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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
To provide cross-national data for selected countries of the Americas on service utilization for psychiatric and substance use disorders, the distribution of these services among treatment sectors, treatment adequacy and factors associated with mental health treatment and adequacy of treatment.
Data come from data collected from 6710 adults with 12 month mental disorder surveys across seven surveys in six countries in North (USA), Central (Mexico) and South (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru) America who were interviewed 2001–2015 as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Interviews also assessed service utilization by the treatment sector, adequacy of treatment received and socio-demographic correlates of treatment.
Little over one in four of respondents with any 12 month DSM-IV/CIDI disorder received any treatment. Although the vast majority (87.1%) of this treatment was minimally adequate, only 35.3% of cases received treatment that met acceptable quality guidelines. Indicators of social-advantage (high education and income) were associated with higher rates of service use and adequacy, but a number of other correlates varied across survey sites.
These results shed light on an enormous public health problem involving under-treatment of common mental disorders, although the problem is most extreme among people with social disadvantage. Promoting services that are more accessible, especially for those with few resources, is urgently needed.
With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
Gluten is only partially digested by intestinal enzymes and can generate peptides that can alter intestinal permeability, facilitating bacterial translocation, thus affecting the immune system. Few studies addressed the role of diet with gluten in the development of colitis. Therefore, we investigate the effects of wheat gluten-containing diet on the evolution of sodium dextran sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed a standard diet without (colitis group) or with 4·5 % wheat gluten (colitis + gluten) for 15 d and received DSS solution (1·5 %, w/v) instead of water during the last 7 d. Compared with the colitis group, colitis + gluten mice presented a worse clinical score, a larger extension of colonic injury area, and increased mucosal inflammation. Both intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation were increased, propitiating bacteria migration for peripheral organs. The mechanism by which diet with gluten exacerbates colitis appears to be related to changes in protein production and organisation in adhesion junctions and desmosomes. The protein α-E-catenin was especially reduced in mice fed gluten, which compromised the localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, weakening the structure of desmosomes. The epithelial damage caused by gluten included shortening of microvilli, a high number of digestive vacuoles, and changes in the endosome/lysosome system. In conclusion, our results show that wheat gluten-containing diet exacerbates the mucosal damage caused by colitis, reducing intestinal barrier function and increasing bacterial translocation. These effects are related to the induction of weakness and disorganisation of adhesion junctions and desmosomes as well as shortening of microvilli and modification of the endocytic vesicle route.
There is community concern about the treatment of farm animals post-farm gate, particularly animal transport and slaughter. Relationships between lamb behavioural and physiological variables on farm, stockperson, dog and lamb behavioural variables pre-slaughter and plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate in lambs post-slaughter were studied in 400 lambs. The lambs were observed in three behavioural tests, novel arena, flight distance to a human and temperament tests, before transport for slaughter. Closed-circuit television video footage was used to record stockperson, dog and lamb behaviour immediately before slaughter. Blood samples for cortisol, glucose and lactate analyses were collected on farm following the three behavioural tests and immediately post-slaughter. The regression models that best predicted plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations post-slaughter included a mixture of stockperson and dog behavioural variables as well as lamb variables both on-farm and pre-slaughter. These regression models accounted for 33%, 34% and 44% of the variance in plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate concentrations post-slaughter, respectively. Some of the stockperson and dog behaviours pre-slaughter that were predictive of the stress and metabolic variables post-slaughter included the duration of negative stockperson behaviours such as fast locomotion and lifting/pulling lambs, and the duration of dog behaviours such as lunging and barking at the lamb, while some of the predictive lamb behaviour variables included the durations of jumping and fleeing. Some of the physiological and behavioural responses to the behavioural tests on farm were also predictive of the stress and metabolic variables post-slaughter. These relationships support the well-demonstrated effect of handling on fear and stress responses in livestock, and although not direct evidence of causal relationships, highlight the potential benefits of training stockpeople to reduce fear and stress in sheep at abattoirs.
The in situ technique (NB) was compared to the in vitro gas production technique (Gas) in terms of ability to estimate the dry matter degradation (DMD) using high soluble substrates (maize grains) and low soluble substrates (four tropical forages). The experiments (in situ and in vitro) were carried out at the same time using the same cow for both techniques and DMD was estimated at 6, 12, 24, 48 & 96 h. The results showed that DMD from Gas were lower than NB DMD and the correlation for the maize group were lower than those of the grass group which indicated that Gas technique, closed system, has potential to analyse highly soluble substrates, probably, overcoming the particle losses effect demonstrated by the in situ technique.
Graphene-based membranes have been investigated as promising candidates for water filtration and gas separation applications. Experimental evidences have shown that graphene oxide can be impermeable to liquids, vapors and gases, while allowing a fast permeation of water molecules. This phenomenon has been attributed to the formation of a network of nano capillaries that allow nearly frictionless water flow while blocking other molecules by steric hindrance effects. It is supposed that water molecules are transported through the percolated two-dimensional channels formed between graphene-based sheets. Although these channels allow fast water permeation in such materials, the flow rates are strongly dependent on how the membranes are fabricated. Also, some fundamental issues regarding the nanoscale mechanisms of water permeation are still not fully understood and their interpretation remains controversial. In this work, we have investigated the dynamics of water permeation through pristine graphene and graphene oxide model membranes that have strong impact on water/alcohol separation. We have carried out fully atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations of systems composed of multiple layered graphene-based sheets into contact with a pure water reservoir under controlled thermodynamics conditions (e. g., by varying temperature and pressure values). We have systematically analysed how the transport dynamics of the confined nanofluids depend on the interlayer distances and the role of the oxide functional groups. Our results show the water flux is much more effective for graphene than for graphene oxide membranes. These results can be attributed to the H-bonds formation between oxide functional groups and water, which traps the water molecules and precludes ultrafast water transport through the nanochannels.
The 3D porous carbon-based structures called Schwarzites have been recently a subject of renewed interest due to the possibility of being synthesized in the near future. These structures exhibit negatively curvature topologies with tuneable porous sizes and shapes, which make them natural candidates for applications such as CO2 capture, gas storage and separation. Nevertheless, the adsorption properties of these materials have not been fully investigated. Following this motivation, we have carried out Grand-Canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the adsorption of small molecules such as CO2, CO, CH4, N2 and H2, in a series of Schwarzites structures. Here, we present our preliminary results on natural gas adsorptive capacity in association with analyses of the guest-host interaction strengths. Our results show that Schwarzites P7par, P8bal and IWPg are the most promising structures with very high CO2 and CH4 adsorption capacity and low saturation pressure (<1bar) at ambient temperature. The P688 is interesting for H2 storage due to its exceptional high H2 adsorption enthalpy value of -19kJ/mol.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
Thermal batteries based on a reversible adsorption/desorption of a working fluid (water, methanol, ammonia) rather than the conventional vapor compression is a promising alternative to exploit waste thermal energy for heat reallocation. In this context, there is an increasing interest to find novel porous solids able to adsorb a high energy density of working fluid under low relative vapor pressure condition combined with an easy ability of regeneration (desorption) at low temperature, which are the major requirements for adsorption driven heat pumps and chillers. The porous crystalline hybrid materials named Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOF) represent a great source of inspiration for sorption based-applications owing to their tunable chemical and topological features associated with a large variability of pore sizes. Recently, we have designed a new MOF named MIL-160 (MIL stands for Materials of Institut Lavoisier), isostructural to CAU-10, built from the assembly of corner sharing aluminum chains octahedra AlO4(OH)2 with the 2,5-furandicarboxylic linker substituting the pristine organic linker, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate. This ligand replacement strategy proved to enhance both the hydrophilicity of the MOF and its amount of water adsorbed at low p/p0. This designed solid was synthesized and its chemical stability/adsorption performances verified. Here, we have extended this study by incorporating other polar heterocyclic linkers and a comparative computational study of the water adsorption performances of these novel structures has been performed. To that purpose, the cell and geometry optimizations of all hypothetical frameworks were first performed at the density functional theory level and their water adsorption isotherms were further predicted by using force-field based Grand-Canonical Monte Carlo simulations. This study reveals the ease tunable water affinity of MOF for the desired application.
Graphynes and graphdiynes are carbon 2D allotrope structures presenting both sp2 and sp hybridized atoms. These materials have been theoretically predicted but due to intrinsic difficulties in their synthesis, only recently some of these structures have been experimentally realized. Graphyne nanoscrolls are structures obtained by rolling up graphyne sheets into papyrus-like structures. In this work, we have investigated, through fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of nanoscroll formation for a series of graphyne (α, β, and δ types) structures. We have also investigated their thermal stability for a temperature range of 200-1000K. Our results show that stable nanoscrolls can be formed for all structures considered here. Their stability depends on a critical value of the ratio between length and height of the graphyne sheets. Our findings also show that these structures are structurally less stable then graphene-based nanoscrolls. This can be explained by the graphyne higher structural porosity which results in a decreased pi-pi stacking interactions.
A growing body of evidence suggests that indicators of social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, only a few studies have specifically looked at cumulative effects and long-term associations. The aims of this study are: To compare the prevalence of specific indicators of social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services in patients suffering their first episode of psychosis and in a control sample. To explore long-term associations, cumulative effects, and direction of effects.
We collected information on social disadvantage from 332 patients and from 301 controls recruited from the local population in South London. Three indicators of social disadvantage in childhood and six indicators of social disadvantage in adulthood were analysed.
Across all the domains considered, cases were more likely to report social disadvantage than were controls. Compared with controls, cases were approximately two times more likely to have had a parent die and approximately three times more likely to have experienced a long-term separation from one parent before the age of 17 years. Cases were also more likely than controls to report two or more indicators of adult social disadvantage, not only at first contact with psychiatric services [odds ratio (OR) 9.5], but also at onset of psychosis (OR 8.5), 1 year pre-onset (OR 4.5), and 5 years pre-onset (OR 2.9).
Greater numbers of indicators of current and long-term exposure are associated with progressively greater odds of psychosis. There is some evidence that social disadvantage tends to cluster and accumulate.
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris–HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients. Highest recognition was observed for a 30–40 kDa mass range present in all antigenic fractions. The band encompassing this mass range was then excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Immunoreactive proteins identified in the soluble fractions corresponded to metabolic enzymes, whereas cytoskeletal proteins and galectins were more abundant in the membrane fractions. These results represent the first approach towards identification of S. venezuelensis antigens for use in immunodiagnostic assays for human strongyloidiasis.
A high-resolution atmospheric radiocarbon record has been obtained for the interval of 17–36 kyr from U/Th-dated aragonite sediment of Lake Lisan. Reservoir age corrections were applied with reservoir ages of 200, 1250, and 2000 yr, which correlate with the different water levels of the lake. The present 14C record for Lake Lisan shows near resemblance with that of Lake Suigetsu: both converge to the value of Δ14C ∼0‰ at 32 kyr cal BP. Both also show significant differences compared to other reported high-resolution 14C records (e.g. Iceland Sea, Cariaco basin, and Bahamas speleothem). This inconsistency should be addressed by re-assessment of the basic assumptions behind the determination of calendar ages of the various records.
In the radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS) analysis of gases obtained in a dry extraction from a 52–m Antarctic ice core, we observed 14CO2 and 14CO concentrations decreasing with depth. The concentrations are explained in terms of in-situ production by neutrons and captured muons in ablating ice. The ratio of the 14CO2 concentration to that of 14CO has been found to be constant at 1.9 ± 0.3. The ablation rates obtained of 42 ± 18 cm.yr−1 and 40 ± 13 cm.yr−1 for the neutron and muon components, respectively, are about three times higher than observed from stake readings. The discrepancy may point to an incomplete extraction of the dry extraction method. Using the constant ratio in 14CO2 and 14CO concentrations we correct for the in-situ component in the trapped 14CO2 and deduce an age of 10,300 ± 900 BP for the ice core.
We quantified the rate of carbonate dissolution with increasing water depth by taking the difference in the carbonate mass accumulation rate of deep (3393–4375 m) core top sediments from the shallowest one (3208 m), which we assumed was unaffected by dissolution. This method depends on high quality 14C dates that we calibrated to calendar years for calculating sedimentation rates. Our results show low (ranging from 0 to 0.3 g cm−2 ka−1) and high (ranging from 1.5 to 1.7 g cm−2 ka−1) carbonate dissolution rates, above and below 4000 m, respectively. Therefore, we interpret the sudden increase in the carbonate dissolution rate at 4000-m water depth to mark the lysocline.
AMS 14C measurements on pteropod shells from eastern North Atlantic deep-sea cores reveal distinct periods of aragonite preservation during the last 16,000 years. Most preservation spikes coincide with documented periods of climatic change on a scale of 2 × 101 to 2 × 103 years.
Detailed stable oxygen isotope analyses coupled with AMS 14C measurements on an eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1 sequence indicate that adverse bottom conditions persisted for ca 8000 years. AMS dates on additional sequences show that complete bottom anoxia lasted for 300-800 years. The S1 event is not synchronous throughout the eastern Mediterranean, but started earlier in the deeper parts of the basin.
Variability in surface and deep ocean circulation in the North Atlantic is inferred from grain-size characteristics and the composition of terrigenous sediments from a deep-sea core taken on Reykjanes Ridge, south of Iceland. End-member modeling of grain size data shows that deep-ocean circulation in this area decreased significantly during periods of maximum iceberg discharge. The episodes of reduced circulation correlate with the cold and abrupt warming phases of the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles as recognized in the Greenland ice cores.
The Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerating Universe Astrophysical Survey (J-PAS) is a narrow-band imaging, very wide field cosmological survey. It will last 5 years and will observe 8500 sq. deg. of the sky. There will be 54 contiguous narrow-band filters of 145Å FWHM, from 3,500 to 10,000Å. Two broad-band filters will be added at the extremes, UV and IR, plus the 3–g, r, and i– SDSS filters. Thus, J-PAS can be an important tool to search for new planetary nebulae (PNe) at the halo, increasing their numbers, because only 14 of them have been convincingly identified in the literature. Halo PNe are able to reveal precious information for the study of stellar evolution and the early chemical conditions of the Galaxy. The characteristic low continuum and intense emission lines of PNe make them good objects to be searched by J-PAS. Though covering a significantly smaller sky area, data from the ALHAMBRA survey were used to test our J-PAS strategy to search for PNe. Our first results are shown in this contribution.