This paper focuses on identification, risk status, exterior and production characteristics of two autochthonous hen breeds, the Banat Naked Neck and the Sombor Crested in the Republic of Serbia. These are two autochthonous breeds which have preserved the original characteristics of domestic poultry. Today they are reared in rural households or by breeders in small flocks. They mainly reproduce naturally, under brooding hens, with moderate attention or care from the farmer. These breeds are highly endangered. It is estimated that the total number of birds of the Banat Naked Neck breed ranges from 5,000 to 6,000 while the number of birds of the Sombor Crested breed is below 1,000. The limited number of birds per breed and the absence of experts and professional control in breeding have caused high variability of breed characteristics. These breeds are of combined type, used for production of meat and eggs; they have lower production characteristics, but are highly resistant and low-maintenance in regard to rearing and nutrition. To ensure the protection of these breeds from extinction, significant efforts have been made in the last decade. The preservation program has been developed for each breed in order to maintain the optimal number of animals to ensure a sufficient gene pool (by the ‘in situ’ conservation method), which could be used for the improvement of some traits in the selection of modern strains of poultry.