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Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was <0.5%, which suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. Although our protocol was resource intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
To evaluate the effect of definitive radiotherapy dose on survival in patients with human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients staged T1–3 and N0–2c, who received definitive radiotherapy (fraction sizes of 180 cGy to less than 220 cGy), were identified from the National Cancer Database 2010–2014 and stratified by radiation dose (50 Gy to less than 66 Gy, or 66 Gy or more).
A total of 2173 patients were included, of whom 124 (6 per cent) received a radiation dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. With a median follow up of 33.8 months, patients had a 3-year overall survival rate of 88.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 87.1–90.1 per cent). On multivariate Cox analysis, a radiotherapy dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy (hazard ratio = 0.95, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.52–1.74, p = 0.86) was not a predictor of increased mortality risk.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients had excellent outcomes with definitive radiotherapy doses of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. These results further support patients enrolling into clinical trials for radiation dose de-escalation.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought to examine: 1) variability in center acceptance patterns for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates, 2) impact of this acceptance behavior on candidate survival, and 3) post-transplantation outcomes in candidates who accepted first rank offer vs. previously declined offer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this retrospective cohort study, the US national transplant registry was queried for all match runs of adult candidates listed for isolated heart transplantation between 2007-2017. We examined center acceptance rates for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates and accounted for covariates in multivariable logistic regression. Competing risks analysis was performed to assess the relationship between center acceptance rate and waitlist mortality. Post-transplantation outcomes (patient survival and graft failure) between candidates who accepted their first-rank offers vs those who accepted previously declined offers were compared using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 19,703 unique organ offers, 6,302 (32%) were accepted for first-ranked candidates. After adjustment for donor, recipient, and geographic covariates, transplant centers varied markedly in acceptance rates (12%-62%) of offers made to first-ranked candidates. Lowest acceptance rate centers (<25%) associated with highest cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality. For every 10% increase in adjusted center acceptance rate, waitlist mortality risk decreased by 27% (SHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80). No significant difference was observed in 5-year adjusted post-Tx survival and graft failure between hearts accepted at the first-rank vs lower-rank positions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wide variability in heart acceptance rates exists among centers, with candidates listed at low acceptance rate centers more likely to die waiting. Similar post-Tx survival suggests previously declined allografts function as well as those accepted at first offer. Center-level decision is a modifiable behavior associated with waitlist mortality.
Introduction: Acute bloody diarrhea obligates rapid and accurate diagnostic evaluation; few studies have described such cohorts of children. Methods: We conducted a planned secondary analysis employing the Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam (APPETITE) acute gastroenteritis study cohort to describe the characteristics of children with acute bloody diarrhea, compared to a cohort of children without hematochezia. Children <18 years of age presenting to 2 pediatric tertiary care emergency departments (EDs) in Alberta, with ≥3 episodes of diarrhea and/or vomiting in the preceding 24 hours and <7 days of symptoms were consecutively recruited. Stools were tested for 17 viruses, bacteria and parasites. Primary outcomes were clinical characteristics and pathogens identified. Secondary outcomes included interventions and resource utilization. Results: Of 2257 children enrolled between October 2015 and August 2018, hematochezia before or at the index ED visit was reported in 122 (5.4%). Compared to children with nonbloody diarrhea, children with hematochezia had longer illness duration [59.5 vs. 41.5 hrs, difference 10.6, 95% CI 3.5, 19.9], more diarrheal episodes in a 24-hour period [8 vs. 5, difference 3, 95% CI 2, 4], and less vomiting [55.7% vs. 91.1%; difference -35.3%; 95% CI -44.7, -26.3]. They received more intravenous fluids [32.0% vs. 18.3%; difference 13.7%, 95% CI 5.5, 23.0], underwent non-study stool testing [53.7% vs. 4.8%; difference 49.0%, 95% CI 39.6, 58.0], experienced longer ED visits [4.1 vs. 3.3 hours, difference 0.9, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0] and were more likely to have repeat healthcare visits within 14 days [54.8% vs. 34.2%; difference 20.6%, 95% CI 10.8, 30.1]. A bacterial enteric pathogen was found in 31.9% of children with hematochezia versus 6.6% without bloody diarrhea (difference 25.4%, 95% CI 17.2, 34.7). In children with hematochezia, the most commonly detected bacteria were Salmonella spp. (N = 15), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (N = 9), Campylobacter spp. (N = 7), and Shigella spp. (N = 5). Viruses were detected in 32.8% of children with bloody diarrhea, most commonly adenovirus (N = 15), norovirus (N = 14), sapovirus (N = 8) and rotavirus (N = 7). Conclusion: Children with hematochezia differed clinically from those without hematochezia and required more healthcare resources. While bacterial etiologies are common, several viruses were also detected.
Implementation of genome-scale sequencing in clinical care has significant challenges: the technology is highly dimensional with many kinds of potential results, results interpretation and delivery require expertise and coordination across multiple medical specialties, clinical utility may be uncertain, and there may be broader familial or societal implications beyond the individual participant. Transdisciplinary consortia and collaborative team science are well poised to address these challenges. However, understanding the complex web of organizational, institutional, physical, environmental, technologic, and other political and societal factors that influence the effectiveness of consortia is understudied. We describe our experience working in the Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, a multi-institutional translational genomics consortium.
A key aspect of the CSER consortium was the juxtaposition of site-specific measures with the need to identify consensus measures related to clinical utility and to create a core set of harmonized measures. During this harmonization process, we sought to minimize participant burden, accommodate project-specific choices, and use validated measures that allow data sharing.
Identifying platforms to ensure swift communication between teams and management of materials and data were essential to our harmonization efforts. Funding agencies can help consortia by clarifying key study design elements across projects during the proposal preparation phase and by providing a framework for data sharing data across participating projects.
In summary, time and resources must be devoted to developing and implementing collaborative practices as preparatory work at the beginning of project timelines to improve the effectiveness of research consortia.
Most available data about psychiatric mortality and invalidity concerns inpatients, although the majority of patients are treated as outpatients only.
It was the aim of this study to estimate the effect of anxiety disorders on early retirement and premature death in the working population with special emphasis on outpatients.
125.019 workes between age 16 and 58 were followed for an average of 6.4 years. Excess risks of death and permanent disability were calculated with multivariate Cox regression models.
Outpatient and inpatient treatment for anxiety disorders (OR 1.40 resp. OR 2.10) were associated with higher risks of early retirement. Males generally were more often affected by this bad outcome than females.
Further analysis showed decreased risks of premature death for outpatients with an anxiety disorder (OR 0.33). The effect tended to be most prominent during the middle decades of life and got smaller with older age, at which all-cause mortality approximated that of the control group. No significant effect on mortality could be shown for inpatients.
Patients with outpatient treatment for anxiety disorders have an elevated risk of permanent disability early in life, while all-cause mortality is lower. This beneficial effect can only be partly explained by different risk-taking behaviors. Different causes of death early in life and their connections with these disorders need to be discussed, too. Treatment should have a strong focus on preserving ability to work.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
Absenteeism from work and inpatient treatment are well defined events in the course of any illness and may be indicators for the need of an intervention. The aim of this study was to estimate of the influence of these events on later permanent disability and death in a working population when caused by anxiety and/or depression.
Data of 128,001 members of a health insurance with a observation period of 6.4 years were used. Excess risks were calculated for patients suffering from anxiety, depression or both using Cox's proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender, education and job classification.
Patients who received outpatient treatment had higher rates of permanent disability (hazard ratio (HR) 1.48 (Confidence interval 1.30, 1.69) for depression, 1.25 (1.07, 1.45) for anxiety) but lower premature mortality (HR 0.80(0.62, 1.03), 0.53(0.38, 0.73)) than controls. Inpatient treatment and co-morbidity were associated with further raised rates of permanent disability. Depressed inpatients also had higher premature mortality (HR 2.50(1.80, 3.48)).
The study shows a dose-responsive relationship between depression, anxiety, comorbidity and need for hospital treatment. It was was unexpected that some exposures seem to reduce mortality risk. Life style may partly explain this effect. However, these patients are subject to many other exposures, into which more research is needed to get a better understanding of the phenomenon.
The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) and its correlates in schizophrenicoutpatients.
The 14 items of self-reported night eatingquestionnaire (NEQ) was administered to 201 schizophrenic patients in psychiatricoutpatient clinic. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics, bodymass index (BMI), subjective measures of mood, sleep, binge eating, andweight-related quality of life using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI),Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Koreanversion of Obesity-Related Quality of Life Scale (KOQoL), respectively.
The prevalence of night eaters in schizophrenicoutpatients was 10.4% (21 of 201). Comparisons between NES group and non-NES grouprevealed no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and BMI. Compared to non-NES, patients with NES reportedsignificantly greater depressed mood and sleep disturbance, more binge eatingpattern, and decreased weight-related quality of life. While 'morning anorexia'and 'delayed morning meal' (2 of 5 NES core components in NEQ) were notdiffered between groups, 'nocturnal ingestions', 'evening hyperphagia', and'mood/sleep' were more impaired in NES group.
These findings are the first to describe theprevalence and its correlates of night eaters in schizophrenic outpatients. These results suggest that NES has negative mental health implications, although it was not associated with obesity. Further study to generalize theseresults is required.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
This study aimed to explore thedifference in emotional recognition of musical auditory stimulation and artfulvisual stimulation between helathy people and patients with schizophrenia.
20 songs and 20 paintings thatcontained sad or cheerful emotions were presented to 123 patients withschizophrenia and 224 healthy people as control group. The subjects were askedto tell about their emotions that they had felt from each musical auditorystimulation and artful visual stimulation. To measure such emotions, the Emotional Empathy Scale was used. The level of psychopathology in patientsgroup were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale.
The correct answer rate to musical auditoryand artful visual stimulation of the patient group was significantly lower than that of thecontrol group. Thepatient group showed lower emotional empathic ability compared to the controlgroup. In the patient group, the correct answer rate to musical and artfulstimulation showed a negative correlation with score with Formal ThoughtDisorder Rating Scale.
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties inprecise emotional recognition to auditory and visual stimulations, and this isassociated with lowered empathic ability and thinking disorder of patients withschizophrenia. If an psychosocial rehabilitation program or psychotherapy isimplemented to patients with schizophrenia, it is deemed to be necessary to make a mediation to improve the emotional recognition and expression ability of patients with schizophrenia.
This study was aimed to discover the correlation between those getting tattoos and their psychopathology relating to their delinquent behavior and emotional problems.
Date for this study was collected from 19-year-old men who were receiving a physical examination for conscription at the Korea Military Manpower Administration. 400 data sheets were collected among them. All of sjubjects were evaluated on the following measures: sociodemographic variants, Juvernile delinquency scale, State-trait anger expression inventory, Beck depression inventory, State-triat anxiety inventory, and Positive affect and negative affect schedule.
In comparison with those without tattooes, those with a tattoo scored higher in the scales that were related to delinquency, anger, depression, and negateive emotion. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between the number of tattoos and the scores for the Juvenile delinquent tendency and behavior scale as well as on the State-triat anxiety scale.
Those with tattoos had experienced anger, anxiety, and depression more strongly in comparison with those without tattoos. These reults recommended that tattooed males should be evaluated more on their regrading psychopathology compared to those without tattoos.
: Human impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Previous animal studies have suggested that striatal dopamine receptors play a critical role in impulsivity. in this study, we investigated the relationship between self-reported cognitive impulsiveness and dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subdivisions in healthy subjects using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride.
Twenty-one participants completed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution PET scans with [11C]raclopride. The trait of impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Partial correlation analysis was performed between BIS-11 scores and D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions, controlling for the confounding effects of temperament characteristics that are conceptually or empirically related to dopamine, which were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory.
The analysis revealed that the non-planning (p = 0.004) and attentional (p = 0.007) impulsiveness subscale scores on the BIS-11 had significant positive correlations with D2/3 receptor availability in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate. There was a tendency toward positive correlation between non-planning impulsiveness score and D2/3 receptor availability in the post-commissural caudate.
These results suggest that cognitive subtrait of impulsivity is associated with D2/3 receptor availability in the associative striatum that plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving attention to detail, judgment of alternative outcomes, and inhibitory control.
Thisstudy was to assess the prevalence and its correlates of restless legs syndrome(RLS) in outpatients with bipolar disorder.
A total of 100clinical stabilized bipolar outpatients were examined. The presence of RLS andits severity were assessed using the International Restless Legs Sydrome StudyGroup (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberg's StateAnxiety Inventory (STAI-X-1), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Koreanversion Drug Attitude Inventory (KDAI-10), Subjective Well-Beings under NeurolepticTreatment Scale-Short Form(SWN-K) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) wereused to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, level of anxiety, subjectivequality of sleep, subjective feeling of well-being, drug attitude, presence ofakathisia, respectively.
Of the 100 bipolar outpatients,7 (7%) were met to full criteria of IRLSSG and 36 (36%) have at least one ofthe 4 IRLSSG criterion. Because of relatively small sample size, non-parametricanalysis were done to compare the characteristics among 3 groups (full-RLS, 1≥positiveRLS-symptom and Non-RLS). There were no significant differences in sex, age, and other sociodemographic and clinical data among 3 groups. BDI, STAI-X-1 andPSQI are tended to be impaired in RLS and 1≥positive RLS-symptomgroups.
This is the first preliminarystudy for studying the prevalence and its correlates of RLS in bipolardisorder. The results shows that RLS was relatively smaller presentin bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Sametendencies shown in schizophrenic patients were found that bipolar patientswith RLS had more depressive symptoms, state anxiety and poor subjective sleepquality.
The aim of this study was to monitor changes of prescription trends for bipolar disorder in inpatient settings in one university hospital.
A retrospective chart review was performed and data of 188 cases (2009–2012) and 118 cases (1998–2001) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were collected. Data on demographic variables, duration of hospitalization, kinds of psychotropic medications and the patterns of prescription over each four-year period were analyzed.
The proportion of patients with manic episode was decreased, whereas those of mixed and depressive episodes were increased. The use of lithium was decreased with the increased use of valproate. Increased use of lamotrigine in depressive episode was prominent. The use of combination treatment with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics was almost same level in both periods. The use of typical antipsychotics was significantly decreased and that of atypical antipsychotics was increased. Especially, the use of quetiapine showed great increase. In bipolar depression, the use of antidepressant was increased.
Data showed that quetiapine monotherapy had favorable effect on acute manic symptoms and well tolerated. Also this result suggests that quetiapine monotherapy may improve the self-perceived quality of sleep without any daytime impairment following sleep in acute manic patients.