To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Compare quetiapine+antidepressant (AD) with lithium+AD, and quetiapine monotherapy with lithium+AD in open, rater-blinded treatment.
Patients with treatment resistant depression (Thase et al 1997 stage 1 and 2) with severity of MADRS ≥25 received: quetiapine XR 300mg/day plus AD (SSRIs or venlafaxine) (n=229), lithium (monitored to between 0.6 to 1.0 meq/l) plus AD (n=221) or quetiapine XR alone (300mg/day) (n=225) for 6 weeks. Primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in MADRS total score. The pre-specified non-inferiority limit was 3 points on the MADRS.
Fewer patients discontinued on quetiapine+AD (15.2%) than lithium+AD (20.5%) and quetiapine monotherapy (21.5%). Quetiapine+AD and quetiapine monotherapy, were not inferior to lithium+AD in the primary (per protocol) analysis with a mean difference (97.5%CI) on the MADRS of -2.32 (-4.6 to -0.05) favouring add-on quetiapine and -0.97 (-3.24 to 1.31) favouring quetiapine monotherapy. This mandated superiority testing on the modified ITT population showing no significant difference at endpoint.
In a post hoc analysis discounting multiplicity, quetiapine+AD was significantly more effective than lithium+AD on the MADRS change from baseline, p=0.046. The advantage was observed at day 4 (p=0.007) and persisted throughout. Efficacy was supported by CGI-I (p=0.07). Quetiapine+AD showed a numerically greater advantage over lithium+AD in those with two failed treatments (Stage 2) rather than one (Stage 1).
Quetiapine+AD and quetiapine monotherapy, were non-inferior to lithium+AD in treatment resistant depression. There was an early significant and persistent efficacy advantage on MADRS for quetiapine augmentation compared with lithium augmentation of SSRI or venlafaxine treatment.
Evaluate the effects of once-daily extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) according to disease severity.
Pooled data (quetiapine XR 50, 150 and 300mg/day doses combined) from four 6- or 8-week placebo-controlled quetiapine XR monotherapy studies (D1448C00001, D1448C00002, D1448C00003, D1448C00004) were analysed. Key inclusion criterion for all 4 studies: HAM-D total score ≥22. Primary endpoint: change from randomisation in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score. A post-hoc analysis assessed change from randomisation in MADRS total score and MADRS response (≥ 50% reduction in MADRS total score) at endpoint (Week 6 or Week 8) in 6 severity cohorts (defined by a MADRS total score at randomisation ≥24, ≥26, ≥28, ≥30, ≥32 or ≥34).
1752 patients (comprising the l’ all patients’ group) were evaluated (MADRS score ≥24 at randomisation, n=1601; ≥26, n=1467; ≥28, n=1269; ≥30, n=1038; ≥32, n=745; ≥34, n=500). Quetiapine XR significantly reduced mean MADRS total score at endpoint in lrsquo;all patients’ (p< 0.001 vs placebo) and in all 6 severity cohorts (≥24, ≥26, ≥28, ≥30 and ≥32, p< 0.001 vs placebo; ≥34, p< 0.01 vs placebo). MADRS response rates were significantly higher in the quetiapine XR group vs placebo in the ‘all patients’ group (p< 0.001 vs placebo) and in all 6 severity cohorts (≥24, ≥26, ≥28, ≥30 and ≥32, p< 0.001 vs placebo; ≥34, p=0.001 vs placebo).
Quetiapine XR monotherapy significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with MDD irrespective of disease severity, including the most severe levels of depression.
Based on evidences in molecular neuroimaging, postmortem and genetic studies, impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated with affective disorders. Moreover, a growing number of evidences showed strong interrelations within the serotonergic system suggesting a common mechanism in the modulation of receptor and transporter densities.
Here we directly investigated the regional expression of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HTT using PET and the three highly selective and specific radioligands [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635, [18F]Altanserin and [11C]DASB in healthy subjects.
A total of 55 healthy subjects (5-HT1A: 36 subjects, 18 males, age = 26.0 ± 4.9; 5-HT2A: 19 subjects, 11 males, age = 28.2 ± 5.9; 5-HTT: 8 males, age = 28.12 ± 3.6) were included in this study. Binding potential (BPND) values were quantified according to the AAL parcellation scheme.
BPND values averaged over both hemispheres ranged from 0.40–6.35 for the 5-HT1A receptor; 0.01–2.01 for the 5-HT2A receptor and 0.09–2.05 for the 5-HTT, respectively. There was a specific topological pattern according to the ratio between the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors and 5-HTT (“fingerprints”).
Such information can be essential for detecting potential local alterations in the ratio between different binding proteins on a network level in pathological conditions.
Moreover, these data might provide further insight in area-specific effects of frequently prescribed selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI):
1) due to the distinct local receptor and transporter availability;
2) SSRI application alters the postsynaptic receptor expression and thus;
3) leads to a modified interaction of inhibitory and exhibitory receptors.
This pooled analysis evaluated efficacy of adjunct quetiapine XR (QTP-XR) in subgroups of patients with anxious depression and lower levels of anxiety.
Pooled data from two 6-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials (D1448C00006/D1448C00007) in patients with inadequate response to antidepressants were analysed. Patients received adjunct QTP-XR (150 or 300 mg/day) or placebo+antidepressant (SSRI or SNRI). Using criteria defined in the STAR*D study, analyses conducted in patients with anxious depression or lower baseline anxiety levels (HAM-D anxiety/somatic factor score >/ = 7 and < 7, respectively) included LSM change at Week 6 in: MADRS total (primary endpoint), HAM-A and CGI-S total scores.
For patients with anxious depression (n = 697; 76% patients), adjunct QTP-XR 150mg/day (-14.44, p < 0.01) and 300 mg/day (-15.09, p < 0.001) significantly improved MADRS total scores versus placebo+antidepressant (-11.78) at Week 6, with significant improvement demonstrated from Week 1 onwards. Significant improvements were seen in HAM-A (QTP-XR 150 mg/day: -9.05, p < 0.01; 300 mg/day -9.43, p < 0.01) and CGI-S total scores (QTP-XR 150 mg/day: -1.60, p< 0.001; 300 mg/day -1.63, p < 0.001) versus placebo+antidepressant (-7.40, -1.22, respectively) at Week 6.
A smaller subgroup (n = 222; 24% patients) had lower baseline anxiety levels. At Week 1, adjunct QTP-XR (150 mg/day -9.09; p < 0.01; 300 mg/day -8.60; p < 0.05) significantly improved MADRS total score versus placebo+antidepressant (-5.93). At Week 6 there were no significant changes (QTP-XR 150 mg/day -14.49; p = 0.243; 300 mg/day -14.01; p = 0.388) versus placebo+antidepressant (-12.78).
For patients with anxious depression, adjunct QTP-XR (150 and 300 mg/day) was effective at reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression, with symptom improvement observed from Week 1 onwards. AstraZeneca funded.
In schizophrenia treatment-compliance is a strong predictor of outcome, it depends on a longer lasting therapeutic alliance. SMS (Short Message Service) sent via mobile phones is an adequate tool to establish therapeutic contingency as was shown in a study on bulimia. This programme compliments outpatient treatment and is based on an exchange of SMS-messages between patient and therapist. On a weekly basis, patients supply information on subjective well-being, sleep, social contacts, and attitude towards medication. The patient's status is then rated as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged compared to the previous week and an adequate feedback message is sent. The study aimed at assessing feasibility and acceptance of this intervention in schizophrenia patients.
Thirty-six patients during inpatient-treatment for diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were screened and found eligible for participation. Those who agreed to participation were assessed with the SCID for DSM-IV and received instructions towards the use of the programme, which started after discharge and was designed to last for 4 months in addition to outpatient-treatment as usual.
Eight patients agreed to participation (7 male, 1 female, mean age 29 years), six of whom dropped out during the first three weeks, and only one patient completed the study.
In the presented study, patients suffering from schizophrenia showed a low acceptance rate of additional SMS support complimenting their regular outpatient-treatment. As opposed to our hypothesis and contrary to experiences with bulimia patients integrating an SMS intervention into the treatment of schizophrenia does not seem feasible.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Self-ratings of psychotic experiences might be biased by depressive symptoms.
Data from a large naturalistic multicentre trial on depressed inpatients (n = 488) who were assessed on a biweekly basis until discharge were analyzed. Self-rated psychotic symptoms as assessed with the 90-Item Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) were correlated with the SCL-90 total score, the SCL-90 depression score, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 item (HAMD-21) total score, the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score and the clinician-rated paranoid-hallucinatory score of the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) scale.
At discharge the SCL-90 psychosis score correlated highest with the SCL-90 depression score (0.78, P<0.001) and with the BDI total score (0.64, P<0.001). Moderate correlations were found for the MADRS (0.34, P<0.001), HAMD (0.37, P<0.001) and AMDP depression score (0.33, P<0.001). Only a weak correlation was found between the SCL-90 psychosis score and the AMDP paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome score (0.15, P<0.001). Linear regression showed that change in self-rated psychotic symptoms over the treatment course was best explained by a change in the SCL-90 depression score (P<0.001). The change in clinician-rated AMDP paranoid-hallucinatory score had lesser influence (P = 0.02).
In depressed patients self-rated psychotic symptoms correlate poorly with clinician-rated psychotic symptoms. Caution is warranted when interpreting results from epidemiological surveys using self-rated psychotic symptom questionnaires as indicators of psychotic symptoms. Depressive symptoms which are highly prevalent in the general population might influence such self-ratings.
Previous findings suggested that electrodermal hyporeactivity has a high sensitivity (up to 97%) and high raw specificity (up to 98%) for suicide.
To evaluate prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of electrodermal hyporeactivity for suicide and suicide attempt, with and without death intent and with violent method or not, in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of depression.
At each study site at least 100 patients with a primary diagnosis of depression, also in remission, will be recruited. Depressive symptomatology will be evaluated through the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. Previous suicide attempts will be registered and the death intent of the worst attempt will be rated according to the first eight items of the Beck Suicide Intent Scale. The risk of suicide will be assessed according to rules and traditions at the centre. The EDOR Test (ElectroDermal Orienting Reactivity) will be performed. Two fingers are put on gold electrodes. Through headphones a moderately strong tone is presented now and then during the test. Sensors located within the electrodes are able to register the electrodermal response to those tones, measuring the skin conductance (i.e. electrodermal activity from sweat gland activity). Each patient will be followed up for one year for actions of intentional self-harm that require medical care and for suicide. The death intent will also be rated.
It is expected that the EDOR test detects a previously unknown neuropsychological dysfunction that is independent of the depressive state and can predict suicidality with a high sensitivity and specificity.
Efforts focused on prevention and early intervention may have a significant impact on public health by avoiding onset of mental illness and limiting severity of onset. The European project ProYouth investigates the potential of an Internet-based program in the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders where we know that only a minority of affected individuals seek professional help and additionally we often see a substantial delay between symptom onset and the uptake of treatment.
The functions of the ProYouth online platform are a) to raise awareness and to educate about eating disorders, b) to provide individualized feedback on eating disorder related attitudes, behaviours, and symptoms, c) to provide peer support and professional support online, and d) to refer individuals to regular professional healthcare if online support is not sufficient. These functions should allow for an early detection of eating disorder related impairment, early intervention via the Internet as well as timely access to regular care if necessary.
Via various dissemination channels (e.g., Internet, print media, social media, workshops), more than 100.000 young people have been informed about the ProYouth initiative in six European countries, more than 15.000 have used the online screening tools and more than 6.000 have registered to get full access to the information and support modules of the platform.
Findings confirm poor mental health literacy, shame, and stigmatization of eating disorders as barriers in the helpseeking process and point to the potential of the ProYouth platform in overcoming such barriers.
Thromboxane (TX) A2 and the activation of its receptor have been shown to modulate vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, but also dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling.
As dopaminergic and serotonergic systems play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as these systems are main targets of antipsychotics, we hypothesized that antipsychotics might also influence TXA2 production.
We measured levels of TXB2, the metabolite of the very unstable molecule TXA2, in the stimulated blood of 10 healthy female subjects in a whole blood assay using the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and the monoclonal antibody against the surface antigen CD3 combined with the protein CD40 (OKT3/CD40) as stimulants. Blood was either supplemented with antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, clozapine, and its metabolite N-desmethylclozapine with four different concentrations each) or not.
Under TSST-1 as well as OKT3/CD40 stimulation, mean TXB2 concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by clozapine over all of the applied concentrations. N-desmethylclozapine led to a decrease in TXB2 levels under TSST-1 stimulation only. Chlorpromazine did not show any significant influence on TXB2 production.
Clozapine might, complementary to serotonin and dopamine receptor binding, act on the dopaminergic and serotonergic system via a modulation of TXA2 production. Additionally, side effects of clozapine such as orthostatic hypotension may be a result of the reported TXA2 changes.
Two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies evaluated quetiapine XR (QTP-XR) adjunct to ongoing antidepressant therapy in patients with MDD and an inadequate response to prior antidepressant treatment (D1448C00006/D1448C00007).
Objective and aim:
A post hoc pooled analysis examined clinical and demographic characteristics as potential predictors of response to adjunct QTP-XR
Pooled MITT population (n = 616 QTP-XR [both doses]; n = 303 placebo) data were analysed from the two adjunct QTP-XR (150 or 300 mg/day) studies.
Effects of psychiatric history and baseline demographic and disease characteristics on efficacy were evaluated in subgroups based on Week 6 MADRS total score reduction: ≥50% reduction (responders: n = 345 QTP-XR, n = 140 placebo) versus < 50% (non-responders: n = 271 QTP-XR, n = 163 placebo); ≥75% reduction (responders: n = 175 QTP-XR, n = 60 placebo) versus < 25% (non-responders: n = 125 QTP-XR, n = 89 placebo).
Impact of baseline CGI-S score and number of episodes (0, 1, 2–3, 4–10, ≥10) over previous year and lifetime on Week 6 MADRS total score change was evaluated. Effect of baseline MADRS individual item (1–10) scores on Week 6 change in CGI-I score was evaluated.
No major differences between responders and non-responders to QTP-XR were observed for patient characteristics. there was no predictive association between baseline CGI-S score, number of depressive episodes, and baseline MADRS item scores and efficacy outcomes for adjunct QTP-XR.
This pooled analysis showed no major differences between responders and non-responders, and no suggestion of a predictive association between the parameters assessed and efficacy outcomes for adjunct QTP-XR. Further investigation including logistic regression may be required.
First rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia have been used for decades for diagnostic purposes. In the new version of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has abolished any further reference to FRS of schizophrenia and treats them like any other “criterion A” symptom (e.g. any kind of hallucination or delusion) with regard to their diagnostic implication. The ICD-10 is currently under revision and may follow suit. In this review, we discuss central points of criticism that are directed against the continuous use of first rank symptoms (FRS) to diagnose schizophrenia.
We describe the specific circumstances in which Schneider articulated his approach to schizophrenia diagnosis and discuss the relevance of his approach today. Further, we discuss anthropological and phenomenological aspects of FRS and highlight the importance of self-disorder (as part of FRS) for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Finally, we will conclude by suggesting that the theory and rationale behind the definition of FRS is still important for psychopathological as well as neurobiological approaches today.
Results of a pivotal meta-analysis and other studies show relatively poor sensitivity, yet relatively high specificity for FRS as diagnostic marker for schizophrenia. Several methodological issues impede a systematic assessment of the usefulness of FRS in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, there is good evidence that FRS may still be useful to differentiate schizophrenia from somatic causes of psychotic states. This may be particularly important in countries or situations with little access to other diagnostic tests. FRS may thus still represent a useful aid for clinicians in the diagnostic process.
In conclusion, we suggest to continue a tradition of careful clinical observation and fine-grained psychopathological assessment, including a focus on symptoms regarding self-disorders, which reflects a key aspect of psychosis. We suggest that the importance of FRS may indeed be scaled down to a degree that the occurrence of a single FRS alone should not suffice to diagnose schizophrenia, but, on the other hand, absence of FRS should be regarded as a warning sign that the diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder is not warranted and requires specific care to rule out other causes, particularly neurological and other somatic disorders. With respect to the current stage of the development of ICD-11, we appreciate the fact that self-disorders are explicitly mentioned (and distinguished from delusions) in the list of mandatory symptoms but still feel that delusional perceptions and complex hallucinations as defined by Schneider should be distinguished from delusions or hallucinations of “any kind”. Finally, we encourage future research to explore the psychopathological context and the neurobiological correlates of self-disorders as a potential phenotypic trait marker of schizophrenia.
It has been shown that patients with schizophrenia are super-sensitive towards dopamine-releasing agents such as amphetamine. Here, we studied the effects of amphetamine sensitization on amphetamine-induced dopamine release in healthy subjects.
To measure d-amphetamine-induced dopamine release as measured with the D2,3 agonist radioligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET via change in non-displacable binding potential (BPND) and behavioral measures of d-amphetamine effects with drug effects questionnaire (DEQ) and subjective states questionnaire (SSQ).
To study d-amphetamine-induced sensitization in healthy subjects on a behavioral and neurochemical level with [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET in order to gain more knowledge on sensitization-induced changes in the dopaminergic system.
Twelve stimulant-naïve healthy male subjects underwent three 90-min [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET-scans and four oral administrations of d-amphetamine. After a naïve baseline scan, subjects underwent a PET scan with previous ingestion of 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight of d-amphetamine 90–120 minutes before scanning. Subsequently, subjects were sensitized to d-amphetamine with the same dose on two separate days. Thereafter, they underwent another PET scan with previous d-amphetamine ingestion. DEQ and SSQ were administered before, 60 min, 90–120 min, and 210 min after amphetamine ingestion.
We found significant sensitization effects on a behavioral level and on a neurochemical level after four administrations of amphetamine. Items of the SSQ, which showed significant sensitization effects were “outgoing”, “energetic”, “lively”, “alert” and “focused”.
We were able to induce significant behavioral and neurochemical sensitization in healthy humans, which were measured with [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET for the first time. This sensitization model will be useful for studying the neurobiology of schizophrenia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We describe an algorithm that can fit the properties of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of a tidal stream, given the properties of that stream. We show that under ideal conditions (the Milky Way potential, the orbit of the dwarf galaxy progenitor, and the functional form of the dwarf galaxy progenitor are known exactly), the density and angular width of stars along the stream can be used to constrain the mass and radial profile of both the stellar and dark matter components of the progenitor dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart to create the stream. Our provisional fit for the parameters of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of the Orphan Stream indicates that it is less massive and has fewer stars than previous works have indicated.
Objective: Detection of cognitive impairment suggestive of risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression is crucial to the prevention of incipient dementia. This study was performed to determine if performance on a novel object discrimination task improved identification of earlier deficits in older adults at risk for AD. Method: In total, 135 participants from the 1Florida Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center [cognitively normal (CN), Pre-mild cognitive impairment (PreMCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and dementia] completed a test of object discrimination and traditional memory measures in the context of a larger neuropsychological and clinical evaluation. Results: The Object Recognition and Discrimination Task (ORDT) revealed significant differences between the PreMCI, aMCI, and dementia groups versus CN individuals. Moreover, relative risk of being classified as PreMCI rather than CN increased as an inverse function of ORDT score. Discussion: Overall, the obtained results suggest that a novel object discrimination task improves the detection of very early AD-related cognitive impairment, increasing the window for therapeutic intervention. (JINS, 2019, 25, 688–698)
Wearable devices are fast evolving to address mobility and autonomy needs of elderly people who would benefit from physical assistance. Recent developments in soft robotics provide important opportunities to develop soft exoskeletons (also called exosuits) to enable both physical assistance and improved usability and acceptance for users. The XoSoft EU project has developed a modular soft lower limb exoskeleton to assist people with low mobility impairments. In this paper, we present the design of a soft modular lower limb exoskeleton to improve person’s mobility, contributing to independence and enhancing quality of life. The novelty of this work is the integration of quasi-passive elements in a soft exoskeleton. The exoskeleton provides mechanical assistance for subjects with low mobility impairments reducing energy requirements between 10% and 20%. Investigation of different control strategies based on gait segmentation and actuation elements is presented. A first hip–knee unilateral prototype is described, developed, and its performance assessed on a post-stroke patient for straight walking. The study presents an analysis of the human–exoskeleton energy patterns by way of the task-based biological power generation. The resultant assistance, in terms of power, was 10.9% ± 2.2% for hip actuation and 9.3% ± 3.5% for knee actuation. The control strategy improved the gait and postural patterns by increasing joint angles and foot clearance at specific phases of the walking cycle.
A core question in the debate about how to organise mental healthcare is whether in- and out-patient treatment should be provided by the same (personal continuity) or different psychiatrists (specialisation). The controversial debate drives costly organisational changes in several European countries, which have gone in opposing directions. The existing evidence is based on small and low-quality studies which tend to favour whatever the new experimental organisation is.
We compared 1-year clinical outcomes of personal continuity and specialisation in routine care in a large scale study across five European countries.
This is a 1-year prospective natural experiment conducted in Belgium, England, Germany, Italy and Poland. In all these countries, both personal continuity and specialisation exist in routine care. Eligible patients were admitted for psychiatric in-patient treatment (18 years of age), and clinically diagnosed with a psychotic, mood or anxiety/somatisation disorder.
Outcomes were assessed 1 year after the index admission. The primary outcome was re-hospitalisation and analysed for the full sample and subgroups defined by country, and different socio-demographic and clinical criteria. Secondary outcomes were total number of inpatient days, involuntary re-admissions, adverse events and patients’ social situation. Outcomes were compared through mixed regression models in intention-to-treat analyses. The study is registered (ISRCTN40256812).
We consecutively recruited 7302 patients; 6369 (87.2%) were followed-up. No statistically significant differences were found in re-hospitalisation, neither overall (adjusted percentages: 38.9% in personal continuity, 37.1% in specialisation; odds ratio = 1.08; confidence interval 0.94–1.25; p = 0.28) nor for any of the considered subgroups. There were no significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes.
Whether the same or different psychiatrists provide in- and out-patient treatment appears to have no substantial impact on patient outcomes over a 1-year period. Initiatives to improve long-term outcomes of psychiatric patients may focus on aspects other than the organisation of personal continuity v. specialisation.