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This essay analyzes inequality and the construction of childhood in the early US juvenile justice system. Although the juvenile justice movement’s best intentions focused on protecting children from neglect and the criminal justice system, historians have argued that protective juvenile justice was unequal and ephemeral. I critically summarize three histories of juvenile justice: Anthony Platt’s The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency (1969), Geoff Ward’s The Black Child-Savers: Racial Democracy and Juvenile Justice (2012), and Tera Agyepong’s The Criminalization of Black Children: Race, Gender, and Delinquency in Chicago’s Juvenile Justice System, 1899–1945 (2018). I argue that the common thread in these studies is the construction of poor and black youth as unchildlike. Because the juvenile court arose in a context where not all youth were considered children, it never treated all youth as innocent or in need of protection.
This paper concerns the study of the global structure of measure-preserving actions of countable groups on standard probability spaces. Weak containment is a hierarchical notion of complexity of such actions, motivated by an analogous concept in the theory of unitary representations. This concept gives rise to an associated notion of equivalence of actions, called weak equivalence, which is much coarser than the notion of isomorphism (conjugacy). It is well understood now that, in general, isomorphism is a very complex notion, a fact which manifests itself, for example, in the lack of any reasonable structure in the space of actions modulo isomorphism. On the other hand, the space of weak equivalence classes is quite well behaved. Another interesting fact that relates to the study of weak containment is that many important parameters associated with actions, such as the type, cost, and combinatorial parameters, turn out to be invariants of weak equivalence and in fact exhibit desirable monotonicity properties with respect to the pre-order of weak containment, a fact that can be useful in certain applications. There has been quite a lot of activity in this area in the last few years, and our goal in this paper is to provide a survey of this work.
Quantitative analysis by x-ray fluorescence and photoelectron and Auger electron analysis can be effectively extended through a precise knowledge of the total aad subshell photoionization cross sections. Light element and intermediate element analysis, as based upon K and L series fluorescence respectively, involve x-ray interactions in the low energy region, Optimized analysis for essentially all the elements by x-ray induced photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy involves both x-ray and electron interactions in the low energy region. Unfortunately, theory and measurement for interaction cross sections in this 100-1500 eV region are difficult, particularly for the heavier elements. Nevertheless, recent advances in experimental and computerized-theoretical techniques for the determination of low energy interaction coefficients do permit establishing appreciatly more complete tabulations of cross sections than are currently available in this energy region.
In this paper, the types of interaction cross section data that are needed for quantitative x-ray and electron analysis are defined. Such data that are available from experiment and from theory are reviewed and compared. Some newer techniques for the measurement of cross sections are discussed. And finally, new “state of the art” tables are presented for the mass absorption coefficients of all of the elements and of some special laboratory materials. These are tabulated specifically for twenty-six of the most commonly applied characteristic wavelengths in the 8-110 A region and are based upon the best currently available theoretical and experimental data.
Better indicators of prognosis are needed to personalise post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments.
We aimed to evaluate early symptom reduction as a predictor of better outcome and examine predictors of early response.
Patients with PTSD (N = 134) received sertraline or prolonged exposure in a randomised trial. Early response was defined as 20% PTSD symptom reduction by session two and good end-state functioning defined as non-clinical levels of PTSD, depression and anxiety.
Early response rates were similar in prolonged exposure and sertraline (40 and 42%), but in sertraline only, early responders were four times more likely to achieve good end-state functioning at post-treatment (Number Needed to Treat = 1.8, 95% CI 1.28–3.00) and final follow-up (Number Needed to Treat = 3.1, 95% CI 1.68–16.71). Better outcome expectations of sertraline also predicted higher likelihood of early response.
Higher expectancy of sertraline coupled with early response may produce a cascade-like effect for optimal conditions for long-term symptom reduction. Therefore, assessing expectations and providing clear treatment rationales may optimise sertraline effects.
We present observations of 50 deg2 of the Mopra carbon monoxide (CO) survey of the Southern Galactic Plane, covering Galactic longitudes l = 300–350° and latitudes |b| ⩽ 0.5°. These data have been taken at 0.6 arcmin spatial resolution and 0.1 km s−1spectral resolution, providing an unprecedented view of the molecular clouds and gas of the Southern Galactic Plane in the 109–115 GHz J = 1–0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O.
We present a series of velocity-integrated maps, spectra, and position-velocity plots that illustrate Galactic arm structures and trace masses on the order of ~106 M⊙ deg−2, and include a preliminary catalogue of C18O clumps located between l = 330–340°. Together with the information about the noise statistics of the survey, these data can be retrieved from the Mopra CO website and the PASA data store.
HESS J1614–518 and HESS J1616–508 are two tera-electron volt γ-ray sources that are not firmly associated with any known counterparts at other wavelengths. We investigate the distribution of interstellar medium towards the tera-electron volt γ-ray sources using results from a 7-mm-wavelength Mopra study, the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey, the Millimetre Astronomer’s Legacy Team-45 GHz survey and [C i] data from the HEAT telescope. Data in the CO(1–0) transition lines reveal diffuse gas overlapping the two tera-electron volt sources at several velocities along the line of sight, while observations in the CS(1–0) transition line reveal several interesting dense gas features. To account for the diffuse atomic gas, archival H i data was taken from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. The observations reveal gas components with masses ~103 to 105 M⊙ and with densities ~102 to 103 cm−3 overlapping the two tera-electron volt sources. Several origin scenarios potentially associated with the tera-electron volt γ-ray sources are discussed in light of the distribution of the local interstellar medium. We find no strong convincing evidence linking any counterpart with HESS J1614–518 or HESS J1616–508.
Rumen protected fats are often included in dairy cow rations in order to increase the energy density of the ration without compromising rumen function. Various studies have examined the effects of protected fats, with some studies reporting an improvement in various fertility parameters (McNamara et al., 2003). This study examined the effect of feeding protected fat (Megalac™) on production parameters, and on the reproductive performance of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.
Potential energy released from the capsize of ice-shelf fragments (icebergs) is the immediate driver of the brief explosive phase of ice-shelf disintegration along the Antarctic Peninsula (e.g. the Larsen A, Larsen B and Wilkins ice shelves). The majority of this energy powers the rapidly expanding plume of ice-shelf fragments that expands outward into the open ocean; a smaller fraction of this energy goes into surface gravity waves and other dynamic interactions between ice and water that can sustain the continued fragmentation and break-up of the original ice shelf. As an initial approach to the investigation of ice-shelf fragment capsize in ice-shelf collapse, we develop a simple conceptual model involving ideal rectangular icebergs, initially in unstable or metastable orientations, which are assembled into a tightly packed mass that subsequently disassembles via massed capsize. Computations based on this conceptual model display phenomenological similarity to aspects of real ice-shelf collapse. A promising result of the conceptual model presented here is a description of how iceberg aspect ratio and its statistical variance, the two parameters related to ice-shelf fracture patterns, influence the enabling conditions to be satisfied by slow-acting processes (e.g. environmentally driven melting) that facilitate ice-shelf disintegration.
It is often assumed that government-sponsored election violence increases the probability that incumbent leaders remain in power. Using cross-national data, this article shows that election violence increases the probability of incumbent victory, but can generate risky post-election dynamics. These differences in the consequences of election violence reflect changes in the strategic setting over the course of the election cycle. In the pre-election period, anti-incumbent collective action tends to be focused on the election itself, either through voter mobilization or opposition-organized election boycotts. In the post-election period, by contrast, when a favorable electoral outcome is no longer a possibility, anti-government collective action more often takes the form of mass political protest, which in turn can lead to costly repercussions for incumbent leaders.
Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children.
Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals
Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day
We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria. We applied adult temperature, white blood cell count, antibiotic, and culture criteria for IVAC and PVAP to these patients. We matched pediatric VAC patients with controls and evaluated associations with adverse outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models.
In total, 233 pediatric VACs (12,167 ventilation episodes) were identified. In the cardiac ICU (CICU), 62.5% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; in the pediatric ICU (PICU), 54.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; and in the neonatal ICU (NICU), 20.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria. Most patients had abnormal white blood cell counts and temperatures; we therefore recommend simplifying surveillance by focusing on “pediatric VAC with antimicrobial use” (pediatric AVAC). Pediatric AVAC with a positive respiratory diagnostic test (“pediatric PVAP”) occurred in 8.9% of VACs in the CICU, 13.3% of VACs in the PICU, and 4.3% of VACs in the NICU. Hospital mortality was increased, and hospital and ICU length of stay and duration of ventilation were prolonged among all pediatric VAE subsets compared with controls.
We propose pediatric AVAC for surveillance related to antimicrobial use, with pediatric PVAP as a subset of AVAC. Studies on generalizability and responsiveness of these metrics to quality improvement initiatives are needed, as are studies to determine whether lower pediatric VAE rates are associated with improvements in other outcomes.
Background: Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is a demyelinating condition that is associated with diseases such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, collagen vascular disease, or can be idiopathic. LETM can be severe enough to cause quadraparesis, marked sensory dysfunction, and respiratory failure. Rarely, these patients are unresponsive to conventional immune therapy. Methods: We report two cases of severe LETM with acute development of quadraparesis and respiratory failure requiring intensive care admission and failure to respond to high-dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange, IVIg and rituximab. Disease cessation and ultimately, significant recovery, was achieved after an 8-day cyclophosphamide induction. Results: A 21 yo female with antibody positive NMOSD and a 19 yo male with idiopathic LETM remained quadraparetic and ventilator dependent with active MRIs despite multiple courses of intravenous methylprednisolone, plasma exchanges, and in the NMOSD patient, IVIg and a 4-week course of rituximab. Both patients ultimately improved significantly and are now ambulatory with subsequent cyclophosphamide induction. Conclusions: In patients with severe LETM of presumed immune origin, who fail to respond to corticosteroids and plasma exchange, cyclophosphamide induction should be considered. This agent provides a more robust immunosuppressive response and can be induced rapidly. Cyclophosphamide effects and supportive evidence are further discussed.
Neutral gas in the inner few kpc of the Milky Way is notable for showing strong non-circular motions, large excursions from the nominal galactic plane, and an overwhelming preponderance of molecular (rather than atomic) neutral gas. Here, we discuss the coherent nature of the kpc-scale tilts seen in H I and CO emission and demonstrate the congruence of the inner-Galaxy atomic and molecular gas distributions, out more than 1 kpc in radius and 300 pc vertically from the center. We point out that features in inner-Galaxy spectra can usually not be identified with discrete, underlying material entities, but instead arise solely as the result of kinematic projection effects.
Near-infrared (1-3μm) emission lines of molecular and ionized hydrogen are excellent tools for investigating the morphology, energetics and kinematics of planetary nebulae, especially those PNe which contain large amounts of dust and are thus obscured at shorter wavelengths. The southern planetary nebula NGC 3132 was imaged with UNSWIRF (University of New South Wales Infrared Fabry-Perot) and IRIS on the 3.9m AAT Images in the H2 v=1-0 S(1) and H2 v=2-1 S(1) lines at 2.12μm and 2.25μm, and in Hii Brγ at 2.16μm are presented.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
Infared polarimetric and photometric mapping observations at K(2.2 μm) and H(1.65 μm) have revealed an extended dust envelope around the late-type star IRC+10216. The observations were made on the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, in 1985 December and 1987 January and February. The polarization observations were made by emplying the Kyoto polarimeter (Sato et al. 1987). Great care was taken to check the contamination by stray light in the telescope and instruments as the source on peak was extremely bright (K~0 mag). From the observations of normal stars, we found that the polarized intensity (degree of polarization times the intensity) was a good measure of the envelope, free from contamination by stray light, although the intensity and the degree of polarization suffered from the contamination separately.
In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0–20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3–33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5–30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012.
The distribution of interstellar nucleons is dominated by gas at temperatures ranging from a few K to a few hundred K. At the warmer end of this temperature range, the gas is predominantly in the form of ubiquitously distributed atomic hydrogen. The colder gas is almost entirely molecular; it resides in compressed clumps, confined principally to the inner-galaxy, and is most effectively traced by observations of carbon monoxide. In this paper, we focus on some of the problems which currently hinder derivation of the morphology and total number of nucleons in the galaxy. For the atomic gas, these problems involve optical depth effects in HI profiles, the amount of cold HI residing in molecular clouds, and the form of the outer-galaxy rotation curve. For the molecular gas, the problems involve the uncertainties in the conversion from CO intensities to H2 densities, including the possibility of composition gradients across the galaxy, the total number and typical size of molecular clouds, and the possibility that the molecular material in the region of the galactic nucleus is distributed differently from the material in the galaxy at large.
After reviewing the available observational material, we describe here a simple model of the distribution and kinematics of HI gas within 1.5 kpc of the galactic center. According to this model, most of the inner-Galaxy gas is smoothly distributed in a tilted disk, within which the perceived kinematics are consistent with axisymmetric rotation and expansion of approximately equal magnitude. The model subsumes in a coherent way many observed spectral features which were previously studied separately, without requiring important density enhancements or anisotropic ejection from the nucleus.
Emission and absorption spectra of several molecules have been used to trace the kinematic patterns of molecular material in the inner Galaxy. For a variety of reasons, the great majority of effort in this area has focussed on the region 357 ≳ ℓ ≳ 3° very near the plane b = 0°. Extending the observational coverage of the molecular distribution away from this plane and over a wider longitude range is a tedious process only now beginning and severely hampered by relatively small beamwidths and long integration times. Our knowledge of the arrangement of molecular material in the inner few kpc of the Galaxy is primitive and quite incomplete compared to that of the atomic gas sampled at λ21 cm.