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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important resource to the national economy and it is essential to assess the genetic diversity in existing sorghum germplasm for better conservation, utilization and crop improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of genetic diversity within and among sorghum germplasms collected from diverse institutes in Nigeria and Mali using Single Nucleotide Polymorphic markers. Genetic diversity among the germplasm was low with an average polymorphism information content value of 0.24. Analysis of Molecular Variation revealed 6% variation among germplasm and 94% within germplasms. Dendrogram revealed three groups of clustering which indicate variations within the germplasms. Private alleles identified in the sorghum accessions from National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Ibadan, Nigeria and International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Kano, Nigeria shows their prospect for sorghum improvement and discovery of new agronomic traits. The presence of private alleles and genetic variation within the germplasms indicates that the accessions are valuable resources for future breeding programs.
Introduction: Low acuity patients have been controversially tagged as a source of emergency department (ED) misuse. Authorities for many Canadian health regions have set up policies so these patients preferably present to walk-in clinics (WIC). We compared the cost and quality of the care given to low acuity patients in an academic ED and a WIC of Québec City during fiscal year 2015-16. Methods: We conducted an ambidirectional (prospective and retrospective) cohort study using a time-driven activity-based costing method. This method uses duration of care processes (e.g., triage) to allocate to patient care all direct costs (e.g., personnel, consumables), overheads (e.g., building maintenance) and physician charges. We included consecutive adult patients, ambulatory at all time and discharged from the ED or WIC with a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), urinary tract infection (UTI) or low back pain. Mean cost [95%CI] per patient per condition was compared between settings after risk-adjustment for age, sex, vital signs, number of regular medications and co-morbidities using generalized log-gamma regression models. Proportions [95%CI] of antibiotic prescription and chest X-Ray use in URTI, compliance with provincial guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI, and column X-Ray use in low back pain were compared between settings using a Pearson Chi-Square test. Results: A total of 409 patients were included. ED and WIC groups were similar in terms of age, sex and vital signs on presentation, but ED patients had a greater burden of comorbidities. Adjusted mean cost (2016 CAN$) of care was significantly higher in the ED than in the WIC (p < 0.0001) for URTI (78.42[64.85-94.82] vs. 59.43[50.43-70.06]), UTI (78.88[69.53-89.48] vs. 53.29[43.68-65.03]), and low back pain (87.97[68.30-113.32] vs. 61.71[47.90-79.51]). For URTI, antibiotics were more frequently prescribed in the WIC (44.1%[34.3-54.3] vs. 5.8%[1.2-16.0]; p < 0.0001) and chest X-Rays, more frequently used in the ED (26.9%[15.6-41.0] vs. 13.7%[7.7-22.0]; p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the compliance with guidelines on use of antibiotics in UTI and in the use of column X-Ray in low back pain. Conclusion: Total cost of care for low acuity patients is lower in walk-in clinics than in EDs. However, our results suggest that quality-of-care issues should be considered in determining the best alternate setting for treating ambulatory emergency patients.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPAA) plays a critical role in the functioning of all other biological systems. Thus, studying how the environment may influence its ontogeny is paramount to understanding developmental origins of health and disease. The early post-conceptional (EPC) period could be particularly important for the HPAA as the effects of exposures on organisms’ first cells can be transmitted through all cell lineages. We evaluate putative relationships between EPC maternal cortisol levels, a marker of physiologic stress, and their children’s pre-pubertal HPAA activity (n=22 dyads). Maternal first-morning urinary (FMU) cortisol, collected every-other-day during the first 8 weeks post-conception, was associated with children’s FMU cortisol collected daily around the start of the school year, a non-experimental challenge, as well as salivary cortisol responses to an experimental challenge (all Ps<0.05), with some sex-related differences. We investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms statistically mediated these links and, therefore, could provide cues as to possible biological pathways involved. EPC cortisol was associated with >5% change in children’s buccal epithelial cells’ DNA methylation for 867 sites, while children’s HPAA activity was associated with five CpG sites. Yet, no CpG sites were related to both, EPC cortisol and children’s HPAA activity. Thus, these epigenetic modifications did not statistically mediate the observed physiological links. Larger, prospective peri-conceptional cohort studies including frequent bio-specimen collection from mothers and children will be required to replicate our analyses and, if our results are confirmed, identify biological mechanisms mediating the statistical links observed between maternal EPC cortisol and children’s HPAA activity.
Introduction: Poor physicians’ knowledge of health care costs has been identified as an important barrier to improving efficiency and reducing overuse in care delivery. Moreover, costs of tests and treatments estimated with traditional costing methods have been shown to be imprecise and unreliable. We estimated the cost of frequent care activities in the emergency department (ED) using the time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) method. Methods: We conducted a TDABC study in the ED of the CHUL, Québec city (77000 visits/year). We estimated the cost of all potential care activities (e.g. triage) provided to adult patients with selected urgent (e.g. pulmonary sepsis) and non urgent (e.g. urinary tract infection) conditions frequently encountered in the ED. Following Lean management principles, process maps were developed by a group of ED care providers for each care activity to identify human resources, supplies and equipment involved, and to estimate the time required to complete each process. Resource unit cost (e.g. cost per minute of a nurse) and overhead rate were calculated using financial information from fiscal year 2015-16. Estimated cost of each care activity (e.g. chest X-ray) including physicians’ charges was calculated by summing overhead allocation and the cost of each process (e.g. disinfection of the X-ray machine) as obtained by multiplying the resource unit cost by the time for process completion. Results: Process maps were developed for 14 conditions and 68 ED care activities. We estimated the costs of activities (CAN$) related to nursing (e.g. urinalysis and culture triage ordering $14.70), clerk tasks (e.g. patient registration $3.40), physicians (e.g. FAST scan $20.90), laboratory testing (e.g. CBC $6.30), diagnostic imaging (e.g. abdominal CT scan $146.50), therapy (e.g. 5 mg of iv morphine $20.40), and resuscitation (rapid sequence intubation with ketamine and succinylcholine $146.40). Overall, emergency physicians’ charges, personnel salaries and overheads accounted for 38%, 22% and 16% of all ED care costs, respectively. Conclusion: Our results represent an important step toward increasing emergency physicians’ awareness on the real cost of their interventions and empowering them to adopt more cost-effective practice patterns.
Introduction: Redirecting low acuity patients from emergency departments to primary care walk-in clinics has been identified as a priority by many health authorities. Promoting family physicians for the management of ambulatory patients with urgent health concerns reflects the assumption that primary care facilities can offer high-quality and more affordable ambulatory emergency care. However, no performance assessment framework has been developed for ambulatory emergency care and consequently, quality of care provided in these alternate settings has never been formally compared. Primary objective: To identify structure, process and outcome indicators for ambulatory emergency care. Methods: We will identify and develop quality indicators (QIs) for ambulatory emergency care using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM) composed of three different steps. First, we will perform a scoping literature review to inventory 1) all previously recommended QIs assessing care provided to ambulatory emergency patients in the ED or the primary care settings; 2) all conditions evaluated with the retrieved QIs; and 3) all outcomes measured by the same QIs. Second, a steering committee composed of the research team and of international experts in performance assessment in emergency and primary care will be presented with the lists of QI-related conditions and outcomes. They will be asked to identify potential outcome indicators for ambulatory emergency care by generating any relevant combinations of one condition and one outcome (e.g. acute asthma exacerbation/re-consultation). Committee members will be given the latitude to use and pair any conditions or outcomes not included in the lists as long as they think the resulting indicators are compatible with the study objectives. Using a structured nominal group approach, they will combine their suggestions and refine the list of potential QIs. This list of potential outcome indicators composed of pairs “condition/outcome” will be merged with the list of already published QIs identified during the literature review. Third, as per the RAM standards, we will assemble an international multidisciplinary panel (n=20) of patients, emergency and primary care providers, researchers and decision makers, after recommendations from international emergency and primary care associations, and from the Canadian Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research (SPOR) Support Units. Through iterative rounds of ratings using both web-based survey tools and videoconferencing, panelists will independently assess all candidate QIs. They will be asked to rate on a nine-level scale to what extent each QI is a relevant and useful measure of ambulatory emergency care quality. From one round to the next, QIs with a median panelist rating score of one to three will be excluded. Those with a median score of seven or more will be automatically included in the final list. QIs with median score of four to six will be retained for future deliberations among the panelists. Rounds of ratings will be conducted until all QIs are classified. Impact: The QIs identified will be used to develop a performance assessment framework for ambulatory emergency care. This will represent an essential step toward testing the assumption that EDs and primary care walk-in clinics provide equivalent care quality to low acuity patients.
Background: The degree of overlap between schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective psychosis (AFF) has been a recurring question since Kraepelin’s subdivision of the major psychoses. Studying nonpsychotic relatives allows a comparison of disorder-associated phenotypes, without potential confounds that can obscure distinctive features of the disorder. Because attention and working memory have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for SCZ and AFF, we compared these cognitive features in individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for the disorders. Methods: Young, unmedicated, first-degree relatives (ages, 13–25 years) at FHR-SCZ (n=41) and FHR-AFF (n=24) and community controls (CCs, n=54) were tested using attention and working memory versions of the Auditory Continuous Performance Test. To determine if schizotypal traits or current psychopathology accounted for cognitive deficits, we evaluated psychosis proneness using three Chapman Scales, Revised Physical Anhedonia, Perceptual Aberration, and Magical Ideation, and assessed psychopathology using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist -90 Revised. Results: Compared to controls, the FHR-AFF sample was significantly impaired in auditory vigilance, while the FHR-SCZ sample was significantly worse in working memory. Both FHR groups showed significantly higher levels of physical anhedonia and some psychopathological dimensions than controls. Adjusting for physical anhedonia, phobic anxiety, depression, psychoticism, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms eliminated the FHR-AFF vigilance effects but not the working memory deficits in FHR-SCZ. Conclusions: The working memory deficit in FHR-SZ was the more robust of the cognitive impairments after accounting for psychopathological confounds and is supported as an endophenotype. Examination of larger samples of people at familial risk for different psychoses remains necessary to confirm these findings and to clarify the role of vigilance in FHR-AFF. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1026–1037)
Using CFHT/SIS Fabry-Perot interferograms of the planetary nebula NGC 40, we present an investigation of the statistical properties of fluctuating gas motions using structure functions traced by Hα emission-line centroid velocities (Grosdidier et al. 2002). We consider the structure functions 〈|Δv(r)|p〉 of order p, i.e. the spatially averaged moments of order p of the spatial velocity increments at projected spatial scale r of NGC 40's velocity field. In this poster, we test for i) Structure-function scaling related to turbulence in the nebula, 〈|Δv(r) |p〉 ~ rχ(p),ϛ and ii) Nonlinearity of the observed scaling exponents χ(p)s, as expected for intermittent turbulent flows. The first order structure function is indeed found to scale at the smallest scales with χ(1) = H ≈0.68. This value is larger than the value expected in the case of incompressible or compressible turbulence, for which one would obtain H = 1/3 or 1/2, respectively. This result suggests that the Hα layer is thick compared to the projected spatial separations (O'Dell & Castañeda 1987, and references therein). We can give a more quantitative description of the turbulent status of the PN NGC 40 through the examination of the structure function for different orders. Additionally we can discuss the nature of the turbulence in terms of Universal Multifractals, a continuous-scale limit of multiplicative cascades (Schertzer & Lovejoy 1987) and derive the level of intermittency in the nebula. The function χ(p) is indeed found to be nonlinear and well reproduced with the following Universal Multifractal parameters: α ≈ 1.90–2 (the field is highly multifractal with a gaussian generator) and C1 ≈ 0.08 (the field suffers significant intermittency, which is incompatible with monofractal additive stochastic models usually introduced in similar studies): ϛ(p) = p × H − C1(pα - p)/(α - 1). Fig. 1 shows the hierarchy of exponents χ(p) along with its best Universal Multifractal fit. Our results on the Wolf-Rayet ring nebula M 1–67 (Grosdidier et al. 2001) led to the same level of multifractality (α ≈ 1.9) but with smaller intermittency (C1 ≈ 0.04). Preliminary results on the Orion nebula (Grosdidier 2002) reveal a turbulent status relatively similar to that of the PN NGC 40. On the whole, such a study provides a way to quantify turbulence in PN, and more generally in other HII regions (with potential implications for the estimation of temperature fluctuations) and give insight on astrophysical turbulence for its own sake.
Pathogenic invasion by Escherichia coli and Salmonellae remains a constant threat to the integrity of the intestinal epithelium and can rapidly induce inflammatory responses. At birth, colostrum consumption exerts numerous beneficial effects on the properties of intestinal epithelial cells and protects the gastrointestinal tract of newborns from pathogenic invasion. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of colostrum on the early and late inflammatory responses induced by pathogens. The short-term (2 h) and long-term (24 h) effects of exposure to heat-killed (HK) E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on gene expression in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model were first evaluated by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. Luciferase assays were performed using a NF-κB-luc reporter construct to investigate the effect of colostrum whey treatment on the activation of NF-κB induced by HK bacteria. Luciferase assays were also performed using NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc reporter constructs in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2/15 cells exposed to dose–response stimulations with HK bacteria and colostrum whey. Bovine colostrum whey treatment decreased the expression of early and late inflammatory genes induced by HK bacteria in IPEC-J2, as well as the transcriptional activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Unlike that with colostrum whey, treatment with other milk fractions failed to decrease the activation of NF-κB-luc induced by HK bacteria. Lastly, the reduction of the HK bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB-luc, IL-8-luc and IL-6-luc by colostrum whey was dose dependent. The results of the present study indicate that bovine colostrum may protect and preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier in the host by controlling the expression levels of early and late inflammatory genes following invasion by enteric pathogens.
Bovine colostrum is well known for its beneficial properties on health and development. It contains a wide variety of bioactive ingredients that are known to promote a number of cellular processes. Therefore the use of colostrum whey as a feed additive to promote intestinal health has been proposed, yet little is known about mechanisms implicated in its beneficial properties on intestinal epithelial cells. In the present paper, casein were removed from bovine colostrum and the remaining liquid, rich in bioactive compounds, was evaluated for its capacity to modulate cellular processes in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 and human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2/15. First, we verified the effect of colostrum whey and cheese whey on processes involved in intestinal wound healing, including cell proliferation, attachment, morphology and migration. Our results showed that colostrum whey promoted proliferation and migration, and decreased specifically the attachment of Caco-2/15 cells on the culture dish. On the other hand, cheese whey induced proliferation and morphological changes in IPEC-J2 cells, but failed to induce migration. The gene expression profile of IPEC-J2 cells following colostrum whey treatment was evaluated by microarray analysis. Results revealed that the expression of a significant number of genes involved in cell migration, adhesion and proliferation was indeed affected in colostrum whey-treated cells. In conclusion, colostrum specific bioactive content could be beneficial for intestinal epithelial cell homoeostasis by controlling biological processes implicated in wound healing through a precise gene expression programme.
Current measures for major depressive disorder focus primarily on the assessment of depressive symptoms, while often omitting other common features. However, the presence of comorbid features in the anxiety spectrum influences outcome and may effect treatment. More comprehensive measures of depression are needed that include the assessment of symptoms in the anxiety–depression spectrum. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), which assesses irritability, anger attacks, and anxiety symptoms together with the commonly considered symptoms of depression. Analysis of the factor structure of the SDQ identified 5 subscales, including one in the anxiety–depression spectrum, with adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity. The SDQ may be a valuable new tool to better characterize depression and identify and administer more targeted interventions.
We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially inter-related factors in the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD.
The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS) is a birth cohort (n = 1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38 years. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26–38. Complete data were available on 928 participants.
Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma [odds ratio (OR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–6.01], compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2%, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.85–2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11–15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, were associated significantly with the risk of PTSD response to adult trauma (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.32–4.18).
Severe maltreatment is associated with risk of PTSD response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, are associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remains unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with a history of maltreatment.
Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various pre-morbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about pre-morbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on pre-morbid neuropsychological functioning.
We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data collected systematically at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). A mixed-model approach evaluated full-scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis (PCA), and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race and intra-familial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (<10th percentile) to calculate rates of impairment.
There was a significant linear trend, with the SCZ group performing worst. The profile of childhood deficits for persons with SCZ did not differ significantly from BP. Neuropsychological impairment was identified in 42.2% of SCZ, 22.9% of BP and 7% of controls. The presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP.
Pre-morbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect.
We have measured the energy distribution of excess charge trapped by an electron irradiated mica-glass ceramic, Macor™. Photoelectron emission as a function of incident wavelength shows two distinctly different contributions to the measured density of electron trap states. First, there is a broad continuum of binding states which extends well above the Fermi level. This results in spontaneous electron emission which depletes the excess charge in these states rapidly at room temperature and more slowly at 170K. The free decay of charge emission can be described semiclassically. Second, localized trap states appear as peaks on the continuum distribution which occur at 2.7 and 3.1 eV. These correspond to two thermionic emission peaks which occur during heating at 550K and 595K respectively. Photoemission at high intensities using the 458, 488, and 514 nm wavelengths of an argon ion laser and the 632 nm wavelength of a He-Ne laser greatly enhances the depletion of excess charge from the sample. The laser-induced emission intensity is initially high and drops rapidly, followed by a more gradual decrease. The initial intensity measures the population of electrons with binding energies less than the photon energy. The later emission is related to the repopulation of these states by the dynamic redistribution of electrons from deeper states. This behavior may lead to a model for the mechanism of electron redistribution in charged insulating materials.
In the history of modern Africa the issue of self-determination has always been of special significance. For a better part of a century and in some cases more, almost the entire continent was subject to colonisation by various European powers. The end of the Second World War and the subsequent adoption of the United Nations Charter, incorporating the principle of self-determination, heralded a new phase for the African colonies in international relations. Defined in its simplest terms, self-determination is the principle by virtue of which a people freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. Selfdetermination is in essence the right of self-government. A territory exercises the right by either opting to establish itself as an independent state, associating with an existing state or by accepting to be integrated into an existing state. Self-determination so defined was thus used as the basis for decolonisation in Africa and provided the foundations for equal statehood for the former colonies of Africa in international relations.
After decolonisation, the issue of self-determination still persists in Africa attracting sentiments and implications well exemplified by the conflicts Over Biafra and Katanga in the 1960s and currently in Eritrea, the Tigray province of Ethiopia and the Southern Sudan. The very successful propagation of self-determination as the right of every people to self-government by African nationalists during the colonial days seems to have left behind a legacy of a question for post-independence Africa—is the ideal of self-determination
Background. Suicide is a common cause of death in anorexia nervosa and suicide attempts occur often in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. No studies have examined predictors of suicide attempts in a longitudinal study of eating disorders with frequent follow-up intervals. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of serious suicide attempts in women with eating disorders.
Method. In a prospective longitudinal study, women diagnosed with either DSM-IV anorexia nervosa (n=136) or bulimia nervosa (n=110) were interviewed and assessed for suicide attempts and suicidal intent every 6–12 months over 8·6 years.
Results. Fifteen percent of subjects reported at least one prospective suicide attempt over the course of the study. Significantly more anorexic (22·1%) than bulimic subjects (10·9%) made a suicide attempt. Multivariate analyses indicated that the unique predictors of suicide attempts for anorexia nervosa included the severity of both depressive symptoms and drug use over the course of the study. For bulimia nervosa, a history of drug use disorder at intake and the use of laxatives during the study significantly predicted suicide attempts.
Conclusions. Women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa are at considerable risk to attempt suicide. Clinicians should be aware of this risk, particularly in anorexic patients with substantial co-morbidity.
Psychotherapy research rarely has studied outcome in the longer term.
To evaluate the effectiveness of brief group dynamic psychotherapy (BGDP) intervention in patients with minor psychiatric disorders compared with the usual clinical management shortly after treatment termination and to investigate whether intervention would show a differential effect at 2-year follow-up.
Patients were allocated randomly to an experimental or control group. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used as a primary outcome measure.
Based on improvement in the GHQ, at termination of treatment the BGDP group showed a significant improvement in 23 out of 42 (54.8%) compared with II out of 41 (26.8%) in the clinical management group. The difference in the total improvement rate is 28% (95% Cl 8–48) (χ2=67; d.f.=l; P=0.009). In contrast, no differential follow-up effects were found between the BGDP and clinical management groups.
Psychotherapy appears to have beneficial effects at termination of treatment but the changes attained were not stable.
In June 1991, the Antarctic Treaty states, meeting in Madrid, Spain, approved the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the Madrid Protocol). The Protocol was adopted by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties and opened for signature on October 4, 1991. Negotiated over a three-year period, the Protocol, together with its annexes, is the most comprehensive multilateral document ever adopted on the international protection of the environment. It promises to be a significant blueprint for preserving the Antarctic. An ironic feature of the Protocol is that, while it bans mining in Antarctica, it had its origins in the 1988 Convention for the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA), which permitted mining.
As a part of a survey to study the health and living conditions of the elderly population, a random sample of residents aged 65 and over are examined using the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS) in order to evaluate their psychiatric status. The aim of this study is to evaluate this standard method of assessment as a case-identification instrument in our country. The schedule was completed by 91 subjects. It is easily administered, easily scored, and economical on time. Its completion rate is high. The weighted total scores (WTS) range from 0 to 48. Using the case criteria defined by Cooper & Schwarz (1982), 27 subjects (30%) are considered cases and 64 (70%) are regarded as non-cases. The sensitivity coefficients for the WTS are examined against the overall severity rating at different cut-off points. The optimum cut-off can be anywhere between 16 and 20 points. The WTS has higher validity coefficients to detect the following diagnostic categories (sensitivity, specificity): normals (100%, −); personality (100%, 92%) and affective disorders (100%, 75%). In general the CIS items are given low ratings. Psychotic symptoms are rarely found in this sample. One main problem arose: the item depersonalization is misunderstood by some patients probably because of interpreting it as an upsetting memory disturbance.
Australia, a leading Antarctic state that played a key role in negotiating the Convention for the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities, in May 1989 announced its opposition to the Convention and adoption instead of a World Park or Wilderness Reserve concept for Antarctica. This article examines possible environmental and economic reasons for Australia's attitude, which is likely to have significant implications for the future of the Convention and for the Antarctic Treaty System as a whole.
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