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Major advances have recently been made in merging language and vision representations. Most tasks considered so far have confined themselves to the processing of objects and lexicalised relations amongst objects (content words). We know, however, that humans (even pre-school children) can abstract over raw multimodal data to perform certain types of higher level reasoning, expressed in natural language by function words. A case in point is given by their ability to learn quantifiers, i.e. expressions like few, some and all. From formal semantics and cognitive linguistics, we know that quantifiers are relations over sets which, as a simplification, we can see as proportions. For instance, in most fish are red, most encodes the proportion of fish which are red fish. In this paper, we study how well current neural network strategies model such relations. We propose a task where, given an image and a query expressed by an object–property pair, the system must return a quantifier expressing which proportions of the queried object have the queried property. Our contributions are twofold. First, we show that the best performance on this task involves coupling state-of-the-art attention mechanisms with a network architecture mirroring the logical structure assigned to quantifiers by classic linguistic formalisation. Second, we introduce a new balanced dataset of image scenarios associated with quantification queries, which we hope will foster further research in this area.
Brain abscess is uncommon in paediatric population, but of clinical importance because of significant long-term morbidity and mortality. In this multicentre study, promoted by the Italian Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases, we retrospectively collected patients aged 0–18 years, with a diagnosis of ‘brain abscess’. Seventy-nine children were included; the median age was 8·75 years. As predisposing factor, 44 children had preceding infections. The Gram-positive cocci were mostly isolated (27 cases). Sixty (76%) children underwent a surgical intervention. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients, then switched to oral treatment. Clinical sequelae were recorded in 31 (39·2%) children. Twenty-one of them had a single sequela, of which, the most represented, was epilepsy in nine of them. This study focus the attention on the need to have standardized national guidelines or adequate recommendations on type and duration of antibiotic treatment.
Knowledge on spatial variability of soil properties is useful for the rational use of inputs, as in the site specific application of lime and fertilizer. Crop-livestock-forest integrated systems (CLFIS) provide a strategy of sustainable agricultural production which integrates annual crops, trees and livestock activities on a same area and in the same season. Since the lime and fertilizer are key factors for the intensification of agricultural systems in acid-soil in the tropics, precision agriculture (PA) is the tool to improve the efficiency of use of these issues. The objective of this research was to map and evaluate the spatial variability of soil properties, liming and fertilizer need of a CLFIS. The field study was carried out in a 30 ha area at Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste in São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Soil samples were collected at 0–0.2 m depth, and each sample represented a paddock. The spatial variability of soil properties and site-specific liming and fertilizer needs were modeled using semi-variograms, the soil fertility information were modeled. Spatial variability soil properties and site specific liming and fertilizer need were modeled by kriging and inverse distance weighting (IDW) techniques. Another approach used was based on lime and fertilizer recommendation considering the paddocks as the minimum management unit. The results showed that geostatistics and GIS were useful tools for revealing soil spatial variability and supporting management strategies. Soil nutrients were used to classify the soil spatial distribution map and design site-specific lime and fertilizer application zones. Spatial analyses of crop needs and requirement can provide management tools for avoiding potential environmental problems, caused by unbalanced nutrient supplies.
The giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla is categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, and is extinct in several locations as a result of environmental pressures. We present the first records of the giant anteater in the largest continuous expanse of the Atlantic Forest biome, in southern Brazil, highlighting its occurrence in the highlands of the Serra do Mar mountain range. During a camera-trapping survey of medium and large mammals we obtained two records of the species, one in 2013 and the other in 2014. These records from dense rainforest highlands indicate the importance of this environment for the giant anteater and highlight these areas as possible foci for future studies of the species. In addition, we present a review of the species’ occurrence in protected areas in Brazil, to provide a resource for the conservation of this species and for future re-evaluations.
We have compiled a catalogue of H ii regions detected with the Murchison Widefield Array between 72 and 231 MHz. The multiple frequency bands provided by the Murchison Widefield Array allow us identify the characteristic spectrum generated by the thermal Bremsstrahlung process in H ii regions. We detect 306 H ii regions between 260° < l < 340° and report on the positions, sizes, peak, integrated flux density, and spectral indices of these H ii regions. By identifying the point at which H ii regions transition from the optically thin to thick regime, we derive the physical properties including the electron density, ionised gas mass, and ionising photon flux, towards 61 H ii regions. This catalogue of H ii regions represents the most extensive and uniform low frequency survey of H ii regions in the Galaxy to date.
The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicate up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide and are a leading cause of maternal, foetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to present an overview of recent studies addressing offspring’s medium and long-term health outcomes after intrauterine exposure to maternal hypertension. A search on PubMed/MEDLINE and Bireme databases was conducted to identify observational studies that reported any offspring outcome measured after the 6th month of life. The search was limited to studies published after May 2008. Forty-five articles were included and categorized into four groups of outcomes: cardiovascular, immune, metabolic and behavioural/neurological effects. According to our findings, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy had an overall negative impact on offspring’s cardiovascular, immune and neurological health, although not all parameters analysed in each group had consistent results among studies. The most prominent and reliable associations were verified between gestational hypertension and higher offspring’s blood pressure and between preeclampsia and offspring’s lower cognitive functioning. In the metabolic outcomes, body composition had conflicting results among papers, while all studies that examined blood biomarkers showed no evidence that preeclampsia or gestational hypertension could be associated with an alteration of this metabolic outcomes. Most included studies were highly heterogeneous regarding the measure of outcomes and covariables used for adjustments. Future studies should consider using the same protocols and cut-off points already published so that results can be better compared and summarized.
This review was registered in PROSPERO. Registration number: CRD42015020838
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
GLEAM, the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky MWA survey, is a survey of the entire radio sky south of declination + 25° at frequencies between 72 and 231 MHz, made with the MWA using a drift scan method that makes efficient use of the MWA’s very large field-of-view. We present the observation details, imaging strategies, and theoretical sensitivity for GLEAM. The survey ran for two years, the first year using 40-kHz frequency resolution and 0.5-s time resolution; the second year using 10-kHz frequency resolution and 2 s time resolution. The resulting image resolution and sensitivity depends on observing frequency, sky pointing, and image weighting scheme. At 154 MHz, the image resolution is approximately 2.5 × 2.2/cos (δ + 26.7°) arcmin with sensitivity to structures up to ~ 10° in angular size. We provide tables to calculate the expected thermal noise for GLEAM mosaics depending on pointing and frequency and discuss limitations to achieving theoretical noise in Stokes I images. We discuss challenges, and their solutions, that arise for GLEAM including ionospheric effects on source positions and linearly polarised emission, and the instrumental polarisation effects inherent to the MWA’s primary beam.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio–astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day−1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
The science cases for incorporating high time resolution capabilities into modern radio telescopes are as numerous as they are compelling. Science targets range from exotic sources such as pulsars, to our Sun, to recently detected possible extragalactic bursts of radio emission, the so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs). Originally conceived purely as an imaging telescope, the initial design of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) did not include the ability to access high time and frequency resolution voltage data. However, the flexibility of the MWA’s software correlator allowed an off-the-shelf solution for adding this capability. This paper describes the system that records the 100 μs and 10 kHz resolution voltage data from the MWA. Example science applications, where this capability is critical, are presented, as well as accompanying commissioning results from this mode to demonstrate verification.
Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of anger in the community.
We used data derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population, which included more than 34,000 adults ages 18 years and older. We defined inappropriate, intense, or poorly controlled anger by means of self-report of the following: (1) anger that was triggered by small things or that was difficult to control, (2) frequent temper outbursts or anger that lead to loss of control, or (3) hitting people or throwing objects in anger.
The overall prevalence of inappropriate, intense, or poorly controlled anger in the U.S. population was 7.8%. Anger was especially common among men and younger adults, and was associated with decreased psychosocial functioning. Significant and positive associations were evident between anger and parental factors, childhood, and adulthood adverse events. There were strong associations between anger and bipolar disorder, drug dependence, psychotic disorder, borderline, and schizotypal personality disorders. There was a dose-response relationship between anger and a broad range of psychopathology.
A rationale exists for developing screening tools and early intervention strategies, especially for young adults, to identify and help reduce anger.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised.
We report on the activities preparing long duration stratospheric flights, suitable for CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) measurements, in the Arctic region. We focus on pathfinder flights, and on two forthcoming experiments to be flown from Longyearbyen (Svalbard islands): the OLIMPO Sunyaev-Zeldovich spectrometer, and the Large-Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE).
The aim of the study was to present nationally representative data on the lifetime independent association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and psychiatric co-morbidity, correlates, quality of life and treatment seeking in the USA.
Data were derived from a large national sample of the US population. Face-to-face surveys of more than 34 000 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses of ADHD, Axis I and II disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version.
ADHD was associated independently of the effects of other psychiatric co-morbidity with increased risk of bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, specific phobia, and narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, antisocial and schizotypal personality disorders. A lifetime history of ADHD was also associated with increased risk of engaging in behaviors reflecting lack of planning and deficient inhibitory control, with high rates of adverse events, lower perceived health, social support and higher perceived stress. Fewer than half of individuals with ADHD had ever sought treatment, and about one-quarter had ever received medication. The average age of first treatment contact was 18.40 years.
ADHD is common and associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders, impulsive behaviors, greater number of traumas, lower quality of life, perceived social support and social functioning, even after adjusting for additional co-morbidity. When treatment is sought, it is often in late adolescence or early adulthood, suggesting the need to improve diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.
We summarize the results of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
working group of the ARENA project. The focus has been on
precision measurements of CMB polarization (looking for the echoes
of cosmological inflation) and high angular resolution CMB
measurements (looking for Sunyaev Zeldovich effect in distant
clusters of Galaxies, to probe the evolution of the Universe, Dark
Matter and Dark Energy). For both projects the Dome C site
represents the best choice worldwide.
Large millimetric and submillimetric telescopes can play a crucial
role in our understanding of the Universe, allowing the direct
measurement of early galaxies or the investigation of the earliest
stages of star formation. The B modes of CMB polarization are a
direct probe of the Inflationary epoch and their measurement
promises to provide information on the scale of energies at which
the process took place. For these investigations (and many
others), large detectors arrays with thousands of pixels are
needed, to achieve high mapping speeds. This is especially true in
the case of mm and sub/mm observations from extremely cold and dry
locations like Dome-C, where ultra-low temperature detectors,
reaching photon noise limited performance, are needed to fully
exploit the excellent quality of the site. In this paper we
present the working principle of the Microwave Kinetic Inductance
Detectors and their status of development in Italy, focusing on
the key aspects that make them ideal for large arrays of sensors.
Cosmic Microwave Background observations became the tool to probe the
the first events of cosmic history. After WMAP data releases,
galactic and extragalactic foregrounds are perceived as the main limiting uncertainity for the near-future search for the B-mode polarization inprints from
the inflationary era, either through satellites or ground-based experiments like Brain at Dome-C. A combination of technology, scanning strategy and above all, accurate knowledge of polarized foregrounds will be necessary for an optimal mapping of B-mode CMB Polarization. In addition, the search for a better understanding of the galactic foregrounds will provide unprecedented knowledge on the Milky Way structure and star formation.
The spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are being used to construct a catalogue of QSO absorption lines, for use in studies of abundances, relevant radiation fields, number counts as a function of redshift, and other matters, including the evolution of these parameters. The catalogue includes intervening, associated, and BAL absorbers, in order to allow a clearer definition of the relationships between these three classes. We describe the motivation for and the data products of the project to build the SDSS QSO absorption line catalogue.