Atlantic blue crab.
Publications and studies have shown that the existence of serious mental disorders in parents is a risk in the development of children and is more common the existence of mental illness in them than in the general pediatric population. This work aims to reflect in depth on the study of the influence of psychotic parents on child development through a review of a clinical study. We present the case of 14 years old adolescent who is being treated in a mental health center, whose parents suffers from a severe mental illness. We also defend the importance of a preventive approach or treatment that impinges on the child and family environment.
A way of community work, in coordination with the different teams (social services, educational services, etc.) allows more efficient and appropriate treatment, using various resources. When risk factors for developing mental health problems in childhood, family history and especially the existence of one or both parents of mentally pathology type schizophrenia or other psychoses are studied become important. It seems essential to address as a priority to the social group have called “high-risk group of psychosis’, and in particular to the” sons of patients diagnosed with psychosis”, both for its size and the severity and chronicity of psychopathology if developing means for early psychosocial care does not occur.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The approach to mental illness and specifically in serious mood disorders, long-term treatments that improve adhesion as continuous treatments ensure compliance are needed, they minimize the risk of relapse and readmission and therefore increase the chances to have a good fit and social, relational and even occupational functioning.
We analysed a sample of 42 male diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, chronic delusional disorder that starts treatment with Paliperidone Palmitate in outpatients. It is analysed the dose of paliperidone palmitate employed for stabilization and family satisfaction at the time of stabilization is analysed in the study.
The mean dose of Paliperidone Palmitate is 138 mg. The patient diagnosed with schizophrenia are 47.6% and the average dose is 132.5 mg. Chronic delusional disorder is 2.3% and the mean dose 50 mg. Other comorbility mood disorders are 21.4% and the mean dose is 183 mg. Other disorders (F70, F72…) are 28.5% and mean dose 133 mg. The average family satisfaction (minimum 1 up to 5) is 4, with the highest score among patients diagnosed with F20 Schizophrenia.
Long lasting injectable medications achieve important adherence and a high percentage of antipsychotic monotherapy, thus reducing the side effects, although in our sample 8% which has occurred was removed therefrom.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The frontal lobes are the brain structures of latest development and evolution in the human brain. It is considered that the frontal lobes represent the “executive center of the brain”. The frontal tumors represent 16% of all supratentorial tumors. Symptoms are easily confused as psychiatric rather than neurological.
Can see the alterations of the executive functions in a case of frontal affectation, for future cases know where to focus our attention and develop concepts associated with frontal lobe.
Thirty-year-old patient without relevant medical history. Go to the emergency department with major episode of agitation. After performing cranial CT abnormality, it is detected in the front area. Sign up study. It presents amnesia episode before admission, whereupon shown stunned and worried. The patient describes a change in your life 12 months ago, when it begins to be more nervous, increasing their impulsiveness, she has episodes of binge eating, purging behavior with subsequent occasional alcohol abuse. Jealousy. The patient is informed as much as your family of the possible impact of the injury on the behavioral sphere and impulse control when it is still unknown origin.
From a neuropsychological point of view the frontal lobes represent a system of planning, regulation and control of psychological processes; coordination and allow selection of multiple processes and various behavioral options and strategies available to the human being. Tumour research is important as it provides enough information we cognitive impairment. These patients exhibit symptoms that are easily confused as psychiatric rather than neurological.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.