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Language use is often disrupted in patients with schizophrenia; novel
computational approaches may provide new insights.
To test word use patterns as markers of the perceptual, cognitive and
social experiences characteristic of schizophrenia.
Word counting software was applied to first-person accounts of
schizophrenia and mood disorder.
More third-person plural pronouns (‘they’) and fewer first-person
singular pronouns (‘I’) were used in schizophrenia than mood disorder
accounts. Schizophrenia accounts included fewer words related to the body
and ingestion, and more related to religion. Perceptual and causal
language were negatively correlated in schizophrenia accounts but
positively correlated in mood disorder accounts.
Differences in pronouns suggest decreased self-focus or perhaps even an
understanding of self as other in schizophrenia. Differences in how
perceptual and causal words are correlated suggest that long-held
delusions represent a decreased coupling of explanations with sensory
experience over time.
The 2011 Teaching Political Theory and Theories track drew scholars from Europe and the United States and featured work from political scientists representing the four major subfields. While analyzing the nine papers presented, participants articulated a range of perspectives on questions of pedagogy and the relationship between political theory and political science; indeed, the variety of perspectives confirmed the ongoing contestability of many central concepts in both the scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTAL) and the discipline of political science. Whether discussing ways to develop assignments for undergraduate research projects on the Tea Party or how to employ insights from deliberative democratic theory to assess the role of education in addressing racial violence in the United States, participants confronted important questions regarding the role of theory in the discipline, the broadening of undergraduate and graduate teaching strategies, and assessment of the effectiveness of alternative teaching strategies.
Recognizing that the processing window in conventional excimer laser crystallization corresponds mainly to the partial melting regime, and that this can be properly simulated using a one-dimensional model, we investigate numerically the melting and solidification of thin silicon films on SiO2. Here a portion of the silicon film is melted and subsequent vertical solidification is initiated from the lower interface bounding the unmelted region. Upper and lower energy density limits for this regime are calculated for crystal silicon films of thickness 10 to 300 nm, and for pulse duration ranging from 10 to 200 ns. These calculations show that increasing pulse duration requires proportionally more incident energy density to partially melt the film, while decreasing film thickness reduces the range of energy densities over which partial melting can occur. The results are explained in terms of characteristic thermal diffusion distances and the enthalpy change associated with melting. In view of the results we discuss optimization of the conventional excimer laser crystallization and the avoidance of complete melting during the process.
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