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Current techniques for measuring the dry matter intake (DMI) of grazing lactating beef cows are invasive, time consuming and expensive making them impractical for use on commercial farms. This study was undertaken to explore the potential to develop and validate a model to predict DMI of grazing lactating beef cows, which could be applied in a commercial farm setting, using non-invasive animal measurements. The calibration dataset used to develop the model was comprised of 94 measurements recorded on 106 beef or beef–dairy crossbred cows (maternal origin). The potential of body measurements, linear type scoring, grazing behaviour and thermal imaging to predict DMI in combination with known biologically plausible adjustment variables and energy sinks was investigated. Multivariable regression models were constructed for each independent variable using SAS PROC REG and contained milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin (dairy or beef). Of the 94 variables tested, 32 showed an association with DMI (P < 0.25) upon multivariable analysis. These variables were incorporated into a backwards linear regression model using SAS PROC REG. Variables were retained in this model if P < 0.05. Five variables; width at pins, full body depth, ruminating mastications, central ligament and rump width score, were retained in the model in addition to milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin. The inclusion of these variables in the model increased the predictability of DMI by 0.23 (R2 = 0.68) when compared to a model containing milk yield, BW, parity, calving day and maternal origin only. This model was applied to data recorded on an independent dataset; a herd of 60 lactating beef cows two years after the calibration study. The R2 for the validation was 0.59. Estimates of DMI are required for measuring feed efficiency. While acknowledging challenges in applicability, the findings suggest a model such as that developed in this study may be used as a tool to more easily and less invasively estimate DMI on large populations of commercial beef cows, and therefore measure feed efficiency.
Healthcare facilities frequently use disaster codes as a way to communicate with employees that an emergency or incident is occurring. As increasing numbers of providers work at multiple facilities, and healthcare systems continue to build disaster response teams and protocols covering multiple facilities, standardization of disaster code terminology is critical. A lack of consistency in terminology can potentially have a devastating impact on the understanding and response of visiting or relief staff.
To evaluate the level of standardization in terminology of disaster codes in healthcare facilities.
A convenience sample was taken from a private Facebook™ group consisting of emergency department nurses from a wide range of facilities. The Facebook™ group was asked to share their hospital disaster codes. Of the 40,179 total members, 78 commented, including 55 photos of quick reference badges, and the rest were descriptions/lists of codes. One badge was excluded due to a blurry photograph. Results were collated and analyzed for trends and standardization.
The most common codes were, “Code Red” for fire (72.7%), “Code Blue” for cardiac arrest (44.9%), “Code Silver” for active shooter/weapons event (37.7%) and “Code Orange” for hazardous materials (33.8%). There were 168 instances of a code term being associated with a particular event by five or fewer facilities. Two facilities used numeric systems, with 11 using plain language descriptions.
Disaster code language is inconsistent. Few of the codes were consistently assigned to the same meaning, and none were universal. Color coding was the most common method, but there was little consistency even within color code systems. Additionally, some facilities used a combination of colors, numbers, terms, and plain language. Healthcare facilities should embrace standard terminology and create a consistent language for disaster codes to enhance response capabilities and medical security.
Introduction: Renal colic is one of the most common presentations to the emergency department (ED), and often requires complex interdisciplinary collaboration between emergency physicians and urology surgeons. Previous literature has shown that adoption of interdisciplinary rapid referral clinics can improve both timeliness of care and patient outcomes. However, these Acute Care Surgery models have not yet been commonly adopted for urology care in the ED. Methods: In July 2016, we adopted the intervention of an Acute Care Urology (ACU) model through the creation of a rapid referral clinic dedicated to ED patient referrals, the addition of an ACU surgeon, and enhanced use of daytime OR blocks. We conducted a manual chart review of 579 patients presenting to the ED with a complaint of renal colic. Patient data was collected in two separate time periods to analyze trends before implementation of the ACU model (pre-intervention, September - November 2015), to examine the model's impact (post-intervention, September - November 2016). Secondary methods of evaluation included a survey of 20 ED physicians to capture subjective feedback through Likert scale data. Results: Of the evaluated 579 patients with a complaint of renal colic,194 patients were discharged from ED with an diagnosis of obstructing kidney stone and were referred to urology for outpatient care. The ED-to-clinic time was significantly lower for those in the ACU model (p <0.001). The mean time to clinic was 15.76 days (SD = 15.47, range 1-93) pre-intervention versus 4.17 days (SD = 2.33, range = 1-12) post-intervention. Furthermore, the ACU clinic allowed significantly more patients to be referred for outpatient care (p = 0.0004). There was also higher likelihood that patients would successfully obtain an appointment following referral (p = 0.0055). Decreasing trends were shown in mean ED wait time, in addition to time from assessment to procedure. Results of the qualitative survey were overwhelmingly positive. All 20 surveyed ED physicians were more confident that outpatients would be seen in a timely manner (85% strongly agree, 15% agree). Qualitative feedback included the belief that follow-up is more accessible, that ED physicians are less likely to page the on-call urologist, and that they are able to discharge patients sooner. Conclusion: The ACU model for patients with renal colic may be beneficial in reducing ED-to-clinic time, ensuring proper follow-up after ED diagnosis, and improving patient care within the ED.
The Iron Age of Mainland Southeast Asia began in the fifth century bc and lasted for about a millennium. In coastal regions, the development of trade along the Maritime Silk Road led to the growth of port cities. In the interior, a fall in monsoon rains particularly affected the Mun River valley. This coincided with the construction of moats/reservoirs round Iron Age settlements from which water was channelled into wet rice fields, the production of iron ploughshares and sickles, population growth, burgeoning exchange and increased conflict. We explore the social impact of this agricultural revolution through applying statistical analyses to mortuary samples dating before and after the development of wet rice farming. These suggest that there was a swift formation of social elites represented by the wealth of mortuary offerings, followed by a decline. Two associated changes are identified. The first involved burying the dead in residential houses; the second considers the impact of an increasingly aquatic environment on health by examining demographic trends involving a doubling of infant mortality that concentrated on neonates. A comparison between this sequence and that seen in coastal ports suggests two interconnected instances of rapid pathways to social change responding to different social and environmental stressors.
The incidence of deep neck space abscesses, which can result in significant morbidity and mortality, is rising. The aetiology is thought to be dental. However, this study suggests a reduction in tonsillectomies may be associated with the rise.
In a retrospective cohort study, patients were identified by a clinical code within one hospital over 10 years. Evidence of preceding infection source, management, lifestyle risks, comorbidities and demographics were extracted.
Fifty-two patients were included: 23 (44 per cent) had concurrent or recent tonsillitis; 11 (21 per cent) had poor dental hygiene; 22 (42 per cent) were smokers; and 9 (17 per cent) had diabetes. The incidence of deep neck space abscess cases increased from 1 in 2006, to 15 in 2015 (correlation value 0.9; p = 0.00019).
The incidence of deep neck space abscess cases is increasing. Risk factors include tonsillitis, smoking and dental infection. This paper adds to the growing evidence that deep neck space abscesses are increasingly related to tonsillitis, and questions whether the threshold for tonsillectomy has been raised too high.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of both cow genetic index (CGI) and feeding system on the performance of second lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows on grass-based feeding systems. There was no interaction between CGI and feeding system for any of the parameters measured. Cows of high genetic index (HGI) produced significantly higher yields of milk (P < 0.001), fat (P < 0.001) protein (P < 0.0001) and lactose (P < 0.001) than medium genetic index cows (MGI). CGI had no effect on the concentration of milk constituents. Averaged across four intake measurements the HGI cows had significantly (P < 0.001) higher grass dry-matter intake (GDMI) and total dry-matter intake (TDMI). Live weight was similar for both genotypes during lactation. The HGI cows had significantly (P < 0.05) higher live-weight loss in the first 10 weeks of lactation, significantly lower live-weight gain from week 10 to the end of lactation and higher (P < 0.05) live-weight gain during the dry period. Condition score was significantly lower with the HGI (P < 0.001) at all stages of lactation. There was a higher proportion (P < 0.05) of the HGI cows non-pregnant at the end of the 13-week breeding season. Feeding system had a significant effect on the yield of milk (P < 0.001), fat (P < 0.001), protein (P < 0.001) and lactose (P < 0.001). Feeding system B produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) milk yield and yield of constituents (when compared with feeding systems A and C). Over the period when feeding systems were being applied, feeding system C had significantly higher (P < 0.05) milk protein concentration. Feeding system had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on both GDMI and TDMI. Feeding system had no effect on live weight, condition score or fertility performance.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Chylothorax after paediatric cardiac surgery incurs significant morbidity; however, a detailed understanding that does not rely on single-centre or administrative data is lacking. We described the present clinical epidemiology of postoperative chylothorax and evaluated variation in rates among centres with a multicentre cohort of patients treated in cardiac ICU.
This was a retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical data from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. All postoperative paediatric cardiac surgical patients admitted from October, 2013 to September, 2015 were included. Risk factors for chylothorax and association with outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic or linear regression models, as appropriate, accounting for within-centre clustering using generalised estimating equations.
A total of 4864 surgical hospitalisations from 15 centres were included. Chylothorax occurred in 3.8% (n=185) of hospitalisations. Case-mix-adjusted chylothorax rates varied from 1.5 to 7.6% and were not associated with centre volume. Independent risk factors for chylothorax included age <1 year, non-Caucasian race, single-ventricle physiology, extracardiac anomalies, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and thrombosis associated with an upper-extremity central venous line (all p<0.05). Chylothorax was associated with significantly longer duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation, cardiac ICU and hospital length of stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (all p<0.001).
Chylothorax after cardiac surgery in children is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A five-fold variation in chylothorax rates was observed across centres. Future investigations should identify centres most adept at preventing and managing chylothorax and disseminate best practices.
Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was shown for four different types of carbon that electrode treatments at negative potentials enhance the kinetics of VIV-VV and inhibit the kinetics of VII-VIII while electrode treatments at positive potentials inhibit the kinetics of VIV-VV and enhance the kinetics of VII-VIII. These observations may explain conflicting reports in the literature. The potentials required for activation and deactivation of electrodes were examined in detail. The results suggest that interchanging the positive and negative electrodes in a vanadium flow battery (VFB) would reduce the overpotential at the negative electrode and so improve the performance. This is supported by flow-cell experiments. Thus, periodic catholyte-anolyte interchange, or equivalent alternatives such as battery overdischarge, show promise of improving the voltage efficiency of VFBs.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
We develop a Bayesian model for continuous-time incurred but not yet reported (IBNYR) events under four types of secondary data, and show that unreported events, such as claims, have a Poisson distribution with a reduced arrival parameter if event arrivals are Poisson distributed. Using insurance claims as an example of an IBNYR event, we apply Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to the continuous-time IBNYR claims model of Jewell using Type I and Type IV data. We illustrate the relative stability of the MCMC method versus the Gammoid approximation of Jewell by showing that the MCMC estimates approach their prior parameters, while the Gammoid approximations grow without bound for Type IV data. Moreover, this holds for any distribution that the delay parameter is assumed to follow. Our framework also allows for the computation of posterior confidence intervals for the parameters.
Information on the genetic diversity and population structure of cattle breeds is useful when deciding the most optimal, for example, crossbreeding strategies to improve phenotypic performance by exploiting heterosis. The present study investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the most prominent dairy and beef breeds used in Ireland. Illumina high-density genotypes (777 962 single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) were available on 4623 purebred bulls from nine breeds; Angus (n=430), Belgian Blue (n=298), Charolais (n=893), Hereford (n=327), Holstein-Friesian (n=1261), Jersey (n=75), Limousin (n=943), Montbéliarde (n=33) and Simmental (n=363). Principal component analysis revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey formed non-overlapping clusters, representing distinct populations. In contrast, overlapping clusters suggested geographical proximity of origin and genetic similarity between Limousin, Simmental and Montbéliarde and to a lesser extent between Holstein, Friesian and Belgian Blue. The observed SNP heterozygosity averaged across all loci was 0.379. The Belgian Blue had the greatest mean observed heterozygosity (HO=0.389) among individuals within breed while the Holstein-Friesian and Jersey populations had the lowest mean heterozygosity (HO=0.370 and 0.376, respectively). The correlation between the genomic-based and pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients was weak (r=0.171; P<0.001). Mean genomic inbreeding estimates were greatest for Jersey (0.173) and least for Hereford (0.051). The pair-wise breed fixation index (Fst) ranged from 0.049 (Limousin and Charolais) to 0.165 (Hereford and Jersey). In conclusion, substantial genetic variation exists among breeds commercially used in Ireland. Thus custom-mating strategies would be successful in maximising the exploitation of heterosis in crossbreeding strategies.
Background: About 35% of patients with epilepsy may develop drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Identifying risk factors associated with DRE will allow us to identify earlier patients in the course of the disease. Methods: This is a case-control study nested within a cohort. Chart reviews of subjects who full fill inclusion criteria were completed. Inclusion criteria included age>18 years, focal epilepsy determined by clinical correlation and EEG. DRE was determined by ILAE criteria. Results: 149 subjects were included. Seventy had DRE (cases), and seventy-nine did not have DRE (controls). DRE group had a mean age of 41 years (SD+14.8) compared to the control group (49+17.5) (p=0.003). DRE group had a mean age at diagnosis of epilepsy of 19+15.3 compared to the control group with a mean of 33.6+21. (p=<0.001). The main risk factors identified in this study were; cortical dysplasia OR 8.67 (CI 1.04-72.3, p=0.026); mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) (OR 2.69; CI 1.12-6.47; p=0.024); and presence of complex partial seizures (OR 2.04. Conclusions: Young age at diagnosis of focal epilepsy, diagnosis of cortical dysplasia, MTS, and presence of complex partial seizures are risk factors for DRE
We report the analysis of 154 hours of nearly continuous high-speed photometric data on the pulsating DB white dwarf (DBV) GD 358 obtained during the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) run of May 1990. The Fourier transform (FT) of the light curve is dominated by power in the range from 1200 – 1700μHz with more than 180 significant peaks in the total transform. We also see significant power at the sums and differences of the dominant frequencies, indicating the importance of nonlinear behavior. We can use this data to obtain an accurate total stellar mass, and surface He layer mass. The implied surface He layer mass, if correct, provides a significant and surprising challenge to stellar evolution theory, as well as the theory of chemical mixing.
Our multi-epoch observations show that UW Pic undergoes very pronounced changes in accretion geometry. We explain our observations in terms of changing accretion rates of UW Pic coupled with a particular orientation of the system to the observer.
The variability of CD-24 7599 (V=11.48 mag) was discovered by JCC during observing run XCOV7 of the Whole Earth Telescope (WET, Nather et al. 1990) network in February, 1992. The star was observed as an additional target and 117 hours of high-quality temporal spectroscopic observations were obtained.
Our analysis of these data revealed the presence of 7 independent pulsation modes between 27.0 and 38.1 cycles per day (313 – 441 μHz) with semiamplitudes of 2.1 – 10.2 milli-modulation amplitudes (mma). We showed that peaks at linear combination frequencies detected in the power spectra were not due to eigenmodes excited to visible amplitude by resonant mode coupling.
We propose a Poisson mixture model for count data to determine the number of groups in a Group Life insurance portfolio consisting of claim numbers or deaths. We take a non-parametric Bayesian approach to modelling this mixture distribution using a Dirichlet process prior and use reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo to estimate the number of components in the mixture. Unlike Haastrup, we show that the assumption of identical heterogeneity for all groups may not hold as 88% of the posterior probability is assigned to models with two or three components, and 11% to models with four or five components, whereas models with one component are never visited. Our major contribution is showing how to account for both model uncertainty and parameter estimation within a single framework.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of epilepsy in adults. The literature in this field supports the notion than many patients become candidates for surgery and little is known about the group of patients who do not require surgical treatment. This is a retrospective cohort study that included all patients with TLE assessed and followed by the Saskatchewan Epilepsy Program since 2007. Mild course was defined as patients not having seizures, using or not AEDs at last follow up. Severe course of TLE was considered in patients with continuous seizures and patients who had epilepsy surgery. Descriptive statistics were used. OR and CI were calculated. One hundred and fifty nine patients were included. Age of patients at last follow up was 46.04 + 14.4 (range 19-88) years. Mean follow up of patients was 43.46+ 22.6 (6 to 84) months. Fourth six patients (29%) were seizure-free with AEDS (mild course TLE) and 113 (61%) had severe course of TLE. Patients with mild course of TLE were older (p 0.002), with a late onset of epilepsy (p< 0.001) and their epilepsy evolution was shorter (p<0.001). Our study shows that not all the patients with TLE require surgery and that a fair percentage of patients can be controlled with medication.
Two new integral field units (IFUs) were installed recently on the WIYN Observatory's 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. These unique IFUs contain fibers of different sizes in the same head. This design allows smaller fibers to sample regions of higher surface brightness, providing higher spatial resolution while maintaining adequate signal-to-noise (S/N). Conversely, larger fibers maintain S/N at the expense of spatial resolution in the lower surface brightness regions of galaxies. The new IFUs were built with funds from NSF award ATI-0804576.