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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
In several recently published phylogenetic analyses, two Lower Devonian taxa, Doliodus and Pucapampella, both fall on the chondrichthyan stem, very close to the base of ‘conventionally defined chondrichthyans’ (i.e., forms possessing tessellated mineralization of the cartilaginous endoskeleton). These two taxa nevertheless exhibit strongly discordant morphologies from each other. A summary of the anatomical data concerning these taxa is presented here, including new, as well as previously published, findings. A new family Pucapampellidae is erected, containing Pucapampella and a newly recognized genus from South Africa. Morphological evidence is summarized for the monophyly of crown elasmobranchs (sharks and rays), holocephalans (chimaeras) and other chondrichthyans. Based on these data, Doliodus and pucapampellids both fall outside the chondrichthyan crown, but their relative phylogenetic positions on the chondrichthyan stem are unclear. Pucapampellid interrelationships are particularly hard to assess because little is known beyond their cranial and visceral arch morphology and also because pucapampellids possess a suite of ontogenetically primitive (and thus potentially neotenic) features. By contrast, the phylogenetic position of Doliodus seems less elusive; it possessed an ‘acanthodian-like’ complex of dermal spines, including pectoral fin spines, prepectoral, admedian, and prepelvic spines, and possibly dorsal and pelvic fin spines, in conjunction with numerous ‘chondrichthyan-like’ endoskeletal features and a heterodont ‘sharklike’ dentition. Doliodus can be viewed as a quintessential component of the evolutionary transition between ‘acanthodians’ and ‘conventionally defined chondrichthyans’, leaving little doubt that the chondrichthyan total group includes ‘acanthodians’ (now widely perceived to be a paraphyletic group, populating the basal part of the chondrichthyan stem). Although Doliodus has been resolved as a basal member of the ‘conventionally defined chondrichthyans’, it could occupy a more basal position on the chondrichthyan stem.
There is an increasing incidence of overweight/obesity and mental health disorders in young adults and the two conditions often coexist. We aimed to investigate the influence of antenatal and postnatal factors that may underlie this association with a focus on maternal prenatal smoking, socio-economic status and gender. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (women enrolled 1989–1991) including 1056 offspring aged 20 years (cohort recalled 2010–2012) were analyzed (2015–2016) using multivariable models for associations between offspring depression scores (DASS-21 Depression-scale) and body mass index (BMI), adjusting for pregnancy and early life factors and offspring behaviours. There was a significant positive relationship between offspring depression-score and BMI independent of gender and other psychosocial covariates. There was a significant interaction between maternal prenatal smoking and depression-score (interaction coefficient=0.096; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.19, P=0.037), indicating the relationship between depression-score and BMI differed according to maternal prenatal smoking status. In offspring of maternal prenatal smokers, a positive association between BMI and depression-score (coefficient=0.133; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.21, P=0.001) equated to 1.1 kg/m2 increase in BMI for every 1standard deviation (8 units) increase in depression-score. Substituting low family income during pregnancy for maternal prenatal smoking in the interaction (interaction coefficient=0.091; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.17, P=0.027) showed a positive association between BMI and depression score only among offspring of mothers with a low family income during pregnancy (coefficient=0.118; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.18, P<0.001). There were no significant effects of gender on these associations. Whilst further studies are needed to determine whether these associations are supported in other populations, they suggest potentially important maternal behavioural and socio-economic factors that identify individuals vulnerable to the coexistence of obesity and depression in early adulthood.
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children in Canada. While technological advances have increased their survival rates, survivors of childhood brain tumors (SCBT) often develop obesity, which can reduce lifespan and quality of life. While adiposity is a known factor for cardiometabolic disorders in the general population, adiposity patterns in SCBT have not been determined. This study aims to investigate how adiposity patterns differ between SCBT and non-cancer controls, and how lifestyle and treatment factors may contribute to these patterns. Methods: Fifty-nine SCBT and 108 non-cancer controls were recruited from the clinics at McMaster Children’s Hospital. Sociodemographic and lifestyle details were collected using standardized tools to assess diet, physical activity, and sleep. Brain tumor type, location and treatment details were obtained from medical records. Total and visceral adiposity were determined by total fat mass (FM) as well as waist-to-hip (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR). Results: SCBT have higher total and visceral adiposity, while BMI is similar to controls. Female SCBT who received radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy have higher adiposity. A dietary pattern of white bread and fried foods with low dark bread was positively associated with adiposity. Lower physical activity levels, but not sleep durations, were associated with higher adiposity. Conclusion: SCBT have higher visceral and total adiposity than non-cancer controls. Sex, chemoradiotherapy, high fat diet, and physical inactivity, can contribute to these adiposity patterns. These results provide multiple points of entry to design interventions that reduce adiposity, and may improve long-term outcomes in SCBT.
Gilliland et al. (2000) have reported HST photometric observations of 34000 stars in the globular cluster 47 Tuc, showing an absence of close-in giant planets in that cluster relative to their frequency in the solar neighborhood. Here we describe the methods of time-series analysis that were used to search the 47 Tuc data for transits by giant extrasolar planets, and the means by which these methods were validated.
During the past several years, the US federal government has increased its role in preparing for and responding to natural and manmade disasters. The support and services that federal agencies provide to communities to address the psychological impact of trauma on citizens of all ages are valuable assets before and after a disaster. We used trauma theory to analyze disaster behavior health, assess the needs of at-risk populations, and identify the resources that the Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, offers to the nation to assist communities in the psychological recovery process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1–5)
Rare scales of agnathan thelodonts Paralogania ludlowiensis and Thelodus sp. cf. T. parvidens, or alternatively Thelodus macintoshi, and acanthodian fishes Nostolepis striata, Gomphonchus sp., Gomphonchoporus sp. aff. G. hoppei, and Machaeraporus stonehousensis (Legault) n. gen., plus acanthodian fin spines, teeth and tooth whorls have been identified from the upper Moydart and Stonehouse formations near Arisaig, Nova Scotia. The assemblage agrees well with the late Silurian (uppermost Ludlow–Přídolí) age assigned to these strata based on invertebrate assemblages, and the vertebrate taxa show affinity with British and Baltic faunas of this age. All vertebrate-bearing strata were deposited in various positions off the western shores of the Avalonia terrane during or after its collision with Laurentia.
The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing, and new experimental models are required to investigate the diverse aspects of these polygenic diseases, which are intimately linked in terms of aetiology. Feline T2DM has been shown to closely resemble human T2DM in terms of its clinical, pathological and physiological features. Our aim was to develop a feline model of diet-induced weight gain, adiposity and metabolic deregulation, and to examine correlates of weight and body fat change, insulin homeostasis, lipid profile, adipokines and clinical chemistry, in order to study associations which may shed light on the mechanism of diet-induced metabolic dysregulation. We used a combination of partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening and high-fructose corn syrup to generate a high-fat–high-fructose diet. The effects of this diet were compared with an isoenergetic standard chow, either in the presence or absence of 1·125 % dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body imaging and a glucose tolerance test were performed. The present results indicate that dietary MSG increased weight gain and adiposity, and reduced insulin sensitivity (P < 0·05), whereas high-fat–high-fructose feeding resulted in elevated cortisol and markers of liver dysfunction (P < 0·01). The combination of all three dietary constituents resulted in lower insulin levels and elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate and cortisol (P < 0·05). This combination also resulted in a lower first-phase insulin release during glucose tolerance testing (P < 0·001). In conclusion, markers of insulin deregulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with adiposity and T2DM can be induced by dietary factors in a feline model.
The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the level of residual damage resulting from nitrogen and boron implants after different anneal processes are investigated using the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) technique. It is shown that after implantation there is a substantial defect concentration significantly below the range of the implants. However such damage is almost completely recovered after anneal in contrast with the damage close to the implant range point. Such residual damage has a strong effect on the electrical characteristics of double implanted bipolar transistors - principally though reduction in carrier mobility and lifetime. It is shown that the precise implant and anneal conditions play a strong role in the level of such damage and the subsequent electrical performance of bipolar devices.
The interaction of semiconductor surfaces with aqueous acid solutions is important in chemical cleaning and etching. Wet chemical treatments are advantageous because they cause little damage to the surface and do not usually require high temperatures. The surface chemistry of GaAs after treatment with phosphoric acid was studied using multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The treatment left behind a thin film containing several types of PxOy bonds. The chemical nature of the film was observed to change with time as new species would form on the surface.
Treatment of gallium arsenide with sulfur-containing media has been shown to improve GaAs surface electronic properties. However, there is still considerable controversy regarding the chemical nature of the surface film which results from the sulfidation, and of the basis of the electronic improvement and of the decay in the improved electronic properties with time. We have investigated the surface chemistry of the chemical sulfidation treatment of GaAs with Na2S-9H2O and the electrochemical sulfidation treatment of GaAs with Na2S-9H2O-ethylene glycol. Using surface infrared spectroscopy (SIRS), we have studied the film formed on the surface after the treatments and its behavior with time. Results show that the film on the GaAs surface contains sulfur which is often associated with oxygen, that this film slowly reacts in air to form unexpected species, e.g. sodium carbonate and sulfur-oxygen group-containing compounds, and that sulfur and oxygen are non-uniformly distributed.
We use the low temperature fluorescence spectra of organic multiple quantum well samples consisting of the archetype materials, 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA); 3,4,7,8 naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA), and 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic-bis-benzimidazole (PTCBI), to study the effects of quantum confinement on the lowest energy excited and ground electronic states of these molecular crystals. Both the Franck-Condon and the dominant ground state vibronic mode energies are observed to undergo significant shifts with decreasing PTCDA layer thicknesses (ranging from 500Å to 10Å) in PTCDA/NTCDA MQWs, while no such effects are observed for PTCBI/NTCDA MQWs. These results are interpreted in the context of confinement of spatially extended excitons in ultra thin PTCDA layers, whereas the considerably smaller radius PTCBI excitons are not affected over the range of layer thicknesses investigated. These results unambiguously rule out previous hypotheses suggesting that binding of small radius excitons to interfaces results in the blue shifts previously observed in the absorption spectra of PTCDA-based MQWs.
Simple chemical sulfur treatments of GaAs have been shown to passivate the GaAs surface. These treatments result in lower surface state density, lower surface recombination velocity, and shifting or unpinning of the Fermi level, in addition to improvement in the performance of GaAs devices. Electrochemical sulfur treatment, however, has only recently been explored and pursued as a method of growing anodic surface layers which have good passivating characteristics on semiconductors. In this study, using surface infrared reflection spectroscopy (SIRS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy, we have investigated the electrochemical sulfidation of GaAs as a method to produce a GaAs surface that has good electronic properties and is stable chemically and electronically. We have found that anodic treatments with Na2S and (NH4)2S solutions resulted in the removal of the pre-existing oxide of GaAs and in the formation of films comprising sulfur, sodium carbonate, ammonium thiosulfate, and various sulfide and sulfur-oxygen compounds of arsenic. The surface state density of this anodically treated surface was significantly better than that of untreated GaAs. Rinsing the GaAs with water removed the bulk of the film, leaving behind a surface on which only arsenic sulfide was detected. The surface state density after rinsing has degraded slightly, however, but it was still better than that of an untreated GaAs.
Recently, it has been discovered that crystalline organic thin films can be deposited in nearly single crystalline form on a variety of substrates such as glass, polymers, etc. Since then, this discovery has led to the growth of crystalline organic quantum wells, waveguides, coupler/switches, and organic/ inorganic heterojunction devices such as field effect transistors and avalanche photodiodes. Organic light emitting diodes (LEDs) which luminesce in the red, green and blue have also been demonstrated. In this paper, we will report on several recent advances in the growth of organic thin films deposited by organic molecular beam deposition. We report on modeling of organic monolayer growth based on the atom-atom potential Method. The Model provides insight into the factors which control “quasi-epitaxial growth” i.e. the ordered growth of one layer of an organic film which is incommensurate with the substrate lattice. We also observe large optical nonlinearities which are a feature of both single and Multi-layer crystalline organic films. The growth of organic, nonlinear optically active crystalline organic compounds are also discussed.
Using High Resolution Electron Microscopy, we have investigated the structure/function relationships of the Nd2O3/MgO and MgO/Nd2O3 catalyst systems which are active in the oxidative coupling of methane. In both cases catalytic performance was found to depend critically on the morphology of Nd2O3. We demonstrate that high selectivities are associated with a thin disordered film of neodymia on the MgO surface for the Nd2O3/MgO system whilst for the reverse catalyst, the dominant morphology is a highly disordered cubic form of Nd2O3.
Electronic structure calculations for the mer and fac-isomers of aluminum tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and the methyl-substituted series, nMeq3Al (n = 3 - 7) are presented. From these data, we estimate their relative abundances in Alq3 thin films and the resultant trap state energies. Ab initio computations performed at the SCF level suggest a significantly higher stability (6 - 7.5 kcal/mol) of the mer-isomer over the facial form, whereas MP2 treatment of electron correlation effects lowers the difference to (4 - 4.5 kcal/mol). Substitution of the Al+3 metal ion with the larger ions Ga+3 and In+3 increases the energetic preference of the meridianal form by 2.7 kcal/mol and decreases it by 0.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Trap state energies calculated by previously proposed methodologies show little difference between mer and fac trap states. These results suggest that the existence of the facial isomer in thin films of metal trisquinolates is unlikely to significantly affect charge conduction.
A new technique for the deposition of amorphous organic thin films, low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD), was used to fabricate organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) and optically pumped organic lasers. The OLED consisted of a film of aluminum tris- (8 hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) grown on the surface of a film of N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3- methylphenyl)1–l'biphenyl-4–4'diamine (TPD). Growth on both glass and polyester substrates was accomplished and the resulting heterojunction devices were found to have a performance similar to conventional, small molecular weight OLEDs grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum. The LP-OVPD grown OLED has an external quantum efficiency of 0.40 ± 0.05% and a turn-on voltage of approximately 6V. The optically pumped organic laser consisted of a film of Alq3 doped with the laser dye, benzoic acid, 2-[6-(ethylamino)-3-(ethylimino)-2,7-dimethyl-3Hxanthen- 9-yl]-ethyl ester, monohydrochloride (Rhodamine 6G). The laser output was centered at approximately 610nm and the lasing threshold was 30μJcm−2. The rapid throughput of LP-OVPD and its use of low vacuum in a horizontal reactor demonstrate its potential to facilitate low cost, roll-to-roll deposition of organic films for many photonic device applications.
A photolithographic technique to fabricate vacuum-deposited organic light emitting devices has been demonstrated. The photolithographically patterned, yet unpackaged devices show no sign of deterioration in room ambient when compared with devices fabricated using shadow masks. Furthermore, the environmental robustness of the encapsulated devices makes them particularly useful in fabricating high resolution, full color displays.