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Streamwise velocity and wall-shear stress are acquired simultaneously with a hot-wire and an array of azimuthal/spanwise-spaced skin friction sensors in large-scale pipe and boundary layer flow facilities at high Reynolds numbers. These allow for a correlation analysis on a per-scale basis between the velocity and reference skin friction signals to reveal which velocity-based turbulent motions are stochastically coherent with turbulent skin friction. In the logarithmic region, the wall-attached structures in both the pipe and boundary layers show evidence of self-similarity, and the range of scales over which the self-similarity is observed decreases with an increasing azimuthal/spanwise offset between the velocity and the reference skin friction signals. The present empirical observations support the existence of a self-similar range of wall-attached turbulence, which in turn are used to extend the model of Baars et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 823, p. R2) to include the azimuthal/spanwise trends. Furthermore, the region where the self-similarity is observed correspond with the wall height where the mean momentum equation formally admits a self-similar invariant form, and simultaneously where the mean and variance profiles of the streamwise velocity exhibit logarithmic dependence. The experimental observations suggest that the self-similar wall-attached structures follow an aspect ratio of
in the streamwise, spanwise and wall-normal directions, respectively.
The main objective of “Lifebrain” is to identify the determinants of brain, cognitive and mental (BCM) health at different stages of life. By integrating, harmonising and enriching major European neuroimaging studies across the life span, we will merge fine-grained BCM health measures of more than 5000 individuals. Longitudinal brain imaging, genetic and health data are available for a major part, as well as cognitive and mental health measures for the broader cohorts, exceeding 27,000 examinations in total. By linking these data to other databases and biobanks, including birth registries, national and regional archives, and by enriching them with a new online data collection and novel measures, we will address the risk factors and protective factors of BCM health. We will identify pathways through which risk and protective factors work and their moderators. Exploiting existing European infrastructures and initiatives, we hope to make major conceptual, methodological and analytical contributions towards large integrative cohorts and their efficient exploitation. We will thus provide novel information on BCM health maintenance, as well as the onset and course of BCM disorders. This will lay a foundation for earlier diagnosis of brain disorders, aberrant development and decline of BCM health, and translate into future preventive and therapeutic strategies. Aiming to improve clinical practice and public health we will work with stakeholders and health authorities, and thus provide the evidence base for prevention and intervention.
It is well known that deterministic two-dimensional marine ice sheets can only be stable if the grounding line is positioned at a sufficiently steep, downward sloping bedrock. When bedrock conditions favour instabilities, multiple stable ice sheet profiles may occur. Here, we employ continuation techniques to examine the sensitivity of a two-dimensional marine ice sheet to stochastic noise representing short time scale variability, either in the accumulation rate or in the sea level height. We find that in unique regimes, the position of the grounding line is most sensitive to noise in the accumulation rate and can explain excursions observed in field measurements. In the multiple equilibrium regime, there is a strong asymmetry in transition probabilities between the different ice sheet states, with a strong preference to switch to the branch with a steeper bedrock slope.
A model is proposed for predicting the presence of cumulative nonlinear distortions in the acoustic waveforms produced by high-speed jet flows. The model relies on the conventional definition of the acoustic shock formation distance and employs an effective Gol’dberg number
for diverging acoustic waves. The latter properly accounts for spherical spreading, whereas the classical Gol’dberg number
is restricted to plane wave applications. Scaling laws are then derived to account for the effects imposed by jet exit conditions of practical interest and includes Mach number, temperature ratio, Strouhal number and an absolute observer distance relative to a broadband Gaussian source. Surveys of the acoustic pressure produced by a laboratory-scale, shock-free and unheated Mach 3 jet are used to support findings of the model. Acoustic waveforms are acquired on a two-dimensional grid extending out to 145 nozzle diameters from the jet exit plane. Various statistical metrics are employed to examine the degree of local and cumulative nonlinearity in the measured waveforms and their temporal derivatives. This includes a wave steepening factor (WSF), skewness, kurtosis and the normalized quadrature spectral density. The analysed data are shown to collapse reasonably well along rays emanating from the post-potential-core region of the jet. An application of the generalized Burgers equation is used to demonstrate the effect of cumulative nonlinear distortion on an arbitrary acoustic waveform produced by a high-convective-Mach-number supersonic jet. It is advocated that cumulative nonlinear distortion effects during far-field sound propagation are too subtle in this range-restricted environment and over the region covered, which may be true for other laboratory-scale jet noise facilities.
Background and objective: Derived parameters of the electroencephalogram and auditory evoked potentials can be used to determine depth of anaesthesia and sedation. However, it is not known whether any parameter can identify the occurrence of awareness in individual patients. We have compared the performance of bispectral index and a new composite index derived from auditory evoked potentials and the electroencephalogram (AAI 1.61) in predicting consciousness, explicit and implicit memory during moderate sedation with propofol. Methods: Twenty-one patients with spinal anaesthesia received intraoperatively propofol at the age-corrected C50 for loss of consciousness and were presented test words via headphones. Bispectral index and AAI 1.61 (auditory evoked potentials, AEP-Monitor2) were recorded in parallel as well as the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation-score. Postoperatively, testing for explicit and implicit memory formation was performed. Results: Bispectral index and AAI 1.61 correlated well with loss of consciousness defined by an Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation-score of 2 (identical PK of 0.87), but did not allow a prediction of postoperative explicit or implicit recall. Conclusions: Both bispectral index and AAI may be indices of depth of sedation rather than indicators of memory formation, which persists during propofol sedation even after loss of consciousness.
A permutation phrase is a sequence of elements (possibly of different types) in which each element occurs exactly once and the order is irrelevant. Some of the permutable elements may be optional. We show how to extend a parser combinator library with support for parsing such free-order constructs. A user of the library can easily write parsers for permutation phrases and does not need to care about checking and reordering the recognized elements. Applications include the generation of parsers for attributes of XML tags and Haskell's record syntax.
We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed) are also related to gray and white matter volume, and whether any of the dimensions are related to cerebellar volume. Two overlapping samples provided 135 subjects from 60 extended twin families for whom both MRI scans and WAIS III data were available. All three brain volumes are related to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (rg = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (rg = 0.39) and environmentally (re= −0.71) related to cerebellar volume. Verbal Comprehension was not related to any of the three brain volumes. It is concluded that brain volumes are genetically related to intelligence which suggests that genes that influence brain volume may also be important for intelligence. It is also noted however, that the direction of causation (i.e., do genes influence brain volume which in turn influences intelligence, or alternatively, do genes influence intelligence which in turn influences brain volume), or the presence or absence of pleiotropy has not been resolved yet.